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creative 
computing 

the #1 magazine of computer applications and software 



April 1980 

vol 6, no 4 

$2.50 



Atari 400 vs. Pet 

Heath WH-89 — 
In-depth evaluation 

David Levy: 
Intelligent Games 

Reading, Language 
and Computers: 
•Reading Practice 
•Readability 
•Comprehension 
•Sentence Construction 
•Adventure in French 
•Perquackey Game 

Computing Theory & 
Elementary Mathematics 

Interview with 
Gordon Bell 



Computer Chess 
Tournament 

Columns: 
•TRS-80 -Apple 
•Effective Writing 
•Book Reviews 
•New Products 

73-page Parody 
of other magazines! 




ATTENTION RETAILER: Make Big Bucks! You can trick your customers into 
buying two copies of this magazine by displaying both sides. This deception 
can be assisted by putting a sign on your display rack, "This is not a library. Do 
not read the magazines." 



clearly readable printouts 
clearly remarkable price 

The $625* Heathkit H14 Printer. You'll pay hundreds 
more for a printer with its features. 



Where else can you buy a microprocessor 
based printer with the H14's features and 
copy quality for under a thousand dollars? 

The Heathkit H14 prints up to 165 charac- 
ters per second, one full line every two 
seconds. 

5x7 dot matrix and finest quality impact 
printhead give you clear, easy-to-read 
images. 

All functions are microprocessor-con- 
trolled for reliable performance and more 
efficient use of your computer. 







You get: 

• Standard 96-character ASCII set -UPPER 
and lower case. 

• Operator or software selectable line 
width: 132, 96 and 80 characters per 
line. 

• Compatibility with any computer having 
RS-232C or 20 MA current loop serial 
interface with handshaking. 

• Sprocket paper feed, with adjustable 
spacing, keeps paper moving smoothly. 

• "Paper out" and "paper jammed" sig- 
nals prevent loss of data. 



• Selectable baud rates from 110 to 4800. 

• Convenience of standard fan-fold paper, 
2.5 to 9.5 inches wide. 

• Chrome wire rack keeps paper neat. 

Price includes connecting cables, paper 
rack and ribbon. Just add paper and you're 
ready to run. And service on the H14 is 
close by at any of 55 Heathkit Electronic 
Centers throughout the U.S. 
Complete details on the remarkable H14 
are in the newest, free Heathkit Catalog. 
Send for yours today or pick one up at your 
Heathkit Electronic Center. 



I I I I I I I 



" Wh *te^l " — ~_ 

- c »»aKve Com 



ti 




FREE CATALOG M ee l uj!; omp, . ele D ,i " e , of 

Heathkit Computer Products, 
including printers, video terminals, floppy disk sys- 
tems and software, in the new, 104-page Heathkit Cat- 
alog. It describes nearly 400 exciting kits for your 




home, work or pleasure — all at build-it-yourself sav- 
ings. Send for yours today or pick one up at your 
Heathkit Electronic Centert where Heathkit Products 
are displayed, sold and serviced. See your white pages 
for center nearest you. 



•In kit form, F.O.B. Benton Harbor, Ml. Also available completely assembled at $095 F.O.B. Benton Harbor, Ml. Prices are subject to change without notice. 
tUnits of Vcritechnology Electronics Corporation 



Heathkit 

Heath Company, Dept. 335-644, Benton Harbor, Ml 49022 



CP-180 



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C Cromemco 



Low-cost hard disk computers 
are here and field proven 



megabytes of hard disk and 64 kilobytes off fast RAM in a 
Z80A computer for under $10K. Two floppy drives, too. 
Naturally, it's from Cromemco. 



It's a reality. In Cromemco's new 
Model Z-2H you get all of the above 
and even more. With Cromemco you 
get it all. 

In this new Model Z-2H you get 
not only a large-storage Winchester 
hard disk drive but also two floppy 
disk drives. In the hard disk drive you 
get unprecedented storage capacity 
at this price — 11 megabytes unfor- 
matted. 

You get speed — both in the 4 MHz 
Z80A microprocessor and in the fast 
64K RAM which has a chip access 
time of only 150 nanoseconds. You 
get speed in the computer minimum 
instruction execution time of 1 micro- 
second. You get speed in the hard 
disk transfer rate of 5.6 megabits/sec. 

EXPANDABILITY 

You get expandability, too. The 
high-speed RAM can be expanded to 
512 kilobytes if you wish. 

And the computer has a full 12-slot 
card cage you can use for additional 
RAM and interface cards. 

BROADEST SOFTWARE SUPPORT 

With the Z-2H you also get the 
broadest software support in the 



microcomputer field. Software Cro- 
memco is known for. Software like 
this: 

• Extended BASIC 

• FORTRAN IV 

• RATFOR (RATional FORtran) 

• COBOL 

• Z80 Macro Assembler 

• Word Processing System 

• Data Base Management 

with more coming all the time. 

SMALL, RUGGED, RELIABLE 

With all its features the new Z-2H, 
including its hard disk drive, is still 
housed in just one compact cabinet. 




Included in that cabinet, too, is 
Cromemco ruggedness and reliability. 
Cromemco is time-proved. Our 
equipment is a survey winner for 
reliability. Of course, there's Cro- 
memco's all-metal cabinet. Rugged, 
solid. And, there's the heavy-duty 
power supply (30A @ 8V, 15A @ 
+ 18 V, and 15A @ -18V) for cir- 
cuitry you'll sooner or later want to 
plug into those free card slots. 

SEE IT NOW 

Last summer we told you this new 
Z-2H would be a smash. And it is. 
So see it at your dealer's now. Have 
him put you in touch with a user — 
there are lots of them because 
Cromemco has been delivering for 
months. See for yourself how pleased 
our users are. 



Hard disk drive at lower left can be inter- 
changed |ust by sliding out and disconnecting 
plug. Seven free card slots are available. 
Z-2H includes printer interface card. 



PRESENT CROMEMCO USERS 

We've kept you in mind, too. Ask 
about the new Model HDD Disk 
Drive which can combine with your 
present Cromemco computer to give 
you up to 22 megabytes of disk 
storage. 



G 



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Cromemco 

incorporated 

280 BERNARDO AVE., MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 • (415)964-7400 

Tomorrow's computers today 

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0" 

lis 




Even at 5:12 a.m., it's hard to quit 
playing Personal Software" strategy games. 




Gammon Gambler 



A quick game before turning in can become an all-night 
session when you load any of the Personal Software '" strategy 
games into your Apple,* PET* or TRS-80* They'll challenge, 
teach and entertain you. And now there are two new games- 
Gammon Gambler" and Checker King'"— joining Bridge 
Partner,'" Time Trek " and the best-selling Microchess.'" 

Gammon Gambler is a sure bet. With ten levels of skill, 
you can begin a novice and become 
an expert. Whichever level you play, 
the computer moves so quickly 
you don't have to wait. The 
program follows U.S. 
tournament rules, and in- 
cludes the doubling 
cube to spice up the 
game. Written for 
the Apple and 
PET by Willy 
Chaplin. $19.95. 
Checker King— you probably forgot 
how much fun it is! If you move and 
change your mind, take it back and move 
again— without a peep from the computer. 
Play eight skill levels. Add and remove 
pieces. Save three board positions for later 
play. And solve three challenging checker 
puzzles. Written by Michael Marks for 
the Apple, PET and TRS-80. $19.95. 

Microchess, the most widely used 
personal computer chess program, is a 
nearly perfect chess opponent for the total 
novice or the advanced enthusiast. Written 
by Peter Jennings for the Apple, PET and 
TRS-80. $19.95. 

•Apple is j trademark of Apple Computer. Inc.. PET if a 
trademark of Commodore Business Machines. Inc.; TRS-80 
a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp. 




Bridge Partner. You against the computer in over 10 million 
different hands of contract bridge. You can even specify the 
hands' high card points. Written by George Duisman for the Ap- 
ple, PET and Level II TRS-80. $19.95. 
Time Trek is easy to learn, dif- 
ficult to master and impossible to 
forget. Take command of a starship 
in real-time action to make the gal- 
axy safe again. PET version by Brad 
Templeton. TRS-80 program 
by Joshua Lavinsky $19.95. 
Personal Software, Inc., 
also produces the VisiCalc '" 
program (the software that's 
revolutionizing personal 

computing), CCA Data Management Sys- 
tem, the Vitafacts series and other exciting 
software for the Apple, PET and TRS-80. 
Now that you've read about the Per- 
sonal Software programs, go see a 
demonstration. For the name of your 
nearest Personal Software dealer, call 
(408) 745-7841 or write to Personal 
Software, Inc., 592 Weddell Drive., 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 




Checker King 




nwnr «ws I 
CIRCLE 178 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



In This Issue 



articles 



Reading, Language & Computers 

36 Reading Comprehension for the Sol-20 Heuer 

Produce your own reading drills 

42 Ancient Literature With Computers . Nicolopoulos 
Interview with Dia Philippides 

46 Testing for Readability Goodman & Schwab 

Syllable-counting by computer 

52 Sentence Construction Williams 

Techniques of natural language construction 

60 Reading Level Difficulty Carlson 

Determining approximate reading level 

62 TheFirsfR" Rogers 

The TRS-80 Voice Synthesizer 

64 The Word Board Berenbon 

Language teaching and learning 

70 Perquackey Powers 

82 Computer Chess Championship Ehara 

David Levy beats slate plus Chess 4.9 

88 Interview with Gordon Bell Ahl 

About research, language translation and more 

90 Complexity Theory and Elementary Math 

Sipser & Sipser 

Equation-solving and the Bridge of Koenigsberg 



fiction 6 



Giant 73-page April Fool's Pages 00-49 

Parody of 13 Computer Magazines (hexadecimal) 



evaluations fi profiles 

18 Heath WH-89 Heuer 

A professional "all-in-one" computer 

22 Atari In Perspective Lindsay 

Atari 800 vs Pet 

32 Chatsworth Mark Sense Card Reader Schlarb 

Solution for overloaded computers in schools 

80 Bilingual Original Adventure Staples 

Enjoyable way to learn French 

^ ■ 

APRIL 1B80 



applications - games 

96 Eliminating the TRS-80 Power Cord Mess 

Hinrichs 

98 Stan and the Two-Horse Team Winkless 

The Sport of kings and a computer 

104 Ten to the Thirty-Eighth Bradford 

Time to place your bets 

111 Yorn Gerrold 



departments 



6 
8 

12 

17 

114 

122 

130 

136 

144 

150 
151 



Etcetera EtAI 

Input/Output Readers 

SWTPC 6809 again, Al, When to castle 

Random Ramblings Craig 

Heuristics, Inc., Corvus, Parasitic Maxi Disk 

Effective Writing Ahl 

Quotations and Quotation Marks 

Intelligent Computer Games Levy 

Alpha-Beta algorithm and big trees 

Apple Cart Carpenter 

File building, videotapes, Super Invader 

TRS-80 Strings Gray 

Variations on RND, Microtyping, more 

Compleat Computer Catalogue Staples 

New computers, peripherals and software 

Book Reviews Gray 

Some goodies and some to avoid 



Index to Advertisers. 
Retail Roster 



The cover was executed in ink and wash 
by James S. D' Angel o of Glen Rock, NJ . 



April 1980. Volume 6, Number 4 



Crttttv Computing magazine is published monthly by Creative Computing. P.O. 
Box789-M, Momstown. NJ 07960 (Editorial office: 51 Dumont Place, Morrtatown. NJ 
07960 Phone: (201) 540-0445) 

Domestic Subscriptions 12 issue*. $1 5. 24 issues 128. 36 issues $40 Send subscription 
orders or change of address (P.O Form 3575) to Creative computing. P O. Bon 789-M. 
Momstown. NJ 07960 Call 800-631-81 12 toll-tree (in New Jersey call 201 -540-0445) to 
order a subscription (to be charged only to a bank card). 

Controlled circulation pending at Concord, NH 03301. 

Copyright* 1979 by Creative Computing All rights reaervea Reproduction prohibited. 

Printed in USA 



Publisher/ Editor-in-chief David H. Ahl 



Editor 

Managing Editor 
Associate Editor 



Contributing Editors 




Art Department 



Production Manager 
Editorial Assistant 



Tad Nalton 
Burchenal Green 

Steve North 

Frederick Chesson 

Charles Carpenter 

Margot Crttchlleld 

Thomas W. Owyer 

Stephen B. Cray 

Richard Kaspko 

Stephen Klmmel 

Harold Novick 

Peter Payack 

Alvln Tolller 

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Gregory Yob 

KarfZInn 

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Nils Lommerin 

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Advertising Sales Msrcla Wood 

Renee Fox Chrlstman 

Marketing Coordinators Nancy Wood 
Sheryl Kennedy 



Software Development 



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Business Manager Betsy Staples 

Financial Coordinator William Baumann 



Retail Marketing 
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Book Service Supervisor 
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OK to Reprint 

Material in Creative Computing may 
be reprinted without permission by 
school and college publications, person- 
al computing club newsletters, and 
non-profit publications. Only original 
material may be reprinted; that la, you 
may not reprint a reprint. Alao, each 
reprint muat carry the following notice on 
the first page of the reprint In 7-polnt or 
larger type (you may cut out and uae this 
notice If you wish): 

Copyright ©I860 by Creative Computing 
51 Dumont Place, Morrlatown, NJ 07960 
Sample Issue $2; 12-leaue subscript. $15 

Pleaae send us two copies of any 
publication that carries reprinted materi- 
al. Send to attention : David Ahl. 



Advertising Sales 

Advertising Coordinator 
Marcia Wood 
Creative Computing 
93 Washington Street 
Morristown, N.J. 07960 
(201)540-9168 

Western State, Toms 
Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 
1 290 Howard Ave. , Suite 303 
Burllngame, CA 94010 
(415)348-8222 

Southern California 

Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 

2560 Via Tejon 

Palos Verdes Estatea, CA 90247 

(213)378-8361 

Mld-Atlantlc, Northeast 
CEL Associates, Inc. 
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Cohaaset, MA 02025 
(617)383-6136 

New York Metropolitan Area 
Nelson & Miller Associates, Inc. 
55 Scenic Dr. 

Hastings-on-Hudson, NY 10706 
(914)478-0491 

Southeast 

Warren Langer Aaaociates, Inc. 

234 County Line Road 

Gllbertsvllle, PA 19525 

(215)367-0620 



Responsibility 

Creative Computing will not be re- 
sponsible for the return of unsolicited 
manuscripts, cassettes, floppy disks, 
program llatinga, etc. not submitted with 
a self-addressed, stamped envelope. 



4-Year Index 

A four-year cumulative index to 
Cieatlvs Computing and ROM Is availa- 
ble. Articles are cross-referenced to both 
Individual Issues and collected volumes 
(The Best of Creative Computing, Vola. 1 
and 2). Articles are classified by subject 
area and Hated by title and author. Over 
2000 items are Included. $1.00 postpaid 
in U.S., 82.00 foreign. Creative Compu- 
ting. P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, N.J. 
07960. 



Back Issues 

Back issues of Creative Computing 
are usually In stock for the current and 
previous volume. Prlcea on back issues 
are 82.00 each postpaid, three for $5.00, 
or 15 for $10.00. Add $1.00 for postage 
for up to 3 issues or $2.00 for 4 or more. 



Microform 



Creative Computing Is available on 
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plete Information contact University 
Microfilms International, Dept. F.A., 300 
North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 or 
16 Bedford Road, London WC1R 4EJ, 
England. 



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Many foreign agents stock Creative Com- 
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CREATIVE COMPUTING 






'■fell 

was just a toy. tt1ink powerful JB* ||jg a„ s a <J 23Z 
P r09 Skground «?^JBe up '° n Khiie V°"' Ss *«' [ u , n u 

WSMSg 



TBS-8? 

UTJUBS 




APRIL 1980 




TM 






ot cetc^ra 



et cetera 




Math & Technology Program Computer Camp 



The National Institute of Education 
(NIE) and the National Science Founda- 
tion are initiating a joint program of 
development and research to improve the 
teaching and learning of school mathe- 
matics through the use of modern infor- 
mation-handling technology. 

Primary emphasis on the program is 
on the development of prototypes of 
educationally relevant software, instruc- 
tional courseware, and methods for 
assessing students' progress. These 
should respond to pedagogical needs 
and opportunities, be developed with the 
involvement of students and teachers 
and appropriately modified on the basis 
of experience. Associated research aim- 
ed at improving our knowledge of 
mathematics teaching and learning pro- 
cesses is an essential element in the 
program. 

Two concerns inform the develop- 
ment and operation of this program. First 
is a need to devise ways of using new 
information-handling technology to re- 
duce existing inequalities in educational 
performance. Secondly, the development 
of prototypes must proceed from the 
outset with a concern for assuring the 
successful adaptation of new technology 
in classrooms. 

Mailing of announcements will be hast- 
ened if requests are accompanied by two 
self-addressed adhesive labels. 

Science Education Directorate 

National Science Foundation 

Washington, D.C. 20550 

(Telephone: 202 282-7910) 

Pet Correction 

Greg Yob has sent a correction for the 
March PET column. On page 161 , the first 
example under "The PET Is Logical" should 
be: 

AND: 1100 If both bits are one, the 
0101 result is a one. If they 
0100 don't, it gives zero. 



Plans for the fourth annual Camp Retupmoc 
have been announced by Rose-Hulman Insti- 
tute of Technology. The program provides an 
intensive six-day computer workshop intended 
for college-bound males who have completed 
their junior year of high school. 

Instruction in Basic will be provided along 
with lectures from computer experts and 
scientists, some from business and industry, 
on computer applications. No previous com- 
puter experience is necessary for any of the 
first five sessions to be held June 8-13, June 
15-21, June 22-27, July 6-11, and July 13-18. 
The last camp, to be held July 20-25, is for 
students with previous experience in pro- 
gramming, and will concentrate on API. 

Contact Dr. John Kinney, Director of Camp 
Retupmoc, Rose-Hulman Institute of Tech- 
nology, 5500 Wabash Ave., Terre Haute, IN 
47803. 

RF Modulator Tip 

Personal Computer owners who plan to use 
their computer with a TV set should be aware 
of the following: If the tuning of the set is 
quartz frequency controlled with no user fine 
tuning, as is the latest trend, the Sup-R-Mod II 
by M&R Enterprises, and other RF modulators 
with no provision for tuning, may not work. 
Use a modulator which has frequency tun- 
ability such as the one available from ATV 
Research, 13th and Broadway, Dakota City, 
NE 68731. 

Thanks to Donald J. Stoner of Cudahy, Wl 
for this information. 

Real Estate Correction 

For those of you experiencing problems 
with line 250 of the listing for Real Estate 
Analysis (p.66, Feb. '80 Creative), Mr. Liebman 
writes that it should read : 
K = 1.-»-R2(J):L = K*MO(J):N = M(J)*R2(J)*L 

In addition, he points out a problem witn 
line 1150 which should read as follows: 

IF JFLAG02THEN GOTO 1180. 



Language Symposium 

The Vassar College Cognitive Science Group 
will hold a two-day symposium, April 25 and 
26, 1980 at the Vassar campus in Poughkeep- 
sie, New York. The symposium will be 
devoted to an exploration of the role which 
context plays in perception and interpretation 
of language. Context will be considered from 
the points of view of social, perceptual, 
intentional, linguistic, and computational 
analysis and the ways in which they are 
related. 

Participation in the conference will be 
limited to the first 150 people who pre- 
register. 

Please contact: Cognitive Science Sym- 
posium, Vassar College, Box 525, Poughkeep- 
sie, NY 12601 USA, (914) 452-7000, ext. 2407. 



S-100 Magazine 



S-100 Microsystems is a new publication 
directed at users of S-100 microcomputer 
systems. It will be a forum on S-100 topics 
such as interfacing, CP/M, Pascal, Assem- 
bler, Fortran and Basic software. 

Sol Libes. a pioneer in the field of personal 
computer systems will edit the publication. 
He is the founder and past president of the 
Amateur Computer Group of New Jersey. 

S-100 MICROSYSTEMS will be pub- 
lished 6 times a year and sample copy is 
$2. Charter subscription is $7.50 (I yr.), 
$14 (2 yr.) or $21 .50 (3 yr.), prepaid USA. 
Canada is $9/yr. and Foreign $20/yr. 
(add $12 for Air Mail). This charter 
subscription offer expires April 30th, 
1980. 

For more information contact : Sol Libes, 
201-277-2063, S-100 MICROSYSTEMS, 
Box 1192, Mountainside, NJ 07092. 



Conversation enriches the under- 
standing, but solitude is the school of 
genius. — Edward Gibbon 




CREATIVE COMPUTING 




The easiest, least expensive way to generate 

spectacular multi-color graphics, sharp two-color alphanumerics: 

Your computer, a color tv set and the Percom Electric Crayon™. 



Add the Electric Crayon™ to your 
system and your keyboard be- 
comes a palette, the tv screen 
your medium. 

You dab and stroke using one- 
key commands to create dazzling 
full-color drawings, eye-catching 
charts and diagrams. 

Or you run any of innumerable 
programs. Your own BASIC lan- 
guage programs that generate 
dynamic pyrotechnic images, 
laugh-provoking animations. 

From a combined alphanu- 
merics-semigraphics mode to a 
high resolution 256- by 192- 
element full graphics mode, the 
microprocessor-controlled Electric 
Crayon™ is capable of generating 
10 distinctly different display 
modes. 

Colors are brilliant and true, and 
up to eight are available depend- 
ing on the mode. 

As shipped, the Electric 
Crayon™ interfaces a TRS-80* 
computer. It may be easily 



adapted for interfacing to any 
computer or to an ordinary parallel 
ASCII keyboard. 

But that's not all 

The Electric Crayon is not just a 
color graphics generator/control- 
ler. 

It is also a complete self- 
contained control computer. With 
built-in provision for 1K-byte of 
on-board program RAM, an 
EPROM chip for extending EGOS™, 
its on-board ROM graphics OS, 
and a dual bidirectional eight-bit 
port — over and above the com- 
puter/keyboard port — for 
peripherals. The applications are 
endless. 

Shipped with EGOS™, 1K-byte of 
display memory and a com- 
prehensive user's manual that in- 
cludes an assembly language list- 
ing of EGOS™ and listings of 
BASIC demo programs, the Elec- 
tric Crayon™ costs only $249.95. 



Options include: 

• LEVEL II BASIC color 
graphics programs on 
minidiskette: $17.95. 

• A 34-conductor ribbon 
cable to interconnect the Elec- 
tric Crayon™ to a TRS-80*: 
$24.95. 

• RAM chips for adding re- 
fresh memory for higher den- 
sity graphics modes: $29.95 
per K-byte. 

• Electric Crayon™ 
Sketchpad, a sketching grid 
of proportioned picture ele- 
ments (pixels) in a tv aspect 
ratio. For 128 x 192 or 256 x 
192 graphics modes. 11 -inch 
by 17-inch, 25-sheet pads: 
$3.95 per pad. 

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS the video cir- 
cuitry of the Electric Crayon™ provides di- 
rect drive input to a video monitor or mod- 
ified tv set. An internal up-modulator for rf 
antenna input may be constructed by add- 
ing inexpensive components to the existing 
video circuitry. 

Prices and specifications subject to change without notice 



PEF80M 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY. INC 

211 N KIBB» OAKLAND TEXAS 75042 
12141272 3421 



APRIL 1980 



*" - trademark of Percom Data Company. Inc 

* - trademark of Tandy Radio Shack Corporation which has no relationship to Percom Data Company 

Get into computer color graphics the easy, low-cost way with a Per- 
com Electric Crayon™. Available at Percom dealers nationwide. Call 
toll-free. 1-800-527-1592, for the address of your nearest dealer, 
or to order direct if there is no Percom dealer in your area. 

7 CIRCLE 177 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






la 



put/ 
tout 



Output 



Appause for the SWTP 6809 

Dear Editor: 

This is in reply to Mr. Glen Worstell's letter (Feb.'80) 
regarding the SWTP 6809 system and his Droblems with 
lt.We have ordered and received two SWTP 6809 systems 
here at NYU. One is the 6809-S with 128K of memory and 
the other is the 6809-A with 56K of memory. Both systems 
simply plugged together, plugged in and worked perfectly 
the first time. There have been no problems with the 
ROM SBUG-E monitor, the double-sided, double-density 
disks work perfectly and the CT-82 smart terminal is a 
delight. We have found the ROM documentation complete 
and useful and the information on the dynamic address 
translator to be perfectly adequate. Whenever we have 
called SWTP, their response has been very knowledge- 
able, helpful, and downright friendly! This goes for the 
president and includes all the staff in engineering and 
service. 

One must realize that the 6809 is a very complex and 
sophisticated piece of hardware with a set of instruction 
modes as rich as the DEC PDP-11/34. The DAT resembles 
the PDP-11 memory management unit, and the orthagon- 
ality of registers is similar. The sequence of stack 
manipulations is different between the 6800 and the 6809, 
which can lead to much confusion to the proirrammer new 
to the 6809. 

I can only assume that Mr. Worstell as president of 
Parsec Systems has a rusty axe to grind, or that he and 
his staff lack the technical sophistication to properly 
implement and appreciate the SWTP 6809. 

Ted Wolff 

NYU Medical Center 

400 E. 34th Street 

New York, NY 10016 

SWTP Responds 

Dear Editor: 

Regarding the "unhappy" letter (Feb.'80, pag.13), I 
would like to respond to Worstell's inaccurate and 
intemperate statements and innuendos about the SWTP 
6809 computer. 

First, his complaint concerning the "non-existence" of 
documentation for the ROM monitor is nonsense. Enclosed is 
a copy of the User's Guide for the SBUG- E which is supplied 
to every purchaser of our computer including the 
complainant. Worstell's demands upon our company related 
to the proprietary design information for the monitor which 
is not provided with the computer, but which, in no way, 
limits the usability of the computer for the purpose for which 
it is sold. 

Worstell's statement concerning "several bugs" in the 
monitor cannot be substantiated, and though we asked him 
for specifics, he would not, or could not, provide details. If 
such a problem were to exist, though none of our many other 
users have reported a problem, common sense tells you we 
would want to know the details and correct the problem, at 
once, for all of our users. 

Worstell's second complaint concerned what he called the 




memory mapping hardware. He complained that there was 
"no documentation on how to use it or how it works." 
Apparently he is overlooking pages 10 through 15 of the 
Computer Manual (copies enclosed) where the subject is 
discussed at length. Worstell apparently refuses to 
understand that the 64K of memory address in the computer 
he purchased, our Model /09 (56K), is directly addressable 
ana, as the documentation explaines, the Dynamic Address 
Translator is an integral part of a system designed for 
multi-tasking and multiple user environments (typically 
these functions will be implemented on our Model S/09 
(128K and larger). Worstell is not correct in saying that he 
has paid for circuitry which he cannot use, simply because he 
has opted for a system which does not utilize tnat part of the 
standard design and for which he has paid nothing extra. 

Regarding the 6809 OP codes, Worstell admits they are 
available from the chip manufacturer, Motorola. They are 
included in its extensive programming manual for the 6809 
for sale to the public. We cannot accept his criticism that this 
company does not duplicate the expense of stocking and 
distributing Motorola's specialized literature. We know of no 
computer manufacturer who distributes the chip manufac- 
turer's manuals to the end user. 

Finally we categorically reject Worstell's parting shot 
that he had, "...been taken since they have our money..." 
Early on in our contacts with Worstell, when it became 
apparent that he was more interested in conflict and 
controversy than he was in conciliation, we invited him to 
return his system to us for a full refund of his purchase price. 
This he has not done. 

I would apologize for the length of this letter, Mr. Ahl, 
but Worstell s letter, unrebutted, cannot fail to accomplish 
his obvious attempt to damage this company. The spirit of 
his attacks are damaging to this industry as well. 

Daniel E. Meyer, President 

Southwest Technical Products Corp. 

219 W. Rhapsody 

San Antonio, TX 78216 

Praise for Creative's Super Invader 

Dear Editor: 

I would like to heap a few words of praise on the author 
of Apple Super Invader. A true masterpiece of program 
ming! No, that's not good enough! I look at all my dusty 
tapes and endless disk catalog listings of software, now 
mediocre at best, and sigh. What a waste of hard-earned 
money. Finally, my machine has truly come alive! For my 
investment, I could now have purchased the arcade machine 
itself, (which I've read that some individuals are actually 
doing). But then, what a waste that would be, as I wanted a 
versatile, fun and educational machine when I bought a 
computer. M. Hata, wherever you are, thank you! 

I think your magazine is the best published for personal 
computing. I especially enjoyed Chuck Carpenter s Apple 
Cart in recent issues. 

L. E. Thomas 

61 John E. Smith Drive 

Tewksbury, MA 01876 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



North Star Horizon- 

COMPUTER WITH CLASS 



The North Star Horizon computer can be found everywhere 
computers are used: business, engineering, home — even the 
classroom. Low cost, performance, reliability and software 
availability are the obvious reasons for Horizon's popularity. 
But, when a college bookstore orders our BASIC manuals, 
we know we have done the job from A to Z. 
Don't take our word for it. Read what these instructors have to 
say about the North Star Horizon: 

"We bought a Horizon not only for its reliability record, 
but also because the North Star diskette format is the industry 
standard for software exchange. The Horizon is the first computer 
we have bought that came on-line as soon as we plugged it in, 
and it has been running ever since!" 

— Melvin Davidson, Western Washington University, 
Bellingham, Washington 

'After I gave a V2 hour demonstration of the Horizon 
to our students, the sign-ups for next term's class in BASIC 
jumped from 18 to 72." 

— Harold Nay, Pleasant Hill HS, Pleasant Hill, California 



"With our Horizon we brought 130 kids from knowing 
nothing about computers to the point of writing their own Pascal 
programs. I also use it to keep track of over 900 student files, 
including a weekly updated report card and attendance figures." 

— Armando Picciotto, Kennedy HS, Richmond, California 
"The Horizon is the best computer I could find for my class 

It has an almost unlimited amount of software to choose from. 
And the dual diskette drives mean that we don't have to waste 
valuable classroom time loading programs, as with computers 
using cassette drives." 

— Gary Montante, Ygnacio Valley HS, Walnut Creek, Calif. 

See the Horizon at your local North Star dealer. 



CIRCLE 170 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



* 



NorthSrar 

North Star Computers 

1440 Fourth Street 

Berkeley. Ca 94710 

(415) 527-6950 TWX /TELEX 910-366-7001 



t**^ 




More on MicroComposer 

Dear Editor: 

Referring to the Micro Composer review (Feb.'80), I 
cannot accept credit for writing the Micro Composer 
software. The vast majority was written by David Williams 
of Micro Music. Inc. completely independent of Micro 
Technology or myself. I did supply the sound generation 
routine which is only a few hundred bytes of an otherwise 
huge program. The design of the music entry and editing 
program was done solely by Micro Music and, in my opinion, 
is clearly oriented towards teaching music rather than 
streamlined entry of music. 

One thing the article failed to bring out is that the Micro 
Music system utilizes software sound synthesis with via 
digital-to-analog conversion. The music board supplied with 
the system is, in fact, an 8 bit digital-to-analog converter 
optimized for audio output applications. What this means is 
that software alone determines the type of sound produced 
by the system. With proper programming (not necessarily 
available yet), the Micro Music board could produce more 
than 4 musical voices, reasonably accurate musical 
instrument simulations, or even speech. 

Another feature is the ability to create original tone 
colors with the system. The user can specify the harmonic 
makeup of each voice or optionally use the predefined ones. 

One final point concerns the availability of stereo output. 
Two Micro Music boards can be used to produce stereo but 
the number of musical voices remains at four. 

Hal Chamberlin 

Vice Pres. of Engineering 

Micro Technology Unlimited 

P.O.Box 4596 

Manchester, NH 03108 




Now you con really expand your norizons with the tiny-c 
structured programming language Thetiny-c owner's manual 
(Including 8080 and PDP- 1 1 source code and tiny-c in C) is 
still just $40 And we've added these new formats to really 
egg you on TRS-80 Level II SYSTEM Format Cassette, CP/M 
Diskettes with 8080 Source. POP- 1 1 Diskette; North Star 5" 
Diskette; KIM and SYM cassettes And there's more, plus lots to 
come Order your tiny-c owner's manual today and get the 
whole story Call or write: tiny c associates, PO Box 269, 
Holmdel, N J 07733 (201) 671-2296 
You'll quickly discover tiny-c is all 
it's cracked up to be 

New Jersey residents include 5% sales tax. Visa 
and MasterCharge accepted Include charge 
plate number with order 



T 



When to Castle 

Dear Editor: 

Concerning the February, 1980 Input/Output Chess 
comments by Stephen Kimmel: 

Mister Kimmel is the recipient of some rotten input from 
Human 1400 when concerning the legitimacy of castling 
through check. 

According to the Official Rules of Chess (US Chess 
Federation, Article 6.1:) 

"Castling is prevented for the time being- 
fa) if the king's original square or the square which 
the king must cross or that which it is to occupy 
is attacked by an enemy piece...." 

Robert A Fowkes 

(Human 1800) 

3 Reeback Drive 

Ossining, NY 10562 



"Turning Over" The Clock 

Dear Editor: 

I enjoyed your October, 1979 issue, and the article 
"Graphics Digital Clock" pp. 110-113. However, the program 
contains a serious flaw as it was printed. 

The problem arises when the clock attempts to "turn 
over." That is, when the clock tries to go from 12:59:59 to 
1:00:00, (or from 23:59:59 to 00:00:00 in 24-hour format) the 
computer finds a "for-next" error and execution stops. 

Fortunately, there is a simple solution. Insert these lines: 

25 On error goto 1000 

1000 If Z=24 then H=0:M=0:S=0:Resume 120 

1010 If Z=12 then H=l:M=0:S=0:Resume 120 

Now, when the time comes for "turn over," TRS-80 will 
pause for just a split second, then resume timekeeping 
correctly. 

Otherwise, Mr. Hinrichs is to be commended on his fine 
application of the TRS-80's amazing Level II high speed 
graphics features. 

Michael Sullivan 

Box 90 

DeKalb, 111. 

60115 



Sorcerer As a Terminal 

Dear Editor: 

The Sorcerer's serial data cable (Exidy part number 
DP4005) is not enough to connect an accoustic coupler to 
the Sorcerer computer. It has no RS (request to send) line 
which is essential to the communication between a 
terminal and a host computer. 

There is a +12 volts pin (#9) on the Sorcerer's serial 
interface, so I conntected it to the #4 pin (RS) pin of an 
acoustic coupler with wire and lKa(l/4 W) resister. By 
this modification I succeeded in using the Sorcerer as a 
computer terminal. 

Also, the Sorcerer dumb terminal program (supplied on 
cassette) has two defects. First, it doesn't select parity, 
the number of stop bits and the number of bits per 
character. Second, when the number of received charac- 
ters per line from a host computer exceeds 64, the rest of 
the line is not printed on the CRT screen. But one can 
easily correct these defects by inserting some machine 
instructions. 

Kazuo Nakamura 

5-2 1 1402 Oji Kita-ku, 

Tokyo, Japan 114 



J 



10 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ITEM NO. 
WK-7 



CMOS SAFE 



IC INSERTION/EXTRACTION KIT 



• MOS-1416 14-16 CMOS SAFE INSERTER -_. 14 . 16 EX TRACTOR 
KIT INCLUDES • MOS-242S 24-20 CMOS SAFE INSERTER |J 2 4-40 cmos safe extractor 
mi ""K""" # MOS-40 36-40 CMOS SAFE INSERTER 



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INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS 




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14-16 PIN MOS CMOS SAFE INSERTER 


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MOS-2428 


24-28 PIN MOS CMOS SAFE INSERTER 


$ 7.95 


MOS-40 


36-40 PIN MOS CMOS SAFE INSERTER 


$ 7.95 


EX-1 


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$ 1.49 


EX-2 


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$ 7.95 



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OK MACHINE & TOOL CORPORATION 3455 CONNER ST., BRONX. NY 10475 (212) 994-6600/TELEX 125091 



CIRCLE 1T3 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1980 



11 




Revisiting 
the Bay Area 



On a recent trip to the Silicon 
Valley we stopped in to visit several 
companies that are doing some excit- 
ing things. We think you'll find them as 
interesting as we did. 




Tom Tisch, the President of Heuristics, is shown 
holding the H-2000 Apple Speechlink while an 
associate demonstrates the system. 



Does Your Computer Hear You? 



When is the last time you sat down 
and talked to your computer? Un- 
doubtedly there are times when we all 
have choice things to say to the little 
monsters, but now we can also make 
them listen. Heuristics, Inc., has been 
making a speech recognition board for 
S-100 systems for several years now 
and they've recently announced a new 
set of boards for the Apple II. (They 
also make a voice recognition unit 
which is sold in the retail stores of a 
major manufacturer of personal com- 
puters.) 

Before this decade is out we're 
going to be seeing and hearing a great 
deal from this technology of speech 
recognition and speech output. The 
idea of a totally speech-controlled 
system is not out of the realm of 
possibility even with today's tech- 
nology. Can you imagine an operating 
system which, upon powering up, 
waits for a voice command? The 
operator says, "Load Accounts Receiv- 
able." The computer then responds, by 
synthesized voice, with, "Can't load. 
Please insert program disk in Drive A 
and data disk in Drive B." The operator 
corrects the oversight by inserting the 
correct disks. The computer then 
responds with, "Thank you," and 



proceeds to load the program. It then 
asks, "Please specify function — 
Create Record, Update, Billing, Totals, 
Merge to General Ledger or List." (We 
have a very talkative computer.) 
Perhaps the most fascinating applica- 
tion would be in word processing 
where someone actually dictates text 
to the computer, such as a business 
letter or a book. I can see it now, by the 
year 2030 we'll have a hard time finding 
typists in this country! 

There are times when we 
all have choice things to 
say to the little monsters. 

Another area which holds great 
potential is speech therapy. Heuristics 
has a program, Voiceplot, which 
displays an instantaneous graph of 
speech patterns (3 frequency bands 
and amplitude). The program is avail- 
able for the Apple, TRS-80 and North 
Star and could be very useful in 
training small children to overcome 
speech problems. The child would 
speak a certain word into the micro- 
phone and the graph would be dis- 
played on the screen immediately. The 
instructor, or speech therapist, could 
then take a grease pencil and draw the 
graph on the CRT as it should be and 
ask the child to try again, this time 
trying to match up with the grease 
pencil mark. It would be fascinating to 
watch the speech improve as a result of 
that feedback. This technique could 
also be used to teach correct accents 
in foreign languages. 




The latest version of the S-100 Speechlab board. 

Many of Heuristic's Speechlab 
(S-100) and Speechlink (Apple) 
boards find their way into industrial 
applications. They offer a lightweight 
headset boom microphone for voice 
input while an operator is busy per- 
forming some chore with his or her 
hands. They've also developed a new 
standalone voice control unit, the 
Model 1600 Controller, which can 
control up to 12 devices. 

The H-2000 Speechlink for the 
Apple has a suggested retail price of 



12 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



NEW FROM 

MOUNTAIN HARDWARE. 

CONTROL FROM YOUR APPLE. 







INTROL/X-IO. 



COMPUTERIZE YOUR HOME. 

The lntrol/X-10 peripheral system for your Apple* 
Computer allows you to remotely control lights and 
electrical appliances in your home. 

YOU'RE ALREADY WIRED. 

lntrol/X-10 operates by utilizing your computer's intelli- 
gence to command the BSR System X-10 to send signals 
over regular 110 volt household wiring. That means you 
can control any electrical device in your home without 
additional wiring. 

READY TO USE. 

lntrol/X-10 comes with complete software to control 
devices on pre-determined schedules, and features: 
• Control devices at a specific time. • Select a daily or 
weekly schedule. • Specify a day of the week, or an exact 
date for a particular event. • Specify an interval of time for 
an event. • Rate device wattages for a running account 
of power consumption during your schedule for energy 
management. • Used with our Apple Clock'" your sched- 
ules may run in "background" while other programs 
may run at the same time in "foreground." 



EVERYTHING YOU NEED. 

The Introl Controller board plugs into a peripheral slot 
of your Apple. With an ultrasonic transducer it trans- 
mits control signals to the BSR/X-10 Command Console 
which may be plugged into any convenient AC outlet near 
your computer. On command, signals are sent to remote 
modules located at the devices you wish to control. Up 
to 16 remote module addresses may be controlled from 
your Apple. 

AVAILABLE NOW. 

The lntrol/X-10 System consists of the Introl Controller 
board with timer and ultrasonic transducer, the X-10 
Command Console and three remote modules. $279. 
Complete and tested. If you already have a BSR System 
X-10, the Introl Controller board is available separately for 
$189. Additional remote modules are available at $15. See 
your computer dealer for a demonstration. Or, return the 
coupon below for complete information. 

Available through computer dealers worldwide 

"Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
BSR System X-tO is a trademark of BSR. Ltd 




K| Mountain Hardware, Inc. 

i^J| LEADERSHIP IN COMPUTER PERIPHERALS 

^K 300 Harvey West Blvd . Santa Cruz. CA 95060 
^■^" (408) 429-8600 

Sounds great. 
! Home control from my Apple? 
That sounds like a great system. Send me all the details. 



Name 



Address 

City 

Phone 



State 



Zip 



APRIL 1980 



CIRCLE 188 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



13 






Ramblings.con't... 




The Corvus 10 megabyte hard disk system 
allowing itself to be photographed next to the 
relatively "puny" mini-floppy of the TRS-80. 

$259. It can be used with the Model 70 
controller which has four relay con- 
tact-closure outputs for controlling 
external devices with the Apple. The 
S-100 Speechlabs have a suggested 
retail of $399 and $599, respectively, 
for 64 and 255 word vocabulary 
models. For further information, con- 
tact your local computer store or 
Heuristics, Inc., 1285 Hammerwood 
Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 

Newsflash! Solution to the 
Hard Disk Backup Problem 

Several Winchester technology 
hard disk systems have been an- 
nounced recently. They have un- 
doubtedly opened up new business 
markets because of their relatively low 
cost and high capacity. However, there 
has been the nagging problem of how 
to effectively back up one of these little 
giants. It's possible to assign a person 
the task of spending several hours to 
back up a 10 megabyte drive with 8" 
floppy diskettes (and I wouldn't even 
consider it with the small 5" diskettes). 
There have also been a couple of 3M 
cassette drive systems which cost from 
$1900 to $3000 and can back up a 10 
megabyte disk in a matter of minutes. 
Or, you could buy a second hard disk 
for backup and spend 3 or 4 thousand 
extra dollars in the process. 

Corvus Systems, Inc., has come 
up with a unique, practical and low- 
cost solution to the problem. They've 
developed additional hardware and 
firmware, which sells for approxi- 
mately $790 and works in conjunction 
with their controller so that a video 
tape recorder (VTR) can be interfaced 
to the hard disk. The entire 10 mega- 
byte hard disk can be dumped to the 
VTR in 10 minutes. So there you have a 
fast, and presumably reliable, backup 
system which consists of $790 worth of 
hardware and a $700 VTR for a total 
cost of about $1500. 

Corvus has been running ads for 
some time which depict their 10 



megabyte IMI-7710 Winchester hard 
disk sitting next to an Apple. As a 
result, I was left with the impression 
their drive was for the Apple and 
missed the point that it was also 
available for the TRS-80, S-100 (CP/M) 
and LSI- 11 systems. Therefore, we 
took a photo of the drive sitting next to 
a TRS-80 to help make that point in 
case you missed it too. The system 
sells for $5350 (with an add-on drive for 
$2990) and runs under the operating 
system of the host computer. Corvus 
Systems, Inc., 900 S. Winchester Blvd.. 
San Jose. CA 95128. 

More Than Just A TRS-80? 

Without a doubt, there's a lot of 
software floating around for the Radio 
Shack TRS-80. However, I don't feel 
there is a significant amount of 
sophisticated business software for 
the TRS-80 compared to that available 
for CP/M systems. Structured Systems 
Group, Graham-Dorian and Peachtree 
Software are just a few of the com- 
panies that have developed some very 
good business packages that I 
wouldn't be afraid to implement in a 
business of my own. And, that's not 
intended as a disparagement toward 
the people who have put together 

The installation of the 
boards is as easy as 
changing a tube in a TV. 
However, that statement 
can be misleading. 

business packages for the TRS-80. It's 
just that those programs have been 
designed to work within the con- 
straints of the system. Even Radio 
Shack realized the shortcomings of the 
Model I for business applications and 
that's the reason they came out with 
the Model II with standard-sized 
floppies.) Now, thanks to Parasitic 
Engineering, serious TRS-80 based 
business systems can be put together 
with 8" drives and CP/M. 

Howard Fullmer and Gene Nardi 
started Parasitic Engineering way back 



/ -5 Jiti 






The Parasitic Engineering Maxi-Disks working in 
a "mixed & match" configuration with the TRS-80 
minis . . . running TRS-DOS or CP/M. 



The Shuffleboard which makes it all possible. 
Plugs right into the TRS-80 Z80 socket. 

in the early MITS Altair days by 
developing a clock-fix board for the 
erratic Altair. They saw themselves as 
"parasites" jumping on the S-100 
"bandwagon" (they have a sense of 
humor, too). They eventually went on 
to develop several other products 
including the Equinox S-100 system 
(which, incidentally, is the heart of the 
system being used to write this article). 
Their latest product is the Maxi-Disk 
which, through some creative engi- 
neering, is a standard-sized disk 
system running CP/M. 

The problem confronting Parasitic 
in designing this adaption was that the 
TRS-80 uses lower memory for several 
things, such as the memory-mapped 
video, and CP/M also operates in lower 
memory. Quite simply, they designed a 
board, called the "Shuffleboard," 
which plugs into the TRS-80's Z80 
socket and causes the lower 16K to be 
released for use as RAM. Another 
"piggy-back" board contains a new 
disk controller chip and plugs into the 
disk controller socket in the expansion 
interface. This allows for running mini- 
drives, with TRS-DOS, along with 
standard (Maxi) drives and CP/M, or 
just one or the other. In both cases, the 
installation of the boards is as easy as 
changing a tube in a TV. However, that 
statement can be misleading. A friend 
of mine "simply" plugged the boards in 
and has had some difficulty in getting 
the system up. Parasitic has been 
extremely helpful but there is only so 
much that can be done over the phone. 
At last word, my friend was getting 
together with fellow TRS-80 owners 
to do some swapping around to deter- 
mine if the problem is in his expansion 
interface, the boards or the TRS-80 
itself. It is hoped the problem will turn 
out to be something simple — it usually 
is. 

The Maxi-Disk drive sells for $995, 
which includes a Siemens FD 100-8 
drive, power supply, cabinet and 
interface board. Additional drives are 
$845 and the Shuffleboard with a copy 
of CP/M on 8" diskette (and complete 
documentation) sells for $249. Para- 
sitic Engineering, 1201 10th St., 
Berkeley, CA 94710. D 



14 






CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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give you more for less 



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CIRCLE 198 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Gmctphics. 

The Paper Tigerpuls mare bite into 

everything you dQ 



The Paper Tiger strikes again. With a DotPlot" graphics 
option that lets you make the most of your Apple II, TRS 80, or 
other personal computer. 

With DotPbt and available software drivers, 
you can print screen graphics, draw illustrations, 
write block letters, plot charts. And DotPlot 
includes an expanded, 2K-byte buffer. 

That's not all. Every Paper Tiger gives you 8 
software-selectable character sizes. 80 and 
132 column formats. Multi-part business forms 
handling. Forms control. Reliable stepper- 
motor paper drive. Adjustable width tractor feed. 
Continuous duty cycle operation. Plus lots more. 



I 



The Paper Tiger costs only $995. The DotPlot option only 
$99 more. But don't let these low prices fool you. Because the 
Paper Tiger is rugged enough to stand up to the 
most demanding printer-plotter requirements. 
.^ m For the name of the Paper Tiger dealer nearest 

^j you, call toll-free 1-800-343-6412 (except Massa- 
> chusetts, Alaska, and Hawaii). 

U Integral Data Systems, 14 Tech Circle, 

Natick, MA 01760. (617) 237-7610 



Integral Data Systems, Inc. 



CIRCLE 151 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




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3 



Effective Writing 



David H. Ahl 



Quotations and 
4 Quotation' Marks 




Quotations and 'Quotation Marks' 

In writing directions for the use of 
a program suppose you want to say: 

For help, type "HELP". 

Standard grammatical convention 
would place the period inside the 
quotation marks. However, the com- 
mand you wish to be typed into the 
computer is HELP without a period and 
indeed the period could alter the 
command. What to do? The obvious 
solution is to depart from standard 
convention and type it as in the 
example above. Another solution is to 
recast the sentence, for example: 

Type "HELP" if you need help. 

Another possibility, if the material is 
going to be typeset, is to show input 
and output to the computer in a 
different typeface: 

For help, type HELP. 

Sometimes that approach isn't all that 
helpful. For instance, can you easily 
tell if the period is bold (and part of the 
command) or not? 

Furthermore, for showing com- 
puter input and output together in a 
sample program run, it is frequently 
desirable to differentiate input from 
output. The easiest way to do this is 
with an underline. 

HI' I'll ELIZA. UHAT'S TOUR PROBLEN? 

1 ray. 

UE UERE BISCUSSING TOU— HOT (IE. 

f BUT TOU ATR THE PROBLEN 

OK, I AIR THE PROBLEH 

1 SO 1 HISSPELLED ft UORD 

SOT, 00 TOU HOVE ANT PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS? 

> HO 00 TOU 

YOU RE NOT REALLT TALKING ABOUT HE, ARE TOUT 

? ONLY BEHINO YOUR BACK 

UHY ARE YOU CONCERNED ABOUT NY BACK 

■> BECAUSE I'll AFRAID TO CUN FRONT YOU 

DID YOU CONE TO HE BECAUSE YOU ARE AFRAID TO 

CON FRONT 1 
T TOU SPEAK UIERD ENGLISH 
UE UERE DISCUSSING YUU-- NOT HE. 

? an i getting the best of you 

ohTT 

' uhaf is that supposed to nean 

uhy do you ask' 

■> UHY NOT 



In this example perhaps the input was 
clear enough without an underline 
because it always followed a question 
mark, however if GET statements had 
been used or the input prompt had not 
been printed, then an underline or 
other differentiation would have been 
vital. 



Quotations 

Indirect quotations and para- 
phrases are treated no differently from 
one's own thoughts and do not require 
quotations marks. Of course, the other 
source should be acknowledged. 

Direct quotations, on the other 
hand, call for special treatment. A 
quotation of average length (fewer 
than 50 words) is generally worked into 
the regular text, it is included in a line 
begun or ended by one's own words 
and marked by quotation double 
marks. If the excerpt is a sentence by 
itself, the first word is capitalized and 
separated from other text by a comma 
or colon. 

If the excerpt completes a sen- 
tence, the capital and punctuation are 
omitted. To omit a part of the quota- 
tion, suspension points — also called 
ellipsis points — mark the omission. 
These are three consecutive spaced 
periods and can mark the omission of 
one word or several sentences. If the 
omission is at the end of a sentence, 
four spaced points are used. For 
example: 

As noted in the Hart article, the 
random number generator "starts a 
new sequence . . . and returns the 
next random number in the se- 
quence with a positive argument." 

Quotations more than 50 words 
long are generally set apart from the 
regular text. The excerpt is preceded 
and followed by a blank line and 
quotation marks are not used. As an 
example of this. The New York Times 
Manual of Style and Usage states: 



The period and comma should 
be placed inside quotation marks . . . 
The colon and the semicolon are 
placed outside: He defined "work- 
week": the average number of hours 
worked weekly by the men in his 
factory. Question marks and excla- 
mation marks may come before or 
after the quotation marks, de- 
pending on the meaning: The crowd 
shouted, "Long live the king!" Just 
imagine, he was afraid of "elephants 
without trunks"! "Who are these 
'economic royalists'?" he asked. 
Have you read "Lord Jim"? 

In continuous quoted matter 
that is more than one paragraph 
long, place a quotation mark at the 
beginning of each of the paragraphs 
and at the end of the last paragraph 
only. 

Other Uses of Quotation Marks 

Quotation marks are also used to 
denote words used in a special way 
and slang when it is introduced into 
formal writing. Two examples follow. 
One of the PC boards was "decrudded" 
with ammonia and rubber cement 
solvent. "Quotes" is slang for quota- 
tion marks. 

Quotation marks are used to 
enclose titles of short poems, short 
stories, articles, lectures, chapters of 
books (but not book titles), songs, and 
radio and TV programs. "Don't Bother 
Me, I'm Learning" was an excellent 
special recently aired on PBS. 

Quotation marks may be used to 
denote letters, numbers, words, and 
phrases used apart from their mean- 
ing. For example, loop the "9" more 
distinctly, cross the "t," omit "very." 

Lastly, quotation marks have 
begun to be used to show disdain. This 
use is not discussed in any style guide 
as far as I know. Henry L. Trewhitt of 
The Baltimore Sun calls these "cop- 
out quotation marks" — when a writer 
uses a bit of jargon or a colloquialism 
and encloses it in quotes to show he 
really knows better. A related use is to 
put a "snear" connotation on a word. 
Thus, the terrorists at the U.S. Em- 
bassy in Iran are referred to as 
"students." World Book Dictionary 
editor Sol Steinmetz thinks that "dis- 
believing quotation marks" first be- 
came popular during the Nazi era, and 
then were given a boost in the Vietnam 
years, especially around the word 
"advisors." 

Last but not least, avoid cliches 
like the plague; seek viable alternatives 
and "avoid overuse of 'quotation 
"marks. □ 



APRIL 1980 



17 




Heathkit WH-89 
( All-in-One) Computer 



Heathkit has long been known as a 
manufacturer of quality electronic kits. 
Several years ago, Heath brought out 
their first two computer kits. Frankly, I 
found these initial machines somewhat 
disappointing. Perhaps being familiar 
with the innovative features intro- 
duced by Heath in many of their other 
electronic kits I expected too much 
from their first computers. 

I'm happy to report that Heath has 
once again introduced an innovative 
electronic component and this time it 
is a computer. The WH-89 is a Z-80 
based microcomputer in the same 
class as TRS-80, Apple and PET with 
the potential to give these systems a 
run for the money. 

Hardware 

The WH-89 is nicknamed the 
"All-in-One," since the keyboard, 
video display and disk drive are all 
contained in the same cabinet. The 
unit is nicely styled and, after getting 
used to multiple wires and cables 
hanging out all over the place on other 
computers, the single wire to the wall 
socket was a refreshing change. 



The unit is probably the 
most professional look- 
ing of any of the popular 
microcomputers on the 
market today. 

Actually, it would be incorrect to 
lead people to believe that all one has 
to do is plug the unit in and start 
programming. The WH-89 is the 
assembled form of the computer, but 
the accessories (additional memory, 
serial I/O board and cassette inter- 
face) come in separate boxes and 




require various degrees of assembly. 
Additional memory is simply plugged 
into the logic board and a few jumpers 
are changed. On the other hand, the 
cassette interface requires soldering 
and assembly of cables. Although no 
major construction is necessary to 
install these accessories, some people 
may feel put-out to have to do this 
work. 

The unit itself is probably the most 
professional looking unit of any of the 
popular microcomputers on the mar- 
ket today. Housed in a heavy plastic 
shell, the unit looks more like a 
mainframe console terminal than a 
home computer. The keyboard is of 
professional quality, featuring a full, 
standard typewriter keyboard and a 
numeric keypad. Each time a key is 
pressed, the speaker inside the cabinet 
clicks providing a confirmation of each 
entry. 

The video monitor is one of the 
finest available on any microcomputer 
today. The screen is easy on the eyes 
and the characters are very sharp. It 
measures 12" diagonally and displays 
25 rows of 80 characters. Each char- 
acter is formed by a 5 x 7 dot matrix 



Randy Heuer 



except for some graphic characters 
and lower case characters which 
employ descenders and use a 5 x 9 
matrix. 

The disk drive is a Wangco 82, 5 1 / 4 " 
drive. It is mounted in the cabinet 
adjacent to the monitor. Each diskette 
holds 102K bytes of information on 40 
tracks. 

What makes the WH-89 different 
from most other microcomputers is 
that instead of having a single micro- 
processor, the WH-89 has two. One 
Z-80 functions as the main processor 
would in any computer. The other Z-80 
controls the terminal functions, thus 
making it a "smart terminal." As a 
result, the CPU is not burdened with 
the task of handling screen functions. 
The Z-80 in the terminal handles 
cursor addressing, character insert 
and delete, graphics and video inverse. 
Among many other special purpose 
functions are two unique screen 
functions, cursor memory and a 25th 
line. 

Cursor memory allows the termi- 
nal to "remember" the position of the 
cursor from a previous time. This 
function is implemented by moving the 
cursor to the desired location and then 
entering an escape character via the 
keyboard or the program. Then at a 
later time, after the cursor has been 
moved elsewhere any number of ti mes, 
another escape character can be 
entered to restore the cursor to the 
memorized location. 

The 25th line is another interesting 
and unique feature. Normally only 24 
lines of text are presented on the 
screen. The bottom (25th) line is not 
used. This bottom line can be activated 
and printed on. However, unlike the 
other 24 lines, this line does not scroll 
but remains at the bottom of the 
screen. Thus special instructions, help 
statements, etc. can be written on this 



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Heathkit, cont'd... 

line and will remain at the same 
position on the screen regardless of 
what other screen formatting is done. 
The 25th line can be erased by a 
special escape character. 

Hardware is only one part of a 
computer system. The other important 
component is the software. Since the 
combination of these two parts deter- 
mines the quality of the system as a 
whole, let's take a good look at the 
software presently available for the 
WH-89. 

Software 

Another one of the differences 
between the WH-89 and other popular 
microcomputers is the amount and 
usage of Read Only Memory (ROM). In 
the Apple, PET and TRS-80, as much 
as 12K of the memory is ROM and 
contains the higher level language, 
Basic. Not so in the WH-89. Only 6K of 
memory is ROM and this is used for the 
bootstrap program, system monitor 
and other special functions. Thus all of 
the higher level features must be 
provided by the software as opposed to 
the firmware in ROM. 

Hardware is only one part 
of a computer system. 
The other important 
component is the 
software. 

This arrangement has advantages 
and disadvantages. The major advan- 
tage is that the user is no longer 
confined to doing most of his program- 
ming in the language provided, but 
may use any language which can be 
loaded into the computer RAM and 
supported by the system. The major 
disadvantages are that the operating 
system and higher level languages 
(Basic) take up a significant amount of 
RAM and that you are very dependent 
on the quality of this software. Since 
most people don't have the ability to 
write their own systems software, they 
have to rely on software provided by 
the manufacturer or other sources. 

Heath provides system software 
for the "All-in-One" in two forms. One 
is for the simpler, cassette-based 
system. For $20 you can receive a 
package containing Benton Harbor 
Basic, Heath Assembly language, text 
editor and console debugger. This 
certainly seems adequate for getting 
started on the "All-in-One." 

Most users of the "All-in-One" will 
probably prefer to use the disk-based 
systems software. The "All-in-One" 




The Heath Data Systems WH89 is a totally 
integrated microcomputer system contained in 
a compact, desk-top terminal that supplies all 
of the computing power needed for most small 
business or professional tasks. It is shown here 
with cover removed. 

uses the Heath operating system 
called HDOS. Developed for the Heath 
H-8 computer, this software has been 
adapted for use in the WH-89, HDOS 
bears a greater resemblance to the 
CP/M operating system than the 
operating systems of TRS-80 or Apple. 

With the system disk, which costs 
$100, you receive Benton Harbor 
Basic, an assembler routine, text 
editor, console debugger, a set of 
utility programs, and manual. HDOS is 
fairly complete and easy to use. The 
first chapter of the manual leads the 
user through the process of initializing 
and SYSGENing new diskettes, using 
the one drive copy utility, and writing 
and saving programs. It's intended for 
the first time user and should help the 
novice understand how to get started 
with the WH-89. 

Users will probably want a higher 
level language than assembly lan- 
guage for most programming tasks. 
While Benton Harbor Basic may be 
adequate in some cases, most people 
will prefer the more popular and 
powerful Microsoft Basic (MBasic). 
This language is available on diskette 
for an additional $100. This is the same 
diskette sold for the H-8 system and 
therein lies a deficiency with this 
release. There's a lack of easy and 
direct access to the smart terminal 
functions and graphics from this 
language. These special features can 
be accessed only in a roundabout way 
by use of ASCII codes and the CHR$ 
function. For example, to clear the 



screen one must write a statement 
such as PRINT CHR$(27);CHR$(69). 
This is not as easy as the CLS or PRINT 
AT features of the TRS-80. 

In addition, there apparently exists 
a memory allocation problem between 
HDOS and MBasic such that memory 
protection for machine language 
subroutines cannot be guaranteed. As 
a result, Heath recommends that the 
USR function not be used with this 
release of MBasic. Heath has promised 
that all registered purchasers of this 
version of MBasic will receive the 
update that corrects this problem in 
early 1980. So perhaps by the time this 
article runs this problem will have been 
solved. 

It would be in Heath's best interest 
to "tailor" their Basic to the "All-in- 
One." Most users of the WH-89 will not 
be able to make maximum usage of 
graphics and the terminal functions 
with the present form of MBasic. If 
Heath really wants to compete with the 
machines popular with the home and 
general user market (TRS-80, Apple, 
etc.), they'd be very wise to update 
MBasic to "fit" the WH-89. Users with 
all levels of programming skills would 
appreciate an easy method for inter- 
acting with the special features of the 
machine as those features are gen- 
erally superior to other small com- 
puters. 

What Does It Cost? 

Well, it depends on what you want 
to buy. Basically there are three ways 
to purchase the "All-in-One." One is 
the kit version without the floppy disk 
system (H-88). A 16K machine with a 
cassette interface sells for $1195. Of 
course you'll need to invest an addi- 
tional $20 for the system software and 
probably will want an additional 16K of 
memory for $150. Total $1365. 

It would be in Heath's 
best interest to "tailor" 
their Basic to the 
"All-in-One." 

If you want a disk-based system 
and are willing to do a bit of assembly, 
a 16K kit with a Wangco disk drive 
costs $1595. This kit (H-89) includes 
the cassette interface. In addition, 
you'll need the disk-based system 
software ($100) and at least 16K 
additional memory ($150). If you 
intend to write large programs using 
the optional Microsoft Basic ($100). 
you'll need another 16K expansion kit 
($150) as in a 32K machine only 6K of 
memory remains after loading Basic 
and HDOS. Total $1845 to $2095. 



20 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Heathkit, cont'd... 

Finally, the fully-assembled ver- 
sion of the disk-based system (WH-89) 
costs $2295. This version is an as- 
sembled H-89 minus the cassette 
interface. The additional costs for 
software and memory expansion for 
the WH-89 are the same as the H-89. 
Total $2545 to $2795. 

The only other accessory available 
for the "All-in-One" is a two port serial 
I/O board for $85. An H-88 without a 
disk drive can later be upgraded to a 
disk-based system with the purchase 
of a disk drive for $450 and the 
appropriate software. 

The best buy of this group is 
probably the H-89. This system entails 
a fair amount of assembly (although 
the CPU is completely wired and 
tested), but if you can take the time and 
care to assemble a kit, the savings of 
$700 (plus a cassette interface) cer- 
tainly seem justified. If I were purchas- 
ing the system, I would add 32K more 
of memory ($300), the serial I/O board 
($85), the HDOS systems software 
($100) and Microsoft Basic ($100). 
Thus the total price of the system is 
$2190. This may seem like a lot of 
money, but it compares favorably to a 
TRS-80 or Apple with similar features. 



Is The "AIMn-One" For You? 

As with any computer system, the 
answer depends upon what you want 
in a computer. If you are looking for a 
machine with a large amount of 
software presently available and 
geared mainly toward personal use, 
then perhaps you'd do better to look 
elsewhere. However, if you are inter- 
ested in acquiring a computer with a 
great potential for sophisticated appli- 
cations, it would be worth your while to 
take a good look at the "All-in-One." 

If you are interested in 
acquiring a computer 
with a great potential for 
sophisticated applica- 
tions, it would be worth 
your while to take a good 
look at the "All-in-One." 

Based on a comparison with other 
systems, the "All-in-One" is one of the 
finest pieces of complete computer 
hardware in the less than $3000 class 
available today. This system combines 
the ease of use of the home computer 
with some of the features found in the 
more complex, S-100 based systems. 



However, there is very little provision 
for expansion outside of the periph- 
erals available now, so users wishing to 
add accessories such as music boards 
and color graphics should probably 
consider another system. Basically the 
"All-in-One" is intended to be a single 
disk drive, 48K machine with pro- 
visions for a printer and a cassette unit. 
A large percentage of users and 
potential users of a small computer 
system will find this amount of hard- 
ware adequate for their needs. 

The "All-in'One" has an excellent 
start toward becoming a major force in 
the small computer market. Its sophis- 
ticated hardware gives it an advantage 
over most other small computers. The 
key for making it a complete winner is 
the development of equally sophis- 
ticated software. The HDOS systems 
software is good. The Microsoft Basic 
available for the "All-in-One" is ade- 
quate but needs to be specifically 
tailored to the "All-in-One" before 
most users will be able to take full 
advantage of the hardware. If Heath or 
some other software source develops 
another high level language (such as 
Pascal) and perhaps a screen-oriented 
word processing system (a la Electric 
Pencil) for the "All-in-One," this 
computer can have a major impact on 
the small computer market. O 



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21 






Atari & PET C ompared 

Atari In 

Len Lindsay 



Since I own and use both an old 
and new style PET. and have just 
acquired an Atari 800, a question I 
often hear is "Which computer is the 
best?" A good reply is "Best for what?" 
Note that this article is not titled Atari 
vs. PET, for this is not a contest, but a 
comparison. It is up to you to pick out 
the qualities you think are important 
for your future uses. I used a 32K PET 
2001 new ROM with large graphic 
keyboard and a 24K Atari 800 for this 
comparison. 

Conflicting information here and 
there prompted this comparison. I 
hope others will compare other com- 
puters, for it will help put a perspective 
on home computers. (How about 
Apple and Atari compared?) I will 
describe some significant aspects of 
each computer, and report results of 
similar test programs run on each. At 
times it may seem that I include a bit 
more about the Atari or leave out some 
PET qualities. This is because I wish to 
focus on Atari using the PET as a 
comparison (there is a lot already 
printed about the PET, while the Atari 
is a newcomer and not familiar to 
many). Also, I am sure that many 
differences and similarities are missed 
due to lack of space to say it all. Your 
comments are welcome. 

The PET is one unit, designed as 
an all-in-one package theme. The 
original PET was complete in one unit, 
while the newer style does require the 
cassette to plug into the back of the 
main unit. The Atari is component 
oriented, with the computer and 
keyboard as one central unit. It plugs 
into an ordinary wall socket (there is a 
small power supply unit half way from 
the computer to its plug). The cassette 
player plugs into the wall socket and 
into the computer. The central unit 
must then be connected to a TV or 
video monitor (an RFM adapter is 
supplied that connects to the antenna 
terminals of your TV). Thus, the Atari 
has a few more cables and wires to 
worry about. 



Len Lindsay, 1929 Norihpori #6. Madison, Wl 
53704 



ive 



The PET can address up to 32K of 
RAM. There are built in connectors for 
the IEEE bus, a parallel port, cassette 
#2 and memory expansion. Commo- 
dore does not supply memory expan- 
sion boards but they are available from 
independent companies. 

The Atari can address up to 48K 
RAM. There are built-in connectors for 
joysticks and game paddles, video 
monitor out, power in, peripheral 
expansion, ROM cartridges and RAM 



This is not a contest, it is 
up to you to pick out the 
qualities you think are 
important for your future 
uses. 



modules. 8K and 16K memory expan- 
sion modules are available from Atari 
and there are 3 sockets available for 
these memory modules. A 10K ROM 
pak is plugged in front of these memory 
modules. In front of these are two 
smaller sockets for other ROM car- 
tridges such as the Basic interpreter, 
Educational System cartridge, and 
other software in ROM cartridges. 

A second tape unit can be added to 
the PET using the second cassette 
plug. The cassettes are digital and are 
preset for optimal performance. IEEE 
peripherals can be added via the IEEE 
port, including disk and printer. The 
parallel port can support joysticks, 
lightpens, printers, speakers, etc., but 
these must be added by the user. The 
memory expansion port can also be 



evouc 

used to connect to a disk system. 

Peripherals, including cassette, 
printer and disk, plug into Atari's 
peripheral expansion plug in a daisy 
chain fashion. A video monitor and 
standard TV can be used simultane- 
ously since there are two separate 
connections (ideal for a classroom — 
you can face the class and see your 
monitor, and have a large TV for the 
class to see at the same time). The 
cassette can be used for both digital 
and audio recording with the volume 
preset for best results (the audio 
output comes through your TV 
speaker and its volume can be adjusted 
with the TV volume controls). You can 
load a program as well as use verbal 
instructions on the tape. The cassette 
has a 3 digit counter. 

The PET has a 74 key keyboard 
including a numeric keypad. Special 
keys include REVERSE ON/OFF, 
SHIFT LOCK, RUN/STOP, HOME 
CURSOR, CLEAR SCREEN, CURSOR 
UP, DOWN, LEFT & RIGHT, INSERT 
and DELETE. The PET can operate in 
either graphics or lower case mode. 
Graphics are shifted letters and 
numbers. When in lower case mode the 
alphabetic keys become upper and 
lower with their corresponding 
graphics unavailable. 

The Atari has a 61 key keyboard. 
Special keys include REVERSE 
ON/OFF, ESCAPE, BREAK, CON- 
TROL, TAB. TAB SET/CLEAR, CAPS 
LOCK. CURSOR UP, DOWN, RIGHT & 
LEFT, CLEAR SCREEN, INSERT 
CHARACTER/LINE, DELETE CHAR- 



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Atari, cont'd... 

ACTER/LINE and BACKSPACE. A 
similar set of graphics is available 
from the keyboard as with the PET. 
However, other graphics are available 
as well by plotting. Hold a key down for 
a second and it begins a fast repeat 
action, excellent for special key 
functions such as cursor movements. 
And like a typewriter, the unit will beep 
when you are almost at the end of the 
line. 

Both the Atari and PET allow 
special key functions to be written into 
your program (i.e., your program can 
move a cursor around, etc.). Both have 
excellent screen editing. The PET 
video output is only black and white, 
while the Atari is in full color. It has 3 
different text modes plus 6 graphic 
modes, including high resolution with 
many Basic commands for color 
control and plotting and drawing lines. 
In text mode 0. text can be displayed 
normally with 24 lines of 40 characters 
each. Text mode 1 prints double width 
characters (24 lines of 20 characters). 
In text mode 2, the letters are double 
height as well as double width (12 lines 
of 20 characters). The text can be in 
varying colors. A four line text window 
is also available while in text modes 1 & 
2 and all graphic modes. The several 
graphic modes allow for varying 
resolution. The higher the resolution, 
the more memory is used by the 
operating system to keep track of the 
screen display. Highest resolution is 
320 x 192 (and this mode requires your 
Atari to have 16K RAM). Atari also has 
a small beeper built in, and access to 
sound, 4 voices, almost 5 full octaves, 
plus tone control (including special 
effect noises such as a buzzing sound). 
Joystick and game paddle commands 
are built into Atari Basic as well as 
random access disk commands. 



There is a lot already 
printed about the PET, 
while the Atari is a new- 
comer and not familiar to 
many. 

PET Basic is by Microsoft, often 
referred to as the industry standard. 
Atari Basic is not by Microsoft, but is 
Shepardson Basic, supposedly by 
those who brought you Cromemco 
Basic. Both are similar in many 
aspects, and I will leave benchmark 
timings to someone else. Both use the 
question mark "?" as an abbreviation 
for PRINT. Both allow you to OPEN 
and CLOSE files to various devices. 

Having a Basic interpreter done 
by Microsoft is a real convenience 
since most program listings in maga- 



zines or books are most compatible 
with it. 

Variable Names 

Now on to my comparative test 
programs and their results. I will begin 
by testing what names can be used for 
variables. Here is the first program I 
tried on both computers: 
te fizftzflz-12 

28 PRINT RZ 

38 PRINT RZRZRZ 



PET RESULTS 



12 
12 



RTRRI RESULTS 8 
12 



The PET video output is 
only black and white, 
while the Atari is in full 
color. 

Both let one use a six character 
variable name. The difference is that 
only the first two characters are 
significant to the PET, while every 
character is significant to the Atari. 

Next I tested numeric characters 
as part of the variable name with this 
program: 

18 Rl-18 

28 012-28 

38 PRINT R1.R12 



PET RESULTS 



: '28""""28 
(the ' denotes a space) 



RTRRI RESULTS: 18" '28 

(the ' denotes a space) 

Both accepted numeric characters, 
and note that PET once again only 
used the first two as significant. Also 
note that they both have set tab points 
used when printing items to the screen 
separated with a comma. Then I tested 
the & symbol within the variable name: 

18 f*»12 

Neither computer accepted this. The 
PET accepted the line when entered, 
but when a RUN was attempted gave 
this message: 

?SVNTRX ERROR IN 18 

The Atari rejected it immediately after I 
hit RETURN with this message: 

18 ERROR- flt-12 

(the & was in reverse field) 

This points out a significant difference 
between PET Basic and Atari Basic. 
PET allows you to enter lines contain- 



ing anything you wish. It only rejects a 
line as incorrect when it attempts to 
execute it. The Atari checks each line 
as it is entered and will immediately tell 
you if it finds an error. 

How about lower case characters 
in the variable name? I tried this: 

ie «-i2 

Neither accepted this. The Atari 
rejected it immediately with an error 
message. The PET gave its error 
message when it was RUN. However, 
the PET did accept AAa=12 with no 
apparent problem, indicating that it 
must have ignored the characters after 
the first two significant ones. 

Now to test another area of 
conflict, can Basic keywords be used 
within variable names? The PET 
always gave a SYNTAX ERROR for the 
following programs, but the Atari 
varied in its response: 

18 SC0RE«28 
28 PRINT SCORE 
38 POINTS-12 



RTRRI RESULTS 29 

38 ERROR- P0INTS»12 

It accepted SCORE as a variable and 
printed its value of 20 fine. But when I 
added line 30 to the program it rejected 
it with the error. Both of the next one 
line programs resulted in an error 
message: 

1 END-12 

and 

1 LIST-12 

The following program illustrates the 
danger of using Basic keywords, even 
if Atari Basic lets you: 
ie B«e 

28 N0TB-2 

38 PRINT N0TB 

The Atari printed 1 as the answer. Thus 
you see that the Atari accepts Basic 
keywords sometimes! And then again, 
other times it just might not. My advice 
would be — never use Basic keywords 
as part of a variable name (it's safer that 
way). 

From these tests we can say both 
allow more than one character to be 
used, but the first character must be 
upper case alphabetic and the rest 
must be either numeric or upper case 
alphabetic. Neither safely allows theuse 
of Basic keywords as part of a variable 
name. The Atari accepts every char- 
acter in your variable name as signifi- 
cant, while the PET only uses the first 
two characters as significant (and 
ignores the following ones). 

Subscripted Variables 

I then compared the use of sub- 
scripted variables. Both accepted 



24 



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WM 



Atari, cont'd... 




A(1)=12. The Atari accepted A(12)=24 
while the PET gave a BAD SUBSCRIPT 
ERROR (any subscript over 10 must 
be DIMed first). The Atari accepted 
A(12,12)=234 (PET once again gave 
the error message). The PET accepted 
A(1.1.1)=123 while the Atari gave the 
message: ERROR A(1,1,1)=123 (with 
the second comma in reverse field). 
However, the PET did not accept 
A(1,1,1,1)=123 and gave an OUT OF 
MEMORY error (I did a PRINT FRE(O) 
and had 31706 free bytes). 

Thus, I would conclude that the 
PET will allow up to a triple subscript. 
All must be DIMed if any of the 
subscripts will be over 10. The Atari will 
allow up to a double subscript, and the 
DIM question needs further investi- 
gation. 

Variables Cleared With A Run? 

While we are looking at variables, I 
tried this program on both computers: 

le DIM A<3,3>, B<4> 

i* my „«/■.*•> • dcm ( ,h ' s line needed lor 
13 DIM D*<4> REM , he ATAR| on|y) 

29 PRINT ft<3,3>, B<4>, C, D» 

36 A<3,3>«5 i B<4>»3 : C»6 i D*«"TEST" 

The first time the program was run, 
both computers gave the same results: 

e e a 
However, a second RUN, done imme- 
diately after the first, gave these results 
with the Atari: 

5 6 8 



Neither safely allows the 
use of Basic keywords as 
part of a variable name. 



PET still gave all zeros. This means that 
when a program is RUN all variables 
are cleared in the PET. Arrays are not 
cleared in the Atari, however, and this 
must be kept in mind. 

Get One Character 

Although both Atari and PET have 
the GET command, there is a distinct 
difference in its use. For example: 

18 GET A 
26 PRINT A 

Atari gives an error, while the PET 
prints (it looks at the keyboard for a 
blink of an eye, sees nothing, and thus 
goes to line 20 and prints a 0, for it 
hasn't assigned a value yet). The 
following program shows correct use 
of GET for the Atari: 

18 0PEN*2,4,e,"K » 
20 GET»2,A 
36 PRINT A 



When run on the Atari, it waits until you 
hit a key, then prints the coded value of 
the key hit. For example, I hit T and it 
printed 84. I hit U and it printed 85. 
This is very different from the PET 
which looks only once at the keyboard 
and, if a key was hit, it gets the 
character itself rather than the coded 
value of it. 

Wait Till A Key Is Hit Program: 
Both computers can be programmed 
to wait till a key is hit and then 
continue. A possible PET code is: 

IB GET A* IF A»--« THEN 18 

Possible Atari code is: 

18 IF PEEK<764>»255 THEN 18 

Keyboard Buffer: This brings up 
the keyboard buffer. As a test I ran this 
program: 

18 FOR X«l TO 9999 i NEXT X 

Immediately after it was run I hit some 
keys. As soon as the loop is done the 
computer prints what is in the key- 
board buffer. The PET could re- 
member up to the last 9 keys I hit. 
However, if I hit a 10th key it forgot all 
of them, including the 10th key, and 
began over again as if no keys were hit. 
The Atari remembered only the last 
one. 

Numeric Representation 

PET and Atari use different 
methods of representing and printing 
numbers on the screen. (Did you 
notice the difference in output for the 
previous test on numeric characters 
within variable names?) I ran this 
program: 

18 A=l 

28 B-2 

38 C— 3 

48 D»- 4 

58 PRINT A;B;C;D 

The semicolons mean that the cursor 
remains where it is after printing 
rather than executing a carriage 
return. Thus the values of A, B, C and D 
will be printed one after another. 

PET RESULTS 'l"2'-3'-4 

(the ' indicates a space) 
ATARI RESULTS 12-3-4 

The Atari appears to represent the 
number as we would: 1, is 1, if a 
negative sign is needed, it is included. 
The PET, however, appears to have a 
different strategy. It seems to repre- 
sent a number thus: The first character 
is the sign (a - is printed if negative, or 
else a space is printed). Next, the 
number is printed. Finally, a cursor 
right is printed and the PET is done. 

This would explain the difference 
in the printed output. Change the semi- 
colons in line 50 to commas and these 
results are seen: 



PET RESULTS : 1 



ATARI RESULTS 1 



-4 



-3 



Both acknowledge the comma to mean 
skip to the next default tab position. 

Next I tested how very large 
numbers would be printed with this 
program: 

18 A=1234S67891 

28 B« 1234567899 

38 C-123456789123456789 

48 PRINT A 

58 PRINT B 

68 PRINT C 

PET RESULTS 1 . 23456789E+89 
1.2345679E+89 
1.23456789E+17 

ATARI RESULTS 1234567898 
1234567898 
1.23456789E+17 

Both computers use scientific notation 
and have 9 digit accuracy, with the PET 
rounding the last significant digit, and 
the Atari truncating it. 

Looping — A Quick Look 

I then tested how many nested 
FOR . . . NEXT loops each machine 
could handle: 

1 FOR A»l TO 99 

2 FOR B=l TO 99 

3 FOR C»l TO 99 

4 FOR D«l TO 99 

5 FOR E«l TO 99 

6 FOR F»l TO 99 

7 FOR G=l TO 99 

8 FOR H«l TO 99 

9 FOR I«l TO 99 
18 FOR J»l TO 99 

11 FOR K-l TO 99 

12 FOR L»l TO 99 

13 FOR M«l TO 99 

14 FOR H»l TO 99 

15 FOR 0-1 TO 99 

16 FOR P«l TO 99 

17 FOR 0-1 TO 99 

18 FOR R«l TO 99 

19 FOR S«l TO 99 
28 PRIHT S.T 

21 

program would continue here with 
NEXTs as needed, but are not neces- 
sary for this test. 



26 



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Atari, cont'd... 

PET RESULTS TOUT OF MEMORV ERROR IN 11 
ATARI RESULTS 1 8 

The PET appears to only allow 10 
levels of nested loops, while the Atari 
may be unlimited. Other tests showed 
that the PET will allow a simple NEXT 
while the Atari will not, requiring NEXT 
X (the loop variable must be specified). 
PET also allows NEXT X,Y (a multiple 
NEXT) while the Atari will not. 

Variable GOTO, GOSUB and LIST 

The Atari allows the use of vari- 
ables for target lines in a GOTO, 
GOSUB, or LIST statement as shown 
with this program: 

10 HERE =260 

20 GOTO HERE 

30 PRINT "NOT HERE" 

206 PRINT "HERE AT LINE 200" 

210 HERE'4M GOTO 20 

400 PRINT "HERE AT LINE 400" 



PET RESULTS 



?UNDEF'D STATEMENT 

ERROR IN 20 



ATARI RESULTS HERE fiT LINE 200 
HERE AT LINE 400 

Slight modifications will show that 
GOSUB responds likewise. Then I 
tried: 

LIST HERE 

The Atari listed line 400, since after 
running the program HERE contains 
400. Not bad at all. This capability 
should prove to be a lot of fun. 

The Atari clears out any 
program presently in 
memory when it encoun- 
ters the command 
CLOAD, while the PET 
does not. 

Video Screen Line Lengths 

Line lengths are similar on both 
computers. The PET has 25 lines of 40 
characters per line and allows two lines 
to be used consecutively for an 80 
character logical line. 

The Atari has 24 lines with a 
default of 38 characters per line and 
allows three lines as a logical line. 
However, it also allows the user to 
change the line length. With two POKE 
commands you can change your line 
length to 40. or 36, or 38, for example. 
Thus, the logical line would be 120, 



108 and 99, respectively, with 114 as 
default logical line length. 

The PET requires the cursor to be 
on one of the characters in the logical 
line when RETURN is hit to take effect. 
The Atari allowed me to hit return with 
the cursor on the fourth line accepting 
the previous three (one logical line), 
but only if the cursor was on the fourth 
line due to typing past the end of the 
third line. 

Atari allows the line lengths to vary 
within a program. For example, I tried 
this program: 

10 PRINT "ONE" 

20 POKE 82,5 REM SET LEFT MARGIN TO 5 

30 PRINT "TWO" 

40 PRINT "THREE" 

The results when RUN were: 

ONE 



TWO 



THREE 



READS' 



Note that the change in left margin did 
not occur when the POKE was issued, 
but rather after the next carriage return 
was issued following printing TWO. 

Cursor: In case you were wonder- 
ing, a cursor is the marker that 
indicates your present location on the 
screen. The PET cursor is a blinking 
white box. If a character is beneath the 
cursor it alternates reverse field on and 
off. The Atari cursor also is a white box, 
although it does not blink. Any char- 
acter beneath it is reverse field. 

Loading and Saving Programs 

Load: The PET loads a program 
from tape in this manner: You type in 
LOAD'PROGRAM NAME" (or simply 
LOAD) and hit RETURN. The PET then 
checks if the PLAY (or REWIND or 
FASTFORWARD) button is depressed. 
If not, it prompts you with PRESS PLAY 
ON TAPE #1 . Once PLAY is pressed, it 
replies OK and SEARCHING. When it 
finds a program it prints FOUND 
FILENAME and checks if it is the one 
you asked for. If not, it continues 
searching. If it is correct, it prints 
LOADING and loads the program. 
When finished, the Basic pointers are 
adjusted and it prints READY. 

The Atari appears to load a 
program like this: You type in CLOAD 
and hit RETURN (no file name is 
allowed). It beeps at you once and you 
then press play on your tape recorder 
and hit RETURN once again. It will 
load the program and print READY 
when done. 

As you can see, the procedures are 
very different. Another difference is 
that the Atari clears out any program 
presently in memory when it encoun- 



28 



ters the command CLOAD, while the 
PET does not. For example: You type 
CLOAD (or LOAD) and hit RETURN. 
The Atari beeps. The PET prints 
PRESS PLAY ON TAPE #1. Now you 
decide to use the program presently in 
the computer instead, so hit BREAK(on 
the Atari) or STOP (on the PET) and try 
LIST. The PET will still list your old 
program. The Atari shows no program 
in memory. 

Save a Program: PET saves a 
program in this manner: Type SAVE 
"PROGRAM" (or simply SAVE) and hit 
RETURN. The PET replies PRESS 
PLAY & RECORD ON TAPE #1 (unless 
the buttons are already down). Press 
them and it says OK WRITING PRO- 
GRAM. When done it says READY. 

The PET allows you to 
VERIFY that a tape just 
SAVED is correct, while 
Atari apparently doesn't 
have this feature. 

The Atari saves a program like this: 
Type CSAVE (no file name is allowed) 
and hit RETURN. It beeps twice. You 
must then press record and play on the 
tape unit, hit RETURN again and the 
Atari saves the program. It replies 
READY when done. 

The procedural differences are 
again apparent here. Also note that the 
PET allows you to VERIFY that a tape 
just SAVED is correct, while Atari 
apparently doesn't have this feature. 

With the usual SAVE or CSAVE the 
program is saved in its memory 
efficient token form. Yog can save it in 
its ASCII or untokenized form like this: 

PET: t w , OPEN 1,1.1 CMD1 > LIST 
then PR I NT* 1 CLOSE 1 



ATARI twe LI8T"C1 = ' 

To load programs saved this way into 
the PET, some trickery is involved. With 
the Atari it is rather simple using the 
Basic command ENTER. When 
through loading it is ready to RUN. 

The difference in the two methods 
is that the program is normally saved in 
tokenized form (the first method). The 
second method (LIST) saves the 
program in its untokenized form. 

Input 

For the Atari, using the INPUT 
command is limited only to the amount 
that fits into one logical line (three 
screen lines). Let's look closer at this 
using this test program: 

10 INPUT A 
20 PRINT A 

When it is RUN a question mark is 
printed as your prompt. I just typed in 

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Atari, cont'd... 




1234567890123456... etc. past the end 
of the logical line. The PET and Atari 
treated this differently. Suppose we 
type a 7 at the end of the logical line 
and continue on the next line with 89 
and then hit RETURN? 

The PET prints 89 as the answer, 
ignoring the first logical line typed. The 
Atari prints 1234567890123456. ..567 as 
the answer. It accepts the first full 
logical line and ignores everything 
after that. This could use further 
testing, and I welcome comments. 

Both allow string manip- 
ulation but in different 
ways. 

There is another significant differ- 
ence with the INPUT statement. The 
PET allows a "prompt" to be included 
such as: 

ie INPUT-ENTER NOME PLEASE" ;N* 

The Atari does not allow this. A PRINT 
statement must first be used such as: 

10 PRINT-ENTER NOME PLEASE"; 
20 INPUT N* 

Atari also does not allow you to INPUT 
into an array (PET does). You must first 
input into a dummy variable and then 
set the array element equal to that 
variable. 

Restore 

Both computers use the command 
RESTORE to allow DATA statements 
to be read again. Both start reading 
DATA from the first DATA line after a 
RESTORE. However, the Atari also lets 
you restore DATA lines beginning at 
whatever line you wish. For example: 
ie data ie 

28 DATA 28 

38 DATA 38 

48 READ A, B, C 

58 PRINT A, B, C 

78 GOTO 48 

The above program produces an error 
on both computers since it can only 
read DATA once, and runs out of 
DATA when we GOTO 40. However, if 
we add: 

68 RESTORE 

Both computers continue printing: 

18 28 38 



18 
18 
etc. 



28 
28 



38 

38 



The Atari will also allow you to 
RESTORE DATA beginning with any 
line, say line 30 in our example. I tried 
this: 



28 DATA 28 

36 DATA 38 

48 READ A, B, C 

58 PRINT A. B, C 

68 RESTORE 38 

78 READ A 

68 PRINT A 

The Atari gave this result: 

18 28 38 

38 

READY 

Notice that after RESTORED to line 30, 
it did not start with DATA in lines 10 or 
20, but began at 30, as we instructed it. 
The PET does not have this feature. 

And a Few More Differences 

This is only supposed to be a 
partial comparison, not a book (and I 
need my time to write the books on 
Atari and PET that I am doing) so I will 
quickly mention a few more differ- 
ences that may be significant. 

Strings: One major difference is 
how each Basic treats strings. Both 
allow string manipulation, but in 
different ways, and Atari is a bit more 
complicated in my opinion. PET 
dynamically allocates strings as they 
are needed, and their lengths may vary 
throughout a program. However, Atari 
requires that all strings used be DIMed 
first, defining the maximum number of 
characters to be allowed in the string. 
Atari also doesn't allow string arrays, 
while PET does. 

Adding strings together 

(concatenating) is very easy with a 
standard Microsoft Basic. Thus, the 
PET would allow you to add two 
strings together to get a third in 
this manner: 

188 A**"TESTING- 
118 B*«"1234- 
120 C*=A*+B* 
138 PRINT C* 

The result is: testinoi234 

To do the same thing on the Atari 

requires some tricky maneuvering 

as follows: 

18 DIM C$(28>, B*<28>, A*<28> 

180 A*«"TESTING" 

110 B*«"1234" 

120 C*-A* 

130 Cf<LEN(Ct>+l>«B* 

140 PRINT C* 

The result is: testinoi234 
Most general Basic program list- 
ings win use the A$+B$ method. 

Error Messages: If either computer 
hits an error, it will let you know (unless 
it is locked out — then the PET must be 
turned off and back on, while the Atari 
lets you hit SYSTEM RESET to get 
back, program intact). The PET prints 
a message such as BAD SUBSCRIPT 
ERROR, while the Atari only prints an 



error number. You then must look up 
that error number in the manual to see 
what went wrong. 

Error Trapping: The Atari allows 
you to TRAP errors as they occur 
during a RUN of your program if you 
wish. For example: 

188 TRAP 288 

If an error occurs, control will be 
transferred to line 200. This gives you 
a chance to plan ahead with error 
handling routines. Different traps can 
be set throughout the program. PET 
doesn't have anything like this. 

Conclusion 

Both seem to be excellently de- 
signed, the PET for its all-in-one 
packaging, and the Atari for its 
modular approach including ROM, 
RAM, SOFTWARE and LANGUAGE 
cartridge modules. Both units are good 
looking and designed for ease of use. 
For example, the Atari SYSTEM RE- 
SET key is protected from accidental 
depression by thin plastic walls on two 
sides. I like that! The Atari has a 
convenient POWER ON indicator light. 
Since your TV screen can be ruined by 
leaving the same image on it for too 
long, the Atari keeps track of how long 
the unit has not been accessed. If 
several minutes go by it begins a color 
change routine and every few seconds 
all the color registers are changed. 

Both computers seem to be very 
flexible and expandable units, and I am 
very happy with both. If high resolution 
and color graphics are important to 
you, then the Atari should catch your 
eye. It also has sound control built into 
its Basic. However, one voice sound 
capability is easily added to the PET 
with only two wires and an amplifier/ 
speaker. 

If several minutes go by it 
begins a color change 
routine and every few 
seconds all the color 
registers are changed. 

Over the last two years a lot has 
been written about the PET, and a lot of 
software is commercially available for 
it. The Atari is a newcomer, but I am 
sure it also will become quite popular. 
Software is already popping up from 
second sources and user groups are 
forming. I hope this comparison was 
useful and I welcome comments. 
Remember that this article focused on 
the Atari, and many excellent advan- 
tages of the PET are not mentioned. It 
is hoped that seeing the Atari com- 
pared to a popular computer already 
well known will help your understand- 
ing of the new kid in town. O 



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CIRCLE 166 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Shown are the Interface, card reader and 
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Educators, rejoice! Have you want- 
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Keith Schlarb, 5617 Indianolia Ave., Worth- 
ington, OH 43085. 



Chatsworth Data 
Mark Sense Card Reader 



Keith Schlarb 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 






& 




& 


& 


& 


& 


& 


& 




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1 


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2 


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C 
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Figure 1. Sample of the first 7 columns of a mark sense 
programming card. The cards have a total of 40 
columns. 



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33 



Chatsworth, cont'd... 

ditional advantage to educators is 
using the card reader to grade mul- 
tiple choice tests. A special test scor- 
ing card is used which allows for 100 
questions, each with 5 possible an- 
swers. Students shade in the appro- 
priate answer on the card as they take 
the test. The cards are then fed 
through the reader and are graded 
by using a test scoring program which 
is furnished by Chatsworth Data on re- 
quest, at time of purchase. 

The Chatsworth Card Reader is 
compact in size, 4.6"(width) x 4.3" 
(height)x4.5" depth, and weighs only 
4 pounds. It is composed of the main 
reader housing, with motor to drive 
the reader, an AC/DC converter and 
an interface board and all are includ- 
ed in the purchase of the reader. 

It was a simple task to get the 
reader up and running with my Apple 
Plus II. The interface board was 
plugged into slot 4 of the Apple and 
the other end of the interface cord 
was attached to the reader. The AC/ 
DC adapter was plugged into an elec- 
trical outlet and the reader was ready 
for its first performance. The comput- 
er was ready to accept information 
from the card reader after the "IN#4" 
command was typed and the return 
key hit. Returning to keyboard use 
was accomplished by marking a card 
with the "IN#0" command and feed- 
ing it through the reader. The "IN#4" 
and "IN#0" commands may also be 
used within programs to enter data 
from the reader. 

Marking Programming Cards 

Figure 1 shows a portion of a pro- 
gramming card, drawn to an enlarged 
size. When marking a program, col- 
umns 1 -4 are used for the line number. 
Columns 5-40 are marked for the Bas- 
ic statement. The cards are marked 
using the standard Hollerith Code and 
a #2 pencil. Figure 2 shows the card 
symbols, symbol location within the 
boxes and the appropriate marking for 
the symbols. The following are a few 



examples of the correct markings re- 
quired to enter data by card: To enter 
0-9 numbers simply shade in the ap- 
propriate box of the number. Letters 
A-l are marked by shading the (&) box 
plus the box containing the letter. Ex- 
amples are letter C marked by (&3), 
and F by (&6). Letters J-R are marked 
by the (-) box and the corresponding 
letter. Letter K is (- 2) with Q being a 
(- 8). Letters S-Z are marked in a sim- 
ilar way, shown in Figure 2. The sym- 
bols appearing at the bottom center 
of the boxes, below the numbers, are 
marked by a combination of (8) and 
the appropriate box. An equal sign, 
for example, is a (6 8) mark combina- 
tion. The symbols to the right of the 
boxes are marked by combinations of 
one of the following (& - 0) plus (8) and 
the appropriate box containing the de- 
sired symbol. See Figure 2 for the ex- 
act combinations. 

Entering Data 

Entering a program is a simple pro- 
cedure. Using the "IN#4" command 
the computer looks for information 
from the reader. Input all the cards, 
with the last being the "IN#0" com- 
mand to return to the keyboard, and 
the program is ready to run. If it is de- 
sired to run the program by using the 
reader, then do not use the "IN#0" 
card and enter instead the "RUN" 
statement. 

Several methods are available for 
entering variables into an existing 
program. I have found the easiest 
method to input a long list of variables 
is through the use of data statements. 
Mark the variables on a card, always 
using the same program line, so as 
not to accidentally destroy another 
line of the program. Enter the data 
statement before running the pro- 
gram. This procedure can easily be 
adapted for programs you already 
have by changing "INPUT" state- 
ments to "READ" statements through 
the program. 

A second method of using the read- 
er to input variables is to use the 
the "IN#4" and "IN#0" commands 



I 



SYMBOL LOCATION 
Center of Box 
Top Left of Box 
Center Left of Box 
Bottom Left of Box 
Bottom Center of Box 
Top Right of Box 
Center Right of Box 
Bottom Right of Box 
Carriage Return & 5 8 9 
Line feed 5 9 



SYMBOLS 

1 234567890 

ABCDEFQHI 

JKLMNOPQR 

/STUVWXYZ 

: # O = " 

r . < ( + i 

] $ * ) ; t 
/ • % «- > ? 



MARKING 
appropriate box 
appropriate box plus (&) 
appropriate box plus (-) 
appropriate box plus (0) 
appropriate box plus (8) 
appropriate box plus (&) plus (8) 
appropriate box plus (-) plus (8) 
appropriate box plus (0) plus (8) 



Figure 2. Other ASC II characters can also be marked on the 
cards. An entire list with the correct marking codes 
are furnished with the reader instructions. 




Shown is the correct 
statement 1 A = B + C 



marking for the 



within the program. The variables are 
entered through the reader when re- 
quested. If the program statement 
"INPUT A.B.C.D.E" is used, then an 
equal number of variables may be 
entered on a single card. However, 
each variable must be separated by 
a comma. 

A third method to input variables is 
the use of a FOR-NEXT loop, again 
with the "IN#4" and "IN#0" com- 
mands within the program. See Fig- 
ure 3 for a sample program using 
the FOR-NEXT loop. Use of the loop, 
however, requires that only one vari- 
able be marked on each card. This 
could lead to using a large number of 
cards. 



400 IN#4 

410 FOR 1=1 TO 10 

420 PRINT "INPUT CARD" 

430 INPUT A(l) 

440 NEXT I F, ° ure3 - 

450 IN#0 



The FOR-NEXT loop above can be used to 
input variables Into a program. The IN#4 
command allows the computer to accept data 
from the reader and line 450 returns control to 
the keyboard . 

Coat 

Chatsworth Data is presently ad- 
vertising the card reader, AC/DC con- 
verter and interface at $750. The cost 
of programming cards is $15/1000. 

Thus far I have had no problems 
with the reader. It is a fantastic piece 
of computer equipment. Obviously I 
still use the keyboard to enter pro- 
grams, but the card reader has made 
it possible for one microcomputer to 
handle programs from a full class- 
room of students. So, unless your 
school system can afford a dozen mi- 
crocomputers, or you don't mind hav- 
ing 25 students waiting in line, you 
may want to join me as a rejoicing 
owner of a Chatsworth Data MR-500 
Mark Sense Card Reader. □ 

Chatsworth Data Corporation 
20710 Lassen Street 
Chatsworth, California 91311 
(213) 341-9200 



34 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



icroQuote 

Your personal computer becomes 
a window on Wall Street. 




MicroNET, the personal computer service of 
CompuServe, now offers MicroQuote, a compre- 
hensive securities information system. 

With MicroQuote you can gain information from 
a data bank of over 32.000 stocks, bonds and op- 
tions from the New York. American. OTC and major 
regional markets plus Chicago options. MicroQuote 
contains price and volume data from January. 1974 
with cumulative adjustment factors and dividend 
information from January. 1968 

You can determine indicated annual dividends, 
earnings per share, shares outstanding. BETA fac- 
tors, open interest on options and amount outstand- 
ing on debt issues. MicroQuote can provide issue 
histories on a daily, weekly or monthly basis and 
even performs certain statistical analyses on the 
data. It's a vital tool for any investor. 

It's just part of the MicroNET service 

MicroNET also allows error-free downloading of 
software via the new software exchange and execu- 
tive programs (now available for the TRS-80," Apple 
II" and CP/M" systems). It also provides electronic 



mail service and can be accessed with a 300 baud 
modem via local phone calls in more than 175 U.S. 
cities. Write for full details on how your microcom- 
puter can control one of the nation's largest and 
most sophisticated time-sharing computer centers 
for about 8 cents a minute! 

TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation 
Apple II is a registered trademark ot Apple Computer. Inc 
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research 

Regional distributors and local dealers wanted. 
Inquire to Dept. R 

Software authors: MicroNET seeks to license quality 
programs for software exchange Write to 
Dept. S 

'/MteraMETi 

Mail to: Dept: C 

fTYtfii till Carvo Personal Computing Division 
l_AJIIipil3t?l VtT 5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
Columbus, Ohio 43220 



APRIL 1980 



CIRCLE 121 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






H 



Reading Comprehension For 
The SOL-20 



Randy Heuer 



When writing a software package 
for use by those in the educational 
community, the program author is 
faced with three very real problems. 
First, the program must appeal in 
some way to the student. Without 
this, the students may become bored 
and spend more of his/her time trying 
to defeat the purpose of the software 
rather than devoting this time to 
learning. Second, most educators 
who must use the programs are rarely 
familiar with computers and are often 
quite afraid of them. Thus the soft- 
ware must be written so these fears 
can be overcome and user mistakes 
will be forgiven. Finally, and perhaps 
most difficult, the programmer must 
try to solve these two problems within 
the limitations of whatever computer 
system is chosen (microcomputer or 
otherwise). This problem may sev- 
erely limit the extent to which the first 
two problems can be solved. 

These were the major obstacles I 
foresaw when I undertook a reading 
comprehension project for a school 
district client of Creative Computing 
Software. The objective was to 
develop a student's reading compre- 
hension through the use of a 
computer (in this case a SOL-20 with 
32K of memory). Cassette based files 
were to be used so the teachers could 
create their own data tapes and the 
students could use them interchang- 
ably. 



Basic Concepts 

The following approach was taken 
toward developing basic reading 
comprehension skills! The student is 
presented with a brief short story 
which may take as long as he wants to 
read. After the student has finished 
reading the story, the program pre- 
sents the student with several mul- 
tiple choice questions about the 
story. At the teacher's option, the 
student may be given a limited 
amount of time to answer the ques- 
tions. 



I decided that the package would 
consist of three BASIC programs. 
Two of the programs would be used 
by the instructors to create the data 
tapes. The first, entitled TEXT, would 
be used to create, edit and copy the 
short story files. The second pro- 
gram, called QUES, would be used to 
create, edit and copy the question and 
answer file. The final program, QUIZ, 
would use the data tapes created with 
the first two programs to present the 
student with the exercise. (See Figure 
1 to see how the three programs 
interact.) 



Type In 
















PROGRAM 
TEXT 








snort story 






" \Ui\ 








Story N " — 




Read in previous 
short story tape 


data tape >»v 






PROGRAM 
QUIZ 




Provides 








yT 


student with 


Type in 




PROGRAM 












e* 




*" 


and answer* 


















Questions 




T 


and answers 






I 


data tape 






Read in previous 
questions and 








answers tape 







Figure 1 



The long, hot summer was coming to an end. August 
was a scorcher. There was no rain for almost three 
weeks. The heat was unbearable. The grass had 
turned from a bright green color to a light shade 
of tan. 

The circus was swinging around toward home now, 
working back toward a good place to cross the river 
into New Jersey. With the heat, the river was a 
lot shallower than it usually was at this time of the 
year. The circus caravan would have no trouble 
crossing the river. 

The wind blew across the travelers like a blast 

Are you ready to go on? 



Example from QUIZ program - the 
first "page" of a story as presented 
to the student. To turn the page, 
the student presses the "Y" key. 



36 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




In 1975. Microsoft wrote the first BASIC 
interpreter for the 8080 Today, hundreds 
of thousands of microcomputers run with 
Microsoft software And tomorrow— a full 
line of system software for the 8086 and 
Z8000 With microcomputer software, 
nobody does it better 

BASIC Compiler Microsoft s BASIC 
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development of BASIC applications pro- 
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Z80, 8086, 680O, 6809 Language 
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CPM. ISIS-II. and TRSDOS S750 



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When an application becomes limited by trad- 
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ISIS-II. and TEKDOS $200 

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access to floppy disk files makes EDIT-80 the 
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Prices quoted are USA domestic only. 
OEMs should contact Microsoft for prices. 



V OS 

MICROSOFT^. 

* X 


i£ 


ta 


o 

Q 
</> 

a. 


o 

C/)t4 
EI 


o 

Q 

z 

UJ 

I- 


BASIC-80 
INTERPRETER 












BASIC 
COMPILER 


• 


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□ 


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COMPILER 


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COMPILER 


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muMATH/muSIMP 
muLISP 


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DBMS 


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EDIT-80 
TEXT EDITOR 


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ASSEMBLER 


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# contact Microsoft B contact Manufacturer 

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10800 NE 8th. Suite 819 

Beiievue.WA 98004 

206-455-8080 Telex 328945 ] | | 

We set the standard. 



Comprehension, cont'd... 



When was the circus heading toward home? 



1 . In the spring 

2. At the beginning of the summer 
3 o Near the end of the summer 

4. In the winter 



TIME REMAINING 2 MINUTES 



SECONDS YOUR ANSWER? 



Example from QUIZ program - 
typical question as presented to 

the student. 



The long, hot summer was coming to an end. August 
was a scorcher. There was no rain for almost three 
weeks. The heat was unbearable. The grass had 
turned from a bright green color to a light shade 
of tan. 

The circus was swinging around toward home now, 
working back toward a good place to cross the river 
into New Jersey. With the heat, the river was a 
lot shallower than it usually was at this time of the 
year. The circus caravan would have no trouble 

Do you want to continue Displaying? 



TEXT program - using the display 
mode, the first ten lines of the 
story are displayed. If the user asks 
to insert a line after line 3 the 
computer will display... 



How The Software Works 

Designing software to accomplish 
the tasks outlined in Figure 1 is not 
particularly difficult, however, re- 
member that these programs are to be 
used by people unfamiliar with com- 
puters. Thus the programs must be 
forgiving to incorrect input and self- 
instructing. These are the features 
that separate poor software from 
people-oriented software. 

As outlined earlier, the extent to 
which these tasks can be accom- 
plished is often dependent on the 
computer system used. For this 
project, a 32K SOL-20 was employed. 
Processor Technology's Extended 
Cassette BASIC requires approxi- 
mately 15K of this memory. String 
variables for the data files and editing 
features occupy another 8K, leaving 
about 9K to store code and other 
variables. 

With such stringent memory limi- 
tations, it was decided that extensive 
instructions would not be included in 
the programs. Instead the bulk of this 
free memory would be devoted to 
making the programs as user oriented 
(or "idiot-proof") as possible. In this 
way, users could press almost any 
key on the keyboard during prompts 
and the program would forgive any 
incorrect input. In addition, if the user 
wishes to make major changes to the 
file, the program will visually verify 
the changes requested and allow the 
user to change his mind. This feature 
keeps both experienced and inexperi- 



enced users from making silly mis- 
takes and damaging their work. 

The first program, TEXT, is used 
by the teacher to create, edit, and 
copy the short story data tapes. The 
short stories may be entered from the 
keyboard or loaded from an existing 
short story tape. When stories are 
entered from the keyboard, they are 
typed in just as they would be on a 
normal typewriter. Any mix of upper 
and lower case letters or numbers is 
permitted. 

After the story is entered, the pro- 
gram proceeds to the editor routine. 
This part of the program allows the 
teacher to modify the story. The three 
edit operations allowed are DELETE, 
INSERT and CHANGE. 

Regardless of which edit opera- 
tion the teacher wishes to make, the 
first step is to display a group of ten 
lines. The story can be stepped 
through ten lines at a time until the 
teacher finds the line he wants to edit. 
At this point, the program will request 
the teacher to specify the type of edit 
operation desired (INSERT, DELETE 
or CHANGE), and ask which of the 
displayed lines is to be altered. After 
this information is entered, the pro- 
gram removes the line to be deleted or 
changed from the screen, or for the 
insert mode, placing a blank line 
where the teacher requested to insert 
a new line. The program then asks, 

IS THIS THE LINE? 

If the teacher has mistakenly 
chosen the wrong edit operation or 



the wrong line, the program now 
offers the user a way out without 
modifying any of the story. This is 
done by responding 'NO' to this 
inquiry. A 'YES' response will allow 
the desired modification to be made. 

After all desired editing is accom- 
plished, the program branches to the 
routine for saving the short story on 
cassette tape. This routine allows the 
user to make as many copies of the 
short story as needed . 

The second program, QUES, is 
used by the teacher to create the 
question and answer data tape. 
Similar to the TEXT program, the 
questions and answers can be en- 
tered from the keyboard or from an 
existing data tape. Questions are of 
the multiple choice variety where 
each may have up to four possible 
answers. True-false questions are 
also acceptable. 

This program also features an 
editor routine which allows the 
teacher to change either the ques- 
tions, any of the answers or the 
number of the correct answers. 
Similar to the TEXT program, any part 
of the questions or answers the user 
requests to change, is displayed prior 
to the changes actually being made in 
memory. This feature helps prevent 
the user from accidently making 
undesirable changes. 

The teacher also specifies at this 
time whether to place a time limita- 
tion for the student to answer the 
questions. If a time limit is chosen, 
the student will be required to answer 



38 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Comprehension, cont'd... 

ail the questions within the specified 
amount of time. Otherwise the stu- 
dent will have an indefinite amount of 
time to answer the questions. 

After the teacher has completed 
the short story data tape and the 
question and answer data tape using 
the TEXT and QUES programs, the 
student can be presented the exercise 
using the QUIZ program. After read- 
ing both data files, the program first 
presents the student with the short 
story. The story is displayed twelve 
lines at a time, much as if the student 
was reading a book. The student 
"turns the page" by pressing the V 
key. Unlike a book, the student 
cannot turn back the page to review 
what he has read. Thus the student is 
required to try to comprehend what he 
is reading. 

After the student has completed 
reading the story, he is presented 
with the multiple choice questions. 
The student is informed before he 
starts if there is a time limit to answer. 
Each question is displayed on the 
screen with its four possible answers 
and the time remaining. To answer 
the question, the student presses the 
key of the answer he thinks is correct. 
The computer will inform the student 
if he has chosen the correct answer. 

If the student chooses the correct 
answer, the computer will proceed to 
the next question, otherwise the stu- 
dent must keep attempting the same 
question until he selects the correct 



answer. When all of the questions are 
answered, or if the student takes too 
much time, the program provides a 
numerical and descriptive evaluation 
of the student's results. 

Did I Accomplish What I Wanted? 

Now that the software is com- 
pleted, did I solve the three problems I 
outlined at the beginning of the pro- 
ject? Let's look at them one at a time. 

First, is the program enjoyable to 
use by the student? To an extent, I 
suppose this depends upon the indi- 
vidual using the program. I haven't 
attempted to make the subject of 
reading comprehension a game. The 
purpose of the program is a reading 
comprehension exercise. Some stu- 
dents will not find any exercise fun, 
no matter how it is done, but I believe 
most students will find the program 
challenging and will try to do the best 
they can. I'll have to wait for reports 
from the educational community to 
see if this is true. 

The second problem was to make 
the programs easy to use, particularly 
for the teachers. In this area I feel the 
programs accomplish all that can be 
expected. Each of the programs has 
been designed to accept any user 
input and provide help when receiving 
incorrect input. Major modifications 
to the user's work are first verified by 
features that display the changes the 
user requested before permanent 
changes are made. This helps elimi- 
nate making undesired changes acci- 



dentally. 

The final problem to overcome 
was to solve the previous two prob- 
lems within the limitations of the 
chosen computer system. Obviously, 
this has been accomplished. Other 
features such as disk based files and 
more memory for larger data files 
would be desirable, but were not 
included due to the limitations 
imposed. However, within these 
limitations this seems to be an 
effective method of strengthening 
reading comprehension skills. 



A Reading Comprehension Pack- 
age for the SOL-20 is available from 
Creative Computing Software. CS- 
8201 is a five cassette package 
designed for developing reading 
comprehension skills. 

The package uses cassette based 
files to present a short story and ac- 
companying multiple choice ques- 
tions on the screen. Two of the pro- 
grams are used for creating, copying 
and editing these files. Two other 
programs use these files to present 
the story and the quiz. The final tape 
contains a sample short story and 
questions. A 32-page instruction 
manual is included in the package. 

This package requires a SOL-20 
with a minimum of 32K of memory 
and Processor Technology's Exten- 
ded Cassette BASIC. The retail price 
of this package is $50.00. D 



The long, hot summer was coming to an end. August 
was a scorcher. There was no rain for almost three 
weeks. The heat was unbearable. The grass had 

? 

turned from a bright green color to a light shade 

of tan. 

The circus was swinging around toward home now, 
working back toward a good place to cross the river 
into New Jersey. With the heat, the river was a 
lot shallower than it usually was at this time of the 
year. The circus caravan would have no trouble 



HERE? 



ANSWER # 1 

In the spring 
ANSWER # 2 

At the beginning of the summer 

ANSWER # 3 

Near the end of the summer 
ANSWER # 4 

In the winter 
Do you want to make any changes? 



...A blank line after the third line and an oppor- 
tunity to back out of the insert mode. If the user 
responds "No" to the Here? Prompt, no 
changes will be made to the story. A "Yes" 
response will allow the desired changes to be 
made. 



Example from QUES program - editing routine 
allows the user to view the present answers 
before making any changes. 



APRIL 1980 



39 





Canned Programs are Only a Beginning. Pre- 
programmed disks and cassettes are a terrific way 
to get started in micros. But they're just a start. 
The best thing about owning a computer is pro- 
gramming it. Yourself. 

University Software makes 
it easy. Using compact, 
easy-to-understand 
Microsoft BASIC, 
University Software has 
selected the best work 
of scores of different 
authors to create this 
spiral-bound, five-volume 
set of the programs you 
most want to have. All 
you have to do is sit 
down at the keyboard 
and enter them. 

Software for People.The 
problem with BASIC as a 
language is that it was de- 
veloped on timeshare and 
other large capacity 

computers. But Microsoft BASIC was specifically 
designed to run on micros; it's fast, it's simple, 
and memory requirements are minimal. 

All the programs in the University Software set 
were written on micros, for micros. If you own a 
TRS-80, Apple, Texas Instruments, Atari, Com- 
modore PET, Sorcerer, or Ohio Scientific micro, 




University Softivare gives you 

these programs were designed to work right — 
the first time — on your machine. 

What's more, they're programs you can use. 
The Small Business text contains programs to 
help you look at interest rates every possible way, 
a materials inventory program, a touch typing 
course and a small business accounting system. 
But that's only the beginning. Among the Educa- 
tion and Scientific programs, you'll find a speed 
reading course, a President's quiz, a math educa- 
tion program, and programs to help you learn 
English and build your vocabulary. The two vol- 



A University Software Sampler 

Here is a small sample of the programs yon 'II get in each 
of the five University Software volumes. 



HOML lr ECONOMICS -$24.95 
Text Editor: Compose and correct 
your noil's, letter*, invoices. 
Utilities: Electric, water, phone, gas 
and trash bills control. 
Temperature Conversion: Lets you 
convert different temperature units. 
Eternal Calendar: Returns the day oi 
the week for a given date 
Recipes Booh Sets up recipes *u» cas- 
sette tape. 

C/i.i Amy ,4ui'imr Checkbook analysis. 
. . . Plus 9 more! 

FUN & GAMES Volume I -$14.9; 
Space Kni. You command Federation 
Trading Ships in the Asteroid Hell 
Mastermind: Players attempt to figure 
out one another's combinations. 
Combat: Battle game employing 
numbered board on screen. 
Bktrhythm: Physical, emotional and 
intellectual patterns 

Merchant of Menus: Make money in 

outer spate 

. . . Plus 10 more! 

I UN & GAMES Volume II -$14.95 
Blackjack: The famous card game. 
IV,. ,Ut rVbl /// War game. 
Hruigt-: Deals lour hands on screen. 



Battlestar Galoctica: You have to reach 
Earth passing many <. ylon stations 
. . . Plus 17 mure! 

EDUOtnO/VeVSCn sum sw.ys 
Astronomical Computations: Compute 
the positions ot the planets; draw 
orbits 

Pythagorean Theorem: Review geom- 
etry theorems. 

ititih Spelling puzzle 
Quantum Chemistry: Compute quan- 
tum numbers ol an atom. 
Prognun Manager: Load and run mul- 
tiple programs 
... Plus 21 more! 

SMALL BUSINESS -$49.95 
Mortgage Analysis: Outputs loan 
tables. 

Distributions Mapping: Maintains li- 
brary oi distribution (unctions. 
Billing System: I reates and manages 
data base containing bills 
Investment Management: Analysis ot 
stinks, kinds, debentures, real estate 
Small Business Accounting. Posts m- 
comc and expenses, prints trial bal- 

anie, chart oi accounts. 

lax: Federal Income and F.I.C.A. 

taxes. 

. . . Plus 22 more! 



Act now for your FREE BOOK 

You can order each of these 
volumes separately NOW 
through Folio Books. But if you 
call today and order the entire 
set, we'll include Microsoft 
BASIC, a standard introductory 
guide to the use of the language 
by Ken Knecht absolutely FREE. 




./■ires June M 



40 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



YOURSE 

\105 Microsoft programs. For less than a buck and a half apiece. 

imcs of Fun & Games programs offer a total of 35 
games and graphics to challenge every level of 
skill. Finally, the Home & Economics text con- 
tains the programs you need to help you manage 
your life more efficiently — an appointments 
calendar, metric conversions, and programs to 
lelp you balance your checking account and 
>udget the family income. 

3o Your Pocketbook a Favor. It's this simple: if 
,ou input your own programs, you save money, 
.ots of money. Preprogrammed cassettes and 
lisks nowadays cost anywhere from $10 to up- 
vards of $50. And if the program you want is not 
ivailable in a format for your computer, you're 
just flat out of luck. 

If you buy the entire set of University Software 
jrograms, on the other hand, you get 105 pro- 
grams for $139.75— about $1.33 each. Plus, there's 
i conversion appendix in the back of each volume 
to help you convert any Microsoft BASIC pro- 
gram written on one computer to run on yours. 





JDo Yourself a Favor. To really master and under- 
stand your computer, you can't be content to sit 
Iback and let it do all the work. You've got to roll up 
Jyour sleeves and accept the challenge to your own 
(creativity. University Software programs will help 
lyou run your life. And they'll help you grow. 

You can order any of the University Softivare 
Ivolumes separately, but if you act now and order 

■ entire set, we'll include Ken Knecht's Mic- 
rosoft BASIC, a complete introduction and tutorial 
>ook on programming in Microsoft BASIC, 
: REE! It's yours— a $10 value— just for ordering 

■ whole University Softivare set at one time. 



We'll jump right on your order. There's only one 
place you can get the entire University Software set 
shipped directly to you almost as soon as you call: 
Folio Books. We are specialists in computer books 
for micro and mini computers, and honestly be- 
lieve that University Software is the finest set of 
application Microsoft programs available to the 
general public. 

Call us today. Do it for yourself. 

ORDERING INFORMATION: Call toll-free 
(800) 423-4864, M-F 9-5 p.m. Pacific Time. Mail 
order: include name, address and telephone. M/C 
and Visa customers include: your name as it ap- 
pears on your card, card number, expiration date. 
All orders add $1.00 per volume for shipping and 
handling. California residents add 6% sales tax. 
We ship UPS or Parcel Post. Introductory offer: 
order 3 or more volumes and receive a 10% dis- 
count; order all 5 and we also pay shipping any- 
where in U.S.A. 



(800)423-4864 

In California call collect: (Z13) / "5-52^4 

University Softivare is available from 

Folio Books 

P.O. Box 4100- M, Los Angeles, California 90041 

Univemty Sofhetrt Abo ArmfUHtal tilling Computet Storet Everywhere, 



APRIL 1980 



CIRCLE 146 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Ancient Literature With Modern Computers 



An Interview with Dia Philippines 
By Mary Nicolopoulos 



Dia Philippides, a doctoral student 
at Princeton University, was among the 
classical scholars attending the com- 
puter colloquium at the 1976 annual 
meeting of the American Philological 
Association held in New York Decem- 
ber 28-30. I asked Miss Philippides to 
explain the link up between computers 
and the classics. 

Q. How do computers help classical 
scholars in their work? 

A. Computers can cut years off the 
time it would take to complete cer- 
tain projects. Once a text is put on 
computer tape, computer programs can 
be applied to the text and time-saving 
miracles are performed. The comput- 
er can be programmed to analyze 
metric verse as one would analyze mu- 
sic for its structure and form. This is 
the type of work I am involved with— 
I am working on a project which will 
provide a better understanding of the 
meter used by the Greek tragedians in 
their spoken dialogue. The computer 
can also verify the authorship of a text 
through stylistic analysis by checking 
for a variety of factors such as the posi- 
tion of the verb in the line or the type 
and frequency of particles the author 
uses. The compilation of concord- 
ances, indices and dictionaries can be 
tremendously facilitated by the use of 
programs which instruct the computer 
to scan a text for a particular word and 
print it out along with the sentence or 
line in which it occurs. 

Q. Are classical texts readily available 
on computer tape now? 

A. Yes. The Thesaurus Linguae 
Graecae Project, headed by Ted 
Brunner of the University of California 
at Irving, has undertaken to put all of 
Greek literature on computer tape. So 
far they have computerized 18.5 mil- 
lion words of text and their goal is 90 
million words. The availability of the 
computerized texts saves years of time 
for a scholar who would otherwise 
have to prepare and proofread his own 
tapes before beginning his analysis. If 
I were to sit down now and keypunch 
the 33 tragedies which my work in- 



volves, I would be here three years 
from now still punching. At present 
these tapes must be purchased rather 
than rented or borrowed and they are 
costly for an individual's budget. Even- 
tually I foresee that certain universities 
will have the complete collection of 
Greek literature available in tape li- 
braries. 

Q. How long have classicists been us- 
ing computers in their work? 

A. I would say that the field is approx- 
imately ten years old. A. Q. Mor- 
ton is one of the first in the field. With 
the help of monks in Scotland as volun- 
teer keypunchers, he computerized 
Homer to facilitate his research. Since 
then other scholars have computerized 
various other works. Stephen Waite at 
Dartmouth College created a central- 
ized repository for the American Philo- 
logical Association to collect which- 
ever Greek and Latin texts have been 
computerized and make them available 
to all interested scholars. 

Mill Dia Philippidet with her computers 



Q. Where is the main work being done 
in this field? 

A. One of the leaders in this field in 
the United States is David Packard 
who is at the University of North Caro- 
lina at Chapel Hill. I have already 
mentioned Ted Brunner at Irving and 
Stephen Waite at Dartmouth. Now 
there are a couple of us in the New 
York area who are starting and a few 
in eastern Canada. 

In Licgc, Belgium, the Laboratory 
for the Statistical Analysis of An- 
cient Languages carries out much work 
of this nature. Several distinguished 
scholars are permanently in residence 
there while others take part on a visit- 
ing basis. The Laboratory has been 
publishing a quarterly periodical for 
ten years. The collaboration found at 
Liege is something which we do not 
have yet in the United States. The 
great distances between Chapel Hill, 
Irving, Dartmouth, etc., have caused 
efforts up to now to be largely indi- 
vidual ones. 

Continued on page 45 




42 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



INTRODUCING A Gj 
FOR TWO GREAT HOME COMPUTERS 




:i mi us 

IIMMMh 




COMPUTER BISMARCK 
FOR YOUR 
APPLE II OR TRS-80. 



Historical wargaming may be the only intellectual 
hobby which creates more intensely devoted fanatics 
than home computing. When two wargamers spend 
an evening relighting a famous battle, they'll spend 
several hours happily setting up the gameboard 
firepower charts, unit strength tables and so forth ... all 
before the first shot can be fired! There are such paper 
8c pencil simulations of every famous battle from Shiloh 
to El Alamein. If you've ever tried one. you already 
know the excitement and challenge of trying to be a 
better general than Rommel. 

Home Computer 

Now there's a true historical wargame for your 
home computer. Computer Bismarck accurately simu- 
lates the epic battle between the awesome German 
battleship and the British Home Fleet. Best of all. the 
computer program eliminates the drudgery of paper & 
pencil wargames — remembering all the rules and 
details while keeping track of the battle on a North 
Atlantic map on your video display. 

Play the Computer 

It maneuvers the Bismarck and Prinz Eugen so well 
that you'll have to command the British ships brilliantly 
to avoid losing your vital merchant convoys. 
Play a Human 

The two of you plot your strategies in grease pencil 
on an off-screen mapboard while the battle is fought on 
the video screen (monochrome or multi-color depend- 
ing on your display capabilities). You deploy battleships, 
cruisers, carriers — each with unique and realistic 
operating parameters. You must deal with all the 
variables which challenge an actual battle com- 
mander: firepower and damage; shadowing ability 
(better in radar-equipped vessels), and visibility — 
which depends on weather, which varies with geog- 
raphy and time. If the game is interrupted, the computer 
saves it on a minidisc for resumption later. 



More like Chess than Pong 

Computer Bismarck is a test of intellect and courage 
rather than hand-eye coordination. If you can imagine 
playing chess with pieces like a knight who must return 
to the stables periodically for a fresh horse or a queen 
whose radius ol action can be affected by battle 
damage ... all on a 360 square chessboard partially 
obscured by fog . . . that's Computer Bismarckl 

Cassette tor Tour TRS-80 

We've just described the cassette version of Com- 
puter Bismarck which is played on a 16K Level II TRS-80 
system. For S49.95 you get a programmed cassette, a 
12-page rule book, 2 mapboard charts (for plotting 
secret strategies in grease pencil between moves). 2 
ship data charts, and a set-up instructions sheet. 
Disc tor your Apple 

The disc version includes all of the cassette features 
plus actual submarine, destroyer, convoy, and aircraft 
units that are moved by the players. Players must also 
deal with fuel restrictions on both ships and planes and 
with the ever-changing weather of the North Atlantic. 

H you've got an Apple II Plus (or an Apple II with 
Applesoft ROM Card) with 48K memory and a 5W mini 
floppy disc drive, you can be playing Computer 
Bismarck in a few days. For $59.95 you get the game 
program disc. 2 mapboard charts. 2 ship data charts. 2 
system command cards, a loading instruction sheet, 
and a rulebook — everything you need to play one of 
the most exciting wargames ever designed! 

Credit card holders call 800-648-5600 (toll free) 
and ask Operator 1 80 to charge your order to your VISA 
or MASTERCHARGE (Nevada only call 800-992-5710). 
Or send a check to Strategic Simulations, Incorporated 
P.O. Box 5161, Stanford CA 94305 (California residents 
add 6.5% sales tax). 

For complete details and an Inside look at Computer Bismarck, 
we'll mall you Its rulebook Just send us a check lor $5 along with your 
name and address Please Indicate cassette or disc version rulebook. 
The S5 will be credited to your purchase ol Computer Bismarck 



COMPUTER BISMARCK" There's never been anything like It. ^^T| 



APRIL 1980 



CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MUWIL II HUM AVAILABLE 



CPM FLOPPY DISKETTE OPERATING SYSTEM 
A PKkagn supplied on diskette complete with 0060 
assembler te.t editor MM debugger and various 
utilities plus full documentation CPM available con- 
figured for mo»l popular computer dis* systems in- 
cluding North SUr Single, Ooutie or Quad density. 
Allan *" disks Helios i" Eitdy Sorcerer, Vector MZ 
Heatn HWf 0» H89t. TRSMr. »COM 371? and COM 
Micro D'!> p'u* many other configuration* available 
ott the shall SUi us 

CP M version ? (not an format* ovarlabki immediately) 

nrwtti 

MP w 



MICROSOFT 

BASIC M Disk E .tended BASIC ANSI compatible 
ong variable mmwi WHILE'WENO chamm 
W variable length fHo record* 



mSXFwm 

•ety&uU**/ •■•**■ La 

EIDOS SYSTEMS 

KiM Keyed lr.de* Sequential Search Otters conv 
i pata Mult. Keyed Indei Sequential and Direct Ac- 
caw tiie management Include* built m utility func- 
tions tor 16 or 32 M arrtttmatic. string integer conver- 
sion and String compare Delivered as a relocatable 
linkable module m Microsoft format for use with 
FORTRAN-M or COBOL M etc MM MJ 
K BASIC - Microsoft Disk Extended BASIC sntti ail 
'icititws integrated by implementation of nine 
onal commands in language Package includes 
KISS hel a* described above, and a sample maB 
lis) program SeeVXS 
1 users o> Microsoft BASIC M (MBASIC) 



I riquaraj *.►**»>, umtis oinarwua statu 



i «(•*"• ••■ m sees* 



j v£/ 



chaining 
S300S2S 



Language compatible with 
W and 3-10 times taster execution Produces 
A standard Microsoft relocatable binary Outpul in- 
cludes MACRO 00 Also linkable to FORTRAN BO or 
COBOL 60 code modules 



FORTRAN 60 ANSI M (e.cept tor COMPLEX) plus 
i -tensions Includes relocatable object com 
M pmtf. linking loader Itbrary with manager Also in- 
cludes MACHO M (see below) 6400 S2S 
COBOL M Level t ANSI 74 standard COBOL phis 
Q most of Level 2 Full sequential relative and m- 
M Oered file support with variable tile name* STRING. 
UNSTRING. COMPUTE. VARYING UNTIL EXTEND 
CALL COPY SEARCH. 3 dimensional arrays com- 
pound and abbreviated condition* nested: IF Power 
'active screen-handling extension* Includes 
compatible assembler unking loader, and relocat- 
able library manage* as described under MACRO M 



- Sort meige extract utility as abso- 

i -fMutabte program or linkable module m Micro- 

A soft format Sorts fued o> variable records with data 

m binary BCD Packed Decimal EBCOIC. ASCII. 

floating j,,,.,] po..,t. exponential hem fuslrtied, etc 

Even variable number of ftoMs per record 1 IMS S2S 

SUPER SORT tl - Above available as absolute pro- 

0»*| SI 75 125 

SUPER SORT III A* II without SELECT EXCLUDE 

H2S*2S 

WOROSTAR - Menu driven visual word processing 

M l«g performed on screen f acihtkt* for test paginate 



MACRO-M - BOM ZM" Macro Assembler Intel and 

mnemonics supported Relocatable linkable 

A output loader. Library Manager and Cross Refer 

ence List uliirhes included ins 115 

XMACRO M 6066 cross assembler All Macro and 

features of MACRO M package Mnemonics 

Slrghtty modified from Intel ASM66 Compatibility data 

sheet avertable 627**2* 

EOiT M Very fast random access tail edrtor for te.l 

;Vj with or without fcne numbers Global and intra-itne 

commands supported Foe compare utility included 

sarsti 

OIOITAL REM ARC H 

MAC BOM Macro Aaes meter full total macro defi- 
nition* PseudO Ops mdude RPC IRP. REPT TITLE 
PAGE, and MACLIB ZM library included Produces 
toktt absolute has output plus symbol* tile for use by 
SID (see below! I 1» IIS 

SkD 6060 symbolic debugger. Full trace, pass count 
and break -point program testmg system with back 
trace and histogram utilities Whan used with MAC. 
provides full symbolic display Of memory labels and 
equated values WVIH 

ZStO As above for ZM Requires ZM CPU HMS2S 
TEX Text formatter to create paginated, page-num- 
bered and luslrhed copy trom source lest files dtrect- 
ab»e to disk or printer 1166/11 S 



can prmt one document while simultaneously editing 
a second Edit facilities Include global search and 
replace Read Write 10 Other test files block move, 
etc Reoueos CRT terminal with addressable cursor 
positioning 644SS40 

WORD STAR MAIL MERGE - As above with option 
[ to< production mailing Of personalized dOCumenfs 
a) with man list from Datastar or NAO 667**29 

WORD STAR C uslaml ta klaa Notes For sophisticated 
user* who do not have one of the many standard 
terminal or primer configurations in the distribution 
version of WORD-STAR NA-ttS 

WORD-MASTER Test Ed.tor In one mode has tuper- 
-' Ms ED commands including global search- 
es, mg and replacing, forwards and backwards m file m 



tmm* 

DATASTAR - Piotessional form* control entry and 
CL) display syslem for key-to-drsk data capture. Menu 
h driven with buWf-m learning aids Input frakd verifica- 
tion by length, mask attribute (i.e uppercase tower- 
. etc) Bu.lt m arithmetic 



vetoes Visual feedback tor aaaa of forms design 
Files compatible erttti all CP.V. MP/V supported Ian 
gueges Roquees 32K CP M 



C BASIC 2 Disk Extended BASIC Non Interactive 
66 BASIC with pseudo-code compiler and runtime » 
torpreter Supports fuB Me control, chaining into 



■vg integer 
St 66/61 S 



gram from the console 



her pro- 
See/te 



CAL Supports overlay structure through 
- i calls and the SEGMENT procs 

s type STR 
HO Rsquees 66K CP/M 



MICRO FOCUS 

STANDARD CIS COBOL ANSI 74 COBOL stand 
) ard compiler lully validated by US Navy tests to 
ANSI level 1 Supports many feature* to level 2 m 
ctodmg dynamic toadmg of COBOL modules and a 
full ISAM frte family Also program segmentation 
mteractive debug and powerful mteracttve estenaron* 
to support protected and unprotected CRT screen 
formatting trom COBOL programs used with any 
dumb terminal 



PASCAL/Z - ZM native code PASCAL compiler Pro 
(!) duces optMntred. ROMebte re-entrant code All inter 
facing to CP/M is through the support library The 
package wvciudes compiler, companion macro-as- 
sambter and source for me library Require* S6K 
and ZM CPU 

Version 2 includes all of Jensen/Wirth escept variant 
records S27SVS» 

Version 3 wrth variant record* and string* eipected 
3/B0 



- CRT screen edrtor Output N> COBOL data 
fi descriptions tor copying into CIS COBOL programs 
Automatically create* * query and update program of 
indeied file* using CRT protected and unprotected 
screen formats No programming experience needed 
Output program directly compiled by CIS COBOL 
(Slandard) 



ST 



PASCAL MT Subset of stondard PASCAL Gener- 
66 ate* ROMabk* MM machine coda. Symbokc ■» 
<g> gar included Support* interrupt procedures 






able* can be BCD. software ftoatmg pomt. or AMD 
SMI hardware floating pomt Version 3 Includes 
Sets Enumeration and Record data types Manual 
eaplem* BASIC to PASCAL convsrvron Source for 
w the run tune package requires MAC (See under Dvgi 
tal Research) Requires 32K S2S6^M 



orienled with FllEs SETs. RFCOROs and ITEM* 
which ar* *!> user defined ADO DELETE UPDATE 
SEARCH and TRAVERSE command* Supported SET 
ordeing is sorted FIFO UFO neit or prior One to 
many sat reujtion*iup supported Read Write protec- 
Iron at the FILE level Supports Flits which e.tend 



.nd ttoarbkt system 

■ ..- I;..- ,,■ it -., o' 



MOBS M*cro Data Base System Full it 

base w>rtt an feature* of HOBS plu* muni-krvet Rud 

Write protection tor FILE SET. RECORD and ITEM 

E.phcrt lapreeantation of one to one. one to many. 

many to many, and many to on* SET relationships 

Supports mu>tipie owner and r ' 

withm SETs HOBS fito* are fuj 



mg centers Eitenslve ( „. 
entry tor proof. COA correctness etc Journal entries 
may be batched pnor to posting Closing procedure 
automatically backs up Input file* Now Includes 
Statement of Changes in Financial Position n equew* 
CBASIC 2 SISsWSSS 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE - Open item system wttt 
ft Output for internal aged reports and customer on 
ontod statement and baling purposes On-line En 
quwy permits information for Customer Service and 
Credit departments Interface to General Ledger pro- 
is CBASIC ? 



torn option which allow* altering MOBS data bases 
when new ITEMs RECORD*, or SET* ar* needed 

without changmg emtmg data 



kj ' > ZM version requite* 20K RAM. BOM version requrr** 
24K RAM (Memory requirements ant additional to 
/ CP/M and apphcatton program ) 

Whan ordering HOBS or MOBS ptoaa* spec-fy M the 
version required is lor 1) Microsoft LM is FOR 
TRAM-M COBOL M. BASIC COMPILER. 2) MBAShC 
4 XX or 3) BASIC-M S 

Prices and specif real ions subtect to change wtthoul notice. 



J PAYABLE .. 

tt Of account* by vendor with check writing tor s 

invoices Can be used atone or with General Lodge* 
and or wrth NAD Require* CBASIC 2 S12S6 S2S 

. : PAYROLL - Ft**»bte payroll system handles weekly 
tt bi weekly, semimonthry and monthly payroll periods 
Tips bonuses, re- imbur semen ts advance*, sick pay. 
vacation pay, and compensation time ar* all part Of 
the payroll record* Prints government required peri- 
odic reports and will pott to muH.ple SSG General 
Ledger account* Requeue CBASIC 2 and S4K of 



INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM Performs control 
tt functions of adding and depleting stock item* add- 
mg new item* and deleting old item* Tracks quantity 
Of items on hand, on order and back ordered Op- 
tional hard copy audM trail hi available Reports in- 
clude Master Item List, Stock Activity. Stock Valua- 
tion and Re order List Require* CBASIC 2 tlZSSSM 
ANALYST - Customised data entry and reporting sys- 
tt torn user specifies up to 76 data items per record 
Interactive dala entry, retrieval, and update facility 
makes information management easy Sophisticated 
repoil generator provides cuslomwd report* using 
selected records with multiple level break-point* tor 
summarisation Requires CBASIC 2 S2S0 $1$ 

If TTERICHT Piogram to oeaie. edit and type kil- 
lers or other documents Has facilities lo enter, del- 
play, delete and move teat with good video screen 
presentation Designed to miegrete w.th NAD for 
form letter mailing* Require* C&ASlC 2 SI60Y2S 



PAYROLL SYSTEM Mamtaina employee master Hie 

itoB payroll withhoklmg tor FkCA Federal and 

tt StaM ta.es Print* payroll regufctr. check*, quarterly 

tt reports and W-? forms. Can genarafct ad hoc report* 

and employ** form letter* with mail label* Requires 

CBASIC ? Supplied at source SS9SSM 

INVENTORY SYSTEM Capture* slock lavats costs. 

' i s»ie* age*, turnover markup, etc. Trans- 

kt action information may be entered tor reporting by 

n type of sale date of sale, etc Ftoports 

i both lor accounting and decision making 
I CBASIC ? Supplied in SOurC* 



trve mail list creation and maintenance program with 



I accounting package* d 



APARTMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - Financial 



mformetMtn for man labels Transfer system for a* 
traction and transfer of selected record* 10 create 
new fie* Requires CBASIC-2 



HTRtr sorrwABf 



GENERAL LEDGER 
S transactions Generates a balance sheet and an m- '< 




Year Comparalil 
Prtor Year Com] 
partmeni Income Statements. Interactive with other 
PEACHTREE accounting package* Supplied m 
source code for Microsoft BASIC I666Y SS 6 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE - Tracks current and aged 
W payables and mcorporaSMa aheck writmg feature 



and Cash Requirements Provide* input 10 PEACH 
TREE General Ledger Supplied m source code for 
Microsoft BASIC 



** posits of apartment project* i 

tt cancies. revenues, etc tor annual ireno analysis 
Daily report shows late rents vacancy notices va- 
cancies income tost through vacancies etc Requires 
CBASIC -2 Supplied m source S566 *M 

CASH REGISTER - Maintains riles on daily sales 

lata by sales person and item Tracks sales. 

j* refunds payouts and total net deposits 

tt Require* CBASlC-2 Supplied in soufo* ** 



ksty C tnteractive mterpretn* system tor teachmg 
. ) programming techniques Manual include* 
full source listing* SIM $46 

BOS C COMPILER - Supports most major features of 
A language including Structure* Arrays Pointers, re- 
funcbon evaluation, linking loader and li- 
brary. Floating point function library included. Lack* 
data mitiaiitation and static and register class sped 
her* Documentation mckrde* ' THE C PROGRAM- 
MING LANGUAGE by Kerntghan and Rilchw 

I12SS1S 
The ultimate in sys- 



fuir UNIX* Version 7 C language described by Kerm- 
ghan and Ritchie, and make* available over 7S tunc- 
bon* lor pertormmg IO stung manipulation and 
storage allocation Lmkabie to Microsotl REL hies 
[ CPM 




arrant RegrMar and Customer Account Status Report 



plied in source code tor Microsoft BASIC 
j PAYROLL - Prepares payroll tor hourly, salaried and 
w commissioned employee*. Generates monthly, quar- 

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3 and FtCA a* 
J states pfwa up to 20 



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POLVVUE 60 - Full screen editor for any CRT with 
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matic tent wrap around for word processing opera 
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POIYTEKT M Teal tormaltsr tor word processing 
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Win generate form letter* with custom balds and 
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Phys-cal Invenl 
Departmental I 
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- Keep* track of name and ad 



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dress labol*. Allow* tha user to tailor the syslem to 




: sortmg of data uses rndeaed 
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Requires CBASIC 2 Supplied in source MI MA , 
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Te>1 formatter to k 
A note letter* and other document* : 
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Ha* facilities tor sorted indea. table of contents and 
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Now compatible with Electric Pencil" prepared file* 
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Feature* include keyed record « 
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WHATSITT- inter active data base system using as- 
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Requires CBASIC 2 Supplied In source 
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—Tna ScMwf Suparmarftatw, a aadafnarf 



Q. I want to ask you about your own 
research but first tell us something 
about your Greek background 
since you seem to be one of the very 
few Greeks in this field. 

A. My father is Greek, born in Athens. 
My mother is American and a 
classical archaeologist. She has a deep 
love for Greece, too. I was born in 
America but we moved to Greece when 
I was eight. My parents still live in 
Athens. I had the benefit of Greek 
schooling in Athens. I attended three 
different schools all of which were very 
good. Not knowing any Greek at the 
outset I managed, with the help of these 
schools, to graduate with the full cre- 
dentials of any other Greek high school 
student. I am proud of the excellent 
school preparation that I had in Athens. 
The background that was given to me 
by my teachers both in math and in 
classics has enabled me to reach the 
stage that I am at now. I really would 
commend the Greek high school pro- 
gram for the preparation it gives one 
on which to base further training. 

Q. How did you become interested in 
combining computers with classics? 

A. I studied computer science as an 
undergraduate at Radcliffe. I have 
long been fascinated by the possibility 
of putting my computer background to 
work in a new and worthwhile appli- 
cation such as in the studies of Greek. 
The combination of the two fields re- 
quires a solid background in both. De- 
veloping the necessary skills took time. 
I had to study Greek and Latin for six 
or seven years before I could come 
back the full circle to using a computer 
in the study of Greek. Before the com- 
puter can be applied to anything one 
must have an idea of what is permis- 
sible and what is feasible in order to 
come up with valid results. 

I attended the 1972 meeting of the 
Thesaurus Linguae Graecae in Athens. 
The discussion there of the project to 
put all of Greek literature on computer 
tape kindled my interest even further. 

When I was faced with the decision 
of choosing a thesis topic I flew down 
to Chapel Hill to seek guidance from 
David Packard. It seemed possible to 
work with computer in classics but I 
had to determine which area to work 
in. From the topics that David Pack- 
ard suggested, I chose to study the 
meter of the three Greek tragedians. 
He had advised me that although many 
computer-assisted studies had been 
made of the metrics of Homer, there 
were few of the spoken dialogue of the 
Greek tragedians. I have decided to 
examine more closely the meter used 
by Euripides since work has already 



been done on the meter of Aeschylus 
and Sophocles. I would like to be able 
to bring out elements which others can 
use in the future in discussions of Eu- 
ripides and of tragedy in general. 

Q. Can you explain your research in 
more detail? 

A. The goal of the study is to examine 
closely the differences in style 
among the three tragedians and to in- 
vestigate chronological progression and 
possibly development from the early 
works of an author to the late works. 
This may provide additional data to be 
considered in dating the plays. 

To analyze the iambic trimeter used 
by the Greek tragedians will be quite a 
bit more complicated than the analyses 
which have already been done on the 
hexameter of Homer and of other 
Gr»*ek and Latin works. For the he- 
xameter each line represents one of 32 
possible metrical patterns while for the 
iambic trimeter there are 240 possible 
patterns. The computer will give me 
precise data on the structure of the tri- 
meter. It will be able to provide figures 
on both 'outer' and 'inner' metric. In- 
ner metric takes into consideration the 
breaks in the line and the words and 
their actual shapes. 

In the total of tragedy, counting only 
the trimeter and not the choruses, there 
are 28,000 lines. So to do this by hand 
might be the work of several years. 
The most rational method of working 
it out is the computer. At times the 
computer will not be able to diagnose 
a syllable as either long or short since 
the three ambiguous -vowels, alpha, 
iota and upsilon, can be either long or 
short. In such cases the computer will 
print a question mark and with the help 
of a dictionary I will assign the proper 
or the statistically more frequent value 
which also fits an acceptable trimeter 
pattern. One of the examples I have 
tried out is the word bdetcpu, "tear", 
which has two ambiguous syllables. I 
found that Euripides does not always 
use the same syllabic length when he 
employs this word. I would like to de- 
termine whether there is something 
which motivates his use of the word in 
one length in one context and then in 
another length in another. This might 
be indicative of development. 

Q. Would you like to try something 
like this in Greece? Would it ap- 
peal to you? 

A. It would be very exciting. Greece 
would be a natural place to work 
because it is Greek material that is be- 
ing worked on, it is the Greek heritage 
—and Greek scholars of necessity 
would be most interested in it. ■ 

Reprinted from GREEK WORL0 



45 






For educators and authors 



Computerized Testing For 
Readability 



Donald Goodman 
Sandra Schwab 



We got to the point where we had 
to coax the paraprofessionals down 
off the walls about once a week by 
tossing them Valiums and promising 
to give them severance pay if they 
separated from their minds. It was a 
bad situation, but we really couldn't 
blame them since we had put them in 
that situation in the first place. We 
had all learned to tolerate a little 
moderate hysteria in our Personalized 
Achievement Lab, and even permitted 
screams if they were in good taste. 

The problem was Flesch. Not the 
flesh that leads to corruption of the 
soul, but the Flesch that leads to a 
Readability Level. The road to hell 
may be paved with good intentions, 
but the road to insanity in a reading 
lab is paved with syllables: syllables 
that must be counted by the hun- 
dreds. 

The road to hell may be 
paved with good inten- 
tions, but the road to 
insanity in a reading lab is 
paved with syllables: syl- 
lables that must be 
counted by the hundreds. 

For a number of years the instruc- 
tors in the Muskegon Community 
College Reading Lab had offered to 
run readability checks on text books 
which instructors in academic areas 
were either currently assigning or 
were considering adopting. However, 
we didn't advertise the service very 
widely because no one really wanted 
to do it. We were using the Flesch 
Readability Formula, an excellent 



Donald Goodman, Sandra Schwab, Muskegon 
Community College, Muskegon, MI49442. 




Paraprofessional Kathy Schrader counting out 
syllables using her fingers, just prior to uncon- 
trolled outburst. 

device for giving a fairly accurate 
grade level on material which con- 
tains at least a hundred running 
words in each sample. But the 
formula requires that someone count 
the words in each sentence and count 
the syllables in the hundred words. 
Moreover, one passage is hardly an 
adequate sample. We felt that at least 
five or six were needed to accurately 
measure the readability of each text 
book. And damned if the instructors 
were going to do it. We gave it to the 
paraprofessionals. 

Picture them: already harried 
from a phone that rings incessantly, 
earnestly trying to count out syllables 
in six samples of 100 words each from 
a stack of Nursing texts (how many 
syllables in vasodilation?) while a 
sad-eyed student is standing by con- 
fessing, "I've turned the knob the 
wrong way on the EDL machine and 
jammed the film all in the gears." 

No wonder they climbed the walls. 

Obviously something had to be 
done. That something sat cooly in the 
Math Lab on a confident green table, a 
placid, silent alternative to the mental 



storms erupting elsewhere. The 
para's called it Wanda Wang. The 
business office calls it a Wang 2200. 
We call it a computer. 

The Training of Wanda 

All we had to do was teach Wanda 
to count sentences and count syl- 
lables. She could then give us the 
average number of words per sen- 
tence and the total number of syl- 
lables per 100 words. We would plot 
that information on the Flesch chart, 
draw a line between the two numbers, 
and intersect the "grade level" mar- 
kers telling the readability level. We 
could probably use it for the Fry 
Readability formula as well. 

It was easy enough to teach 
Wanda to count words : every space 
indicates the end of a word. 

She could easily note sentences: 
Periods, question marks, or exclama- 
tion marks indicate a sentence. We 




Paraprofessional Kathy Schrader being told 
she no longer has to count ayllablea. 

could have included semi-colons but 
we didn't. 

Counting syllables gave us the 
greatest challenge. After all, there are 
many not-very-good rules used to 
teach people how to break words into 
syllables: Noting certain prefixes and 
suffixes; watching for vowel-con- 



46 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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Yet for all its power, muMATH is simple to use. 
To perform a differentiation you could enter: 
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Or to add fractions: ?1/3 + 5/6 + 2/5 + 3/7; 
The instantaneous answer: 419/210. 
Or to perform a more difficult trigonometric 
expansion you enter: SIN(2 # Y)-(4*COS(X)T3-COS 
(3*X) + SIN (YnCOS(X+Y+#PI) - COS(X-Y)); 

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@4*SINfY)'COS(X) , COS(Y). 

muMATH has virtually infinite precision with full 
accuracy up to 611 digits. 

If you use math, you'll find countless ways to save 
time and effort with muMATH. It's a professional 
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And if you want to expand your capabilities 
even beyond the standard muMATH, the option is 
open. muSIMP, the programming language in 
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package. A superset of the lan- 
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mathematics and other artificial 
intelligence applications. 

muMATH and muSIMP were 

written by The Soft Warehouse, 

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the package includes muMATH, 

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It reauires a Model I TRS-80 with 

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for the Apple II Computer will 

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You can buy muMATH and BASIC Compiler at computer stores across the country that carry Microsoft 
products. If your local store doesn't have them, call us. 206-454-1315. Or write Microsoft Consumer 
Products. 10800 Northeast Eighth. Suite 507. Bellevue, WA 98004. 




APRIL 1980 



CONSUMER^ PRODUCTS! 

47 









Testing, cont'd... 

sonant-vowel groupings, and vowel- 
consonant - consonant - vowel pat- 
terns. Keeping an eye peeled for 
exceptions signaled by le, ck, ch, th, 
sh , gh and ph was another technique. 

We couldn't teach Wanda to break 
words into syllables, obviously. She 
could only count them. But count 
what? 

We were explaining to each other 
one day why it couldn't be done when 
the idea flashed upon us. A syllable is 
a vowel. 

There are exceptions, but they are 
fairly regular and we can control 
them. There are exceptions to the 
exceptions, but we had faith that our 
beloved erratic English would sin as 
much on one side as another. 

We tried many pairing-patterns, 
and made many arbitrary decisions, 
some of which had to be changed 
when we tested - and re-tested - the 
program. 

But now it works. It includes 
words as well as abbreviations; it 
works well on long or short words, 
simple or difficult. A work-study stu- 
dent or paraprofessional can sit down 
at Wanda, load the program, type out 
100 words, and wait for it all to 
happen. 



All we had to do was teach 
Wanda to count sentences 
and count syllables. 

Rules of the Road 

There are six simple rules for the 
program: (The line numbers refer to 
the program instructions fed to 
Wanda) 

1. The vowels are (LineNos. 520- 
AEIOUandY 610) 
except at the (Line 525 & 600 & 
beginning of a 610) 
word. 

Each individual vowel is a syllable ex- 
cept these combinations are one syl- 
lable: 



AA 


EA 


IA 


Ol 


UA 


AE 


EE 


IE 


OO 


UE 


Al 


EU 


II 


OU 


Ul 


AU 


EY 


IY 


OY 


UU 


AY 




ION 




UY 



(Lines 520 -610) 
This means, by default, that the 
following combinations count as two 
syllables: 

OE AO 

OA EO 

IO IU 

El UO 



enEis (Lines 575 -578) 

found at the 
end of a word it is 
not a syllable 
except when it 
follows Lor (Line 579) 
when it is the 
only vowel. 

ED is not a sy I- (Lines 580 -589) 
lable unless it 
is the only syl- 
lable possible 
(No other 
counted vowel 
appears in the 
word) 




"That something satcooly in the Math Lab on a 
confident green table." 

5. ES, by default, 
is a syllable. 

6. Every word has (Lines 500-51 7) 
a syllable (This 

gives THE. as 
well as TV, 
PBB, 1979 and 
similar abbrevi- 
ations and 
numberclus- 
ters one syl- 
lable) 

In addition we have the following 
typing directions: 
Type as Follows: 




©Creative Computing 



ONLY type to the end of the view- 
ing screen (width of 64 characters). 
The cursor will automatically jump to 
the next line if you type in the 64 posi- 
tion. You must use the backspace key 
to erase any characters that appear on 
the screen's next line. Press the 
return (exec) key - the cursor will dis- 
appear for a few seconds (it's count- 
ing the number of words you have 
entered); when it reappears a ques- 
tion mark will appear on the screen. 
Continue typing your information and 
repeat until the computer tells you 
that you have entered at least 100 
words. 

Whentypinglookforthe following: 

1. commas - DO NOT enter any 
commas that appear in your text. 

2. .!? Must be entered to signify the 
end of sentence. DO NOT use the 
period except at the end of the 
sentence. All other punctuation 
can be inserted or omitted at the 
typist'sdiscretion.(: ; /()) 

3. Hyphens - If used, Wanda will 
count the hyphenated word as one 
word. If the hyphen is omitted and 
replaced with a blank the separ- 
ated words will be counted as two. 

4. Apostrophes - Should not be used 
when a letter has been omitted. 
"Does not" when typed as 
"doesn't" will be counted as one 
word, two syllables. "Does not" 
will be counted as two words, 
three syllables. 

5. Numbers and Abbreviations (with- 
out vowels) will be counted as one 
word and one syllable. DO NOT 
use periods unless you are at the 
end of the sentence. Abbreviations 
with vowels will follow the rules 
for the vowel syllable count. 

We were explaining to each 
other one day why it 
couldn't be done when the 
idea flashed upon us. A 
syllable is a vowel. 



The Doubtful Pairs 

As we set up our paired-vowel 
rules, we found ourselves making 
tentative decisions, gambling that we 
would end up with the table odds. In 
some cases (calling ES a syllable but 
ED not a syllable) our decision was an 
out-and-out swap). In most cases we 
listed all the words we could think of 
containing those vowel combinations 
and made rational choices based on 
the likelihood of one over the other. 

For instance, should OE be one 
syllable as in doe, foe, toe; or two as 
in poet, coerce, coefficient? Should 



48 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



OTa 




I , \ Magazine for owners of the 
[Tj TRS-80* and Video Genie* 
J~J microcomputers, Write: 
CC The Eighty, PO Box 68, 
UU Milford, NH 03055. 



MAY 1979 

Dog Star Adventure 



DECEMBER 1978 

Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio 



NOVEMBER 1979 

Isolate 



AUGUST 1979 

Melt Down 



JANUARY 1979 

Round the Horn 



FEBRUARY 1980 

Deadstock 



MARCH 1980 

Broadway 




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aft a (gccBaft jprracscB!! 



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SoftSide Publication*. P.O. Box 68, Milford, NH 03055 

CIRCLE 221 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



I 



APRIL 1980 



49 







PROD/JW GROUP 



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CIRCLE 180 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



GET WITH OUR 

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Testing, cont'd... 

OA be one syllable as in boat or 
coach; or two as in coagulate and 
coaxial? Should El be one as in reign 
and sleigh ; or two as in reinstate and 
reinvestigate? 

In these cases we chose to con- 
sider the CO and RE as likely candi- 
dates for prefixes. In college-level 
material prefixes and suffixes a- 
bound. So, in all three cases we 
picked two syllables over one. 

The IO combinations gave us 
trouble. Should we choose one as in 
notion, dominion, ration; or two as in 
bibliography, biology, biorhythm? 

In this case we could have our 
cake and eat it, too. We called IO two 
syllables but ION one. 

EO was interesting, since a word 
like theory is given either one or two, 
depending on which dictionary you 
read. We gave it two. 

Like the amazing pedal- 
powered airplane, people 
may not like the way it 
looks or operates but the 
son-of-a-gun flies. 

On the other hand we chose UA-1 
over UA-2 (qualify over truant), IA-1 
over IA-2 (partial over bias), UI-1 over 
UI-2 (quit over tuition) and IE-1 over 
IE-2 (belief over scientific). 

Summary 

What amazed us was that as we 
tacked the parts of the program 
together and tore them apart again 



things worked fairly well at all stages. 
The combination vowels threw the 
count off a little as we experimented, 
but not as much as we had antici- 
pated. 

Like the amazing pedal-powered 
airplane, people may not like the way 
it looks or operates but the son-of-a- 
gun flies. 




"A paraprofessional can sit down at Wanda, 
load the program, type out 100 words, and wait 
lor it all to happen." 

We urge the reader to feed the 
program which follows into any com- 
puter of the sophistication level of the 
Wang 2200 and then compare the re- 
sults with a "manual" or mental 
count. The results will be surprisingly 
close. We would also welcome re- 
finements with open arms, and 
criticism with civility. 

It is truly gratifying to know that in 
America today two people concerned 
with finding a way to get out of work, 
and armed with sincerity, dumb luck 
and a small computer, can conquer 
new worlds and keep the paraprofes- 
sionals off the walls. D 



CIRCLE 189 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



< DIM T»( i-;>&4 

S REM PROGRAM BY DONALD .1. GOODMAN .«. SANDRA SCHWAB 

10 PRINT :PRINT HEX<03).TAB< 16) . "FLESCH READABILITY SCALE" 

12 PRINT "WHEN THE ? APPEARS ON THE LEFT OF THE -SCREEN YOU MAY 

TVPF IN THEIOO WORD PASSAGE. WHEN YOU HAVE ENTERED AT LEAST 100 

WORDS": 

14 PRINT "WAIT S>. THE COMPUTER WILL COUNT THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF S 

ENTENCES UITHIN APPROXIMATELY 30 SECONDS. AND THE SYLLABLES COU 

NT WITHIN ONE MINUTE" 

','■ *RINT "DO MOT ~YP€ BEYOND ONE WIDTH OF THF SCREEN" 

19 REM C ALLOWS UP TO 1? LINES OF TEXT TO BE ENTERED. USUALLY IO 

VICRPS WILL BE COUNTED BEFORE THE END OF THE 15 LINES 

19 REM IF THE TEXT IS VERY DIFICULT INCREASE C — RE ^ARE OF OVERF 
LOW 

20 FOR C- I TO 15 

!■-■ REM T»(> IS USED FOR STORING EACH LINE OF YOUR TEXT 

30 INPUT T»<C) 

-l* SEM M IS SET EOUAL TO 64IFIJLL !-ENGTH OF SCREEN) UNTIL IT FIND 

S THE lOOTH WORD S< O- COUNTER FOR THE CHARACTERS IN FACH LINE 

40 M-/S4 

:oe- FOR 0»l TO M 

110 IF STR(T»IC).Q. 1)-" " THEN 150 

111 IF STR(TS(C).Q.l)-"." THEN 140 

112 IF STR<TS(C).Q. 1 )«"■?" THEN 140 

113 IF 3TR<T»<C>,Q.l>-"!" THEN 140 
115 IF Q>M THEN 250 

120 NEXT 0. 
130 GOTO 250 

139 REM S- NUMBER OF SENTENCES 

140 3-S+l 



50 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Test! 



ing, cont'd... 




THEN 



143 GOTO 115 

150 IF STR<T«(C).0*1. 1) <>" 

160 FOR K-O TO 64 

170 IF STR(T«<O.K. 1 ><>" 

ISO NEXT K 

195 Q-K 

189 REM W- NUMBER OF WORDS 

1«0 W-W-M 

210 IF W<100 THEN 115 

"">0 PRINT : PR I NT TAB<9>I"Y0U HAVE ENTERED MORE THAN 100 WORDS LE 

T~THE".TAB< 15)1 "COMPUTER DO THE CALCULATIONS" 

230 OOTO 430 

250 NEXT C 

4^0 IF S>»1 THEN 450 

440 PRINT "YOU DO NOT HAVE A COMPLETE SENTENCE WITHIN YOUR 100 W 

ORDS."tGOTO 499 

4-.0 PRINT "AVERAGE NUMBER OF WORDS IN GACH SENTENCE - ".100/S 

4*0 REM J- COUNTER FOR THE NUMBER OP LINES USED FOR YOUR 100 WOR 

DS 

499 M-64 

500 FOR J«l TO C 

501 FOR Q»l TO M 
IF STR(T«<J).Q. 1 > 
IF 0- 1 THEN 530 
IF STR(T«<J).Q-1. 1)-" " 

■508 FOR N»l TO 101 IF Q-NOO 
509 IF STR(T«(J).0-N. 1 >-" " 

IF STR(T«(J).0-N, 1)«"A" THEN 517 

IF STR<T»(J).Q-N. 1)-"E" THEN 517 

IF STR<T*(J).0-N. 1)»"I" 

IF STR(T«<J).Q-N. l)-"0" 

IF STR<T«(J).Q-N, 1)-"U" 

IF STR<T«(J).Q-N. 1)-"Y" 
516 NEXT NIOOTO 710 
317 N-lOtOOTO 516 

IF STR(T«(J).Q. 1)»"A 

IF STR(T«(J).Q. 1)-"E 

IF STR(T«(J).Q. 1)»"I 

523 IF STR<T»<J).Q.1)»"0' 

524 IF STR<T»(J).Q. 1 )«"U 

525 IF STR<T««J),Q. l)-"Y 
530 NEXT QIGOTO 720 
540 IF STR(T«<J),Q*1. I)«"I 

IF STR(T»(J).0*1. 1 )-"A 

IF STR<T»<J).0*1 

IF STR(T»(J).Q+1 

IF STR<T»(J).Q*1 
545 GOTO 70O 
350 IF STR(T»<J).Q*1 

IF STR(T»<J).Q*1 

IF STR(T»(J).0*1. 1)-"A 

IF STR(T«(J).Q*l.l>-"I 

IF STR(T««J).0*1 
539 GOTO 700 
360 IF STR(T«( J).Q*1 

IF STR<T»(J),Q*1 

IF STR(T«(J).Q+1 

IF STR<T«<J).0*1.1)-"U 
363 GOTO 700 

375 IF STR<T«(J).Q*1. 1)-". 
576 IF STR<T*<J>.0*1.1>-" ' 

IF STR(T»(J).Q*l 

IF STR(T«(J).Q*1 
IF STR(T»(-J).0-1 
IF STR(T«(J).Q*1 



305 
306 
507 



510 

311 
512 
313 
314 
513 



520 
321 
322 



341 
342 
543 
544 



551 
332 
353 
554 



561 
562 
363 



377 
373 
579 
580 



THEN 520 

" THEN 330 
THEN 700 
THEN 700 



THEN 517 
THEN 517 
THEN 517 
THEN 517 



THEN 540 
THEN 575 
THEN 550 
THEN 560 
THEN 540 
THEN 600 



I>-"E" 

, 1)-"U" 

1)-"Y" 



THEN 620 
THEN 620 
THEN 620 
THEN 620 
THEN 620 



1)-"E" THEN 620 
2)-"0N" THEN 620 
THEN 620 
THEN 620 
THEN 620 



,1)«"Y" 

l)-"0" 
, 1)-"Y" 



l)"" 1 " 

DO" ' 

.1)-"L" 

. DO'D 1 



THEN 620 

THEN 620 

THEN 620 

THEN 620 

THEN 579 

THEN 379 

THEN 379 

" THEN 580 

THEN 700 » GOTO 582 

THEN 541 



*82 FOR N-l TO 10i IF Q-N<-0 THEN 70O 

THEN 700 
THEN 393 
THFN 395 
THEN 395 
THEN 593 
THEN 393 
THEN 395 



IF STR<T»<J).Q-N. 1)-" 
IF STR<T«(J).Q-N. 1)-"A 
IF STR<T«<J).0-N. 1>-"E 
IF STR<T«(J).0-N. 1)-"I 
IF STR(T«<J).0-N. l)-"0 
IF STR(T«(J).0-N. 1)-"U 
IF STR(T»(J>,0-N. 1)»*Y 

390 NEXT NiGOTO 710 

593 N-10JG0T0 390 

IF 0-1 THEN 710 

IF STR<T«<J).Q-1.1) 



333 
384 
385 
586 
337 
388 
339 



600 
610 



THEN 710 

619 REM IS A COUNTER FOR DETERMINING THE END OF A LINE OR THE 
END OF THE 100TH WORD 

620 O-o+l 

699 REM A IS THE COUNTER FOR THE NUMBER OF SYLLABLES 

700 A-A*l 

710 IF Q<M THEN 330 
720 IF J<X-1 THEN 740 
730 M-L 

300 PRINT "TOTAL NUMBER OF SYLLABLES IN YOUR 100 WORDS IS ".A 
810 PRINT IPRINT IPRINT TAB<9)I"IF YOU WISH TO ENTER ADDITIONAL 
PASSAGES PRESSi".TAB(16)»"RUN AND THE RETURN<EXEC ) KEYS" 



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CIRCLE 187 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Sentence Construction With A 

Computer 



1 1 i«.<ii «'i> , 

1 «r«i». 



Robert L. Williams 



The program described in this 
article, Abecedarian, is more a 
demonstration of some advanced 
techniques for natural language 
construction on a computer than a 
practical application. It's an inter- 
esting and worthwhile effort in its 
own right, but you may enjoy 
experimenting with the program. 
It's also a nice start in developing 
English CA I software (although the 
author points out that "Context Is a 
massive problem in English CAI. 
Many folks just aren't aware of 
it."). 

The program was designed for 
narrow screens and "standard" 
Basic so conversion shouldn't be 
too difficult. Note that the code 
uses string arrays and "&" as a 
string concatenation operator. 
-SN 



Abecedarian is a Basic program 
which attempts to show a portion of 
the English finite verb system at 
work. Abecedarian writes sentence- 
like constructions that show some of 
the ways a cluster of six closely 
related transitive lexical verbs, four 
modal verbs and two auxiliary verbs 
may appear separately or together. 

1. A lexical verb alone: 
Sue helps her teacher. 

2. The modal verb will added : 
Sue will help her teacher. 

3. The auxiliary verb nave added : 
Sue will have helped her 
teacher. 

4. Theauxiliary verbbeadded: 
Sue will have been helping her 
teacher. 

5. An additional be added: 
Sue's teacher will have been 
being helped by her. 

The last sentence-like construc- 
tion may have tweaked your ear. If so, 
you've probably already determined 
that by the time you get the program 
into your processor your leg will have 
been being pulled far too long by 



Robert L. Williams, Ed.D. Assistant to the 
Academic Vice President, St. John's Univer- 
sity, New York, Jamaica, NY 1 1 439. 



Abecedarian. At that time it certainly 
should feel as if it had been being 
pulled. "Enough," you cry, "I have 
been being led astray by this para- 
graph!" 

Actually, not one of the sentence- 
like constructions above is an "ac- 
ceptable" sentence. They don't ap- 




pear in contexts that allow them to be 
accepted as "live" sentences by you. 
A context is needed for the first 
sentence as much as one is needed 
for the last. For example, who is Sue? 
She hasn't been introduced. I'll do so 
now: Sue is a friend of mine. Now, 
assuming we both know of her and 



i joe answers his iihkakian. Example 1 

A SECOND F ORH UF 1 181 
Jilt DOES ANSWER HIS LIBRARIAN. 

HAH SHE AND JOI'S CLASSMATES BFEN ANIif hi H BY THEMT 
26 YES. IHI. V HAD. 

HAD MY CLASSMATE BEEN ANSWERED BY ME? 

26 » YES. SHE HAD. 

23 » WERE YOU BEING HELPED BY YOUR CLASSMATES? 
25 » HAD JOE QUESTIONED HIS FRIENDS? 

ARE YOU ANGEREH BY YOUR FRIEND? 

2 » YES. I AM. 

HAD JOE'S LIBRARIANS HI tN HELPING HIM? 

I'li Yt!ir IIILY HAD. 

HAS JOE HELPED HIS LIBRARIANS? 

B Yl :i. Hi HAS. 

DID Ul HELP OUR TEACHERS? 
16 » YES. UE DID. 

27 » HAD YOU BEEN ANSWERED BY YOUR LIBRARIAN? 

DO I AID MY LIBRARIAN? 

YES. YOU DO. 

1 YUII QUESTION YOUR CLASSMATES. 

A SECOND FORM OF 1 IS: 
YOU DO QUESTION YOUR CLASSMATES. 

23 » WAS JOE BEING ANSWERED BY HIS CLASSMATE? 

DID SUE AND JOE'S HALL GUARDS QUESTION THEM? 
1A » YES, THEY DID. 

3 IS MY TEACHER QUESTIONED DY ME? 

2? > HAH SUE'S VISITORS BEEN AIDING HER? 

V HAS JOE ANSWERED HIS FRIEND? 

23 Ul Kt YOUR VISITORS BEING AVOIDED BY YOUT 

IS SUES HALL GUARD BEING QUESTIONED DY HER? 

ARE YOU BEING AVOIDED BY YOUR TEACHERS? 
6 » YES. I AM. 

21 » WERE SUE AND JOE'S HALL GUARDS ANGERING rHEM? 

19 » WERE YOUR I IBRARIANS AVOIDED DY YOU? 

23 » WERE WE BEING ANGERED BY OUR FRIENDT 

HAVE SUE AND 1(11 HUN AIDED BY THEIR TFACHER? 
10 » YLS. THEY HAVE. 



52 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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Stephen J. Rogowski 
GRADE 9 AND UP 



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_ „ ... „ REFERENCE 

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The Best of 
Creative Computing 

The first two years of Creative Com- 
puting magazine have been edited into 
two big blockbuster books. American 
Vocational Journal said of Volume 1, 
"This book is the Whole Earth Catalog' of 
computers." [6A] Volume 2 continues in 
the same tradition. "Non-technical in 
approach, its pages are filled with infor- 
mation, articles, games and activities. 
Fun layout." —American Libraries. [6B] 
Each volume $8.95. 

To Order 

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shipping and handling per order to 
Creative Computing, P.O. Box 789-M, 
Morristown, NJ 07960. NJ residents aad 
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APRIL 1980 



53 



Construction, cont'd. . . 

that we know she has just one teacher 
—not more— would I say to you, "Sue 
helps her teacher?" Not likely. I might 
say "Sue often helps her teacher" or 
"Sue sometimes helps her teacher." 
Or I could say "Sue helps her teacher 
whenever she can ." In this instance, 
an adverb of frequency like often or an 
additional clause is needed. When we 
utter or write sentences we usually do 
so with understood contexts, con- 
texts that give a point in time, a set of 
characters and a set of facts and 
events that we share with our listener 
or reader. 

ABE doesn't offer appropriate 
contexts that include all of these 
features. Consequently, many of her 
sentence-like constructions may 
seem to offend your ear. All of them 
should. 1 

In one of her tantrums before she 
was three days old, ABE randomly 
rambled : 

(Refer to Example 1) 



At that time she was only happy with a 
64 character screen. Here is a view of 
adolescent ABE conversing with a 
helpful friend with a smaller screen : 



SUE AND llll 

AID ml IK IEACHER. 
A SECOND FORM [SI 

Silt AND llll 

110 AID Till IK II ..I III I . 



CHOOSE A VERB (16) 
CHOOSE A NOUN (1-6) t 1 



ABI I ' Mill, /v i - 

nY I ||.-'. I NAM IS mIH i I DAI 
UIImI 18 YOURS ■ HIM 

HIM. II is ui-.l ii Mini 

SI Nil Nil s AHOlll OURSI I "I S 

AND lull mill KS, Mil AND 101 . 

i Ml I ii ill ASK sum nut si urns. 
ANSUf K Ul III NIIHI't Ks. 

Ill Rl ARE SOIU VI RDS AND 
NOUNS Ml 'I I IISL : 

1 All' I FRIEND 

2 ANDI I- 2 II mSSMV.ii 

3 AVUln J, Ml SI rOR 

4 Hill si kin 4 MAI I OUARD 

5 Mil I- il ,-,! Ill R 

6 ANSWER 6 LIBRARIAN 

CHOOSE A I'lK'H <1 6) ? 1 
CHOOSE A NOON (16) 

SHOOED 'TEACHER' M 

1 SINGULAR OR 2 EI URAL ? 1 
SHOULD ' TEACH! K It 

1 EEMAl E OR 2 MAI I 

WHO SHOULD OUR St Nit Nil 
BE ABOUT? 

1 Silk 4 YOU 

2 JOE 5 YIIO ..Nil Ml 

3 SUE AND JOE 6 HE 

CHOOSE A NUMBER (1-6) 7 3 

Ullll IS III III llll GRAMMAIIl.ti 
SUBJECI OF THE SENTENCET 

1 III! It .11 III K 
OR 2 SUE AND .101 T 2 

CHOOSE ANY NUMBER O 139 T 1 



SHOOLD 'IK 1 1 Nil' BE 

1 BINBUI AR UK 2 II IN mI 

Ullll SHOIIl II OUR Bi NTENCI 
BE .Mull 1 1 ■ 

1 SOL 4 YIUI 

2 JOE 9 YOU AND Ml 

3 SUE AND JOE 6 Ml 

CHOOSE A NUMBER (1-6) t 6 

WHO IS TO HI llll liKAMMAI ICAI 
SUBJEd 01 THE BENTENCI t 

1 IHE FRII NHS 

UK 2 ME T 1 



CHOOSE ANY NUMBER 0-159 ? 32 

UILL MY I Kit NHS 
ANGI R 
Ml T 
32 >> YES. THEY Will . 



CHOOSE A "ERR (1-6) T 3 
CHOOSE A NOON (1-6) T .5 

SHOOLD 'VI8IT0R' BI 

1 SINGOLAR OR 2 FLORAl T 1 
SHOOLD 'VISITOR' lit 

1 FEMALE OR 2 MALE T 1 

Ullll SIIUIJI D OUR SEN1ENI I 
BE ABOUT? 

1 SUE 4 YOO 

2 llll S YOU AND ME 

3 SUE AND llll A ME 

CHOOSE A NUMBER (1-6) f S 

WHO IS 10 Bl llll GRAMMATICAL 
SOBJECT Of llll SENTENCET 
1 THE wis I nil-; 
OR 2 US ? 1 



CHOOSE ANY NUMBER 0-159 ? 16 

DID OUR VISITOR 
AVOID US? 
16 » YES. SHE DID. 



CHOOSE A VI l-H < 1 -A, 



As you've noted, whenever you 
converse with ABE she asks you to 
choose the lexical verbs and nouns 
she's to gossip with. She then insists 
that you tell her whether the chosen 
noun is to be singular or plural. If the 
noun is to be singular, she asks 
whether it's to be a female or male 
person. ABE likes to satisfy her 
friends. She then asks who else is to 
be gossiped about, other friends, 
you, herself, or the two of you. Being 
precisely persistent, she then asks 



54 



you to designate who's to be the 
grammatical subject. But in the end, 
she's all heart: she composes the 
predicates by herself. After all, she 
wouldn't want you to walk away 
saying that your leg had been being 
pulled. What ABE does do by herself 
is to string verb constructions to- 
gether in a manner to suggest the 
extensiveness and some of the com- 
plexities of just a portion of the finite 
verb system. 

You've probably already 
determined that by the 
time you get the program 
into your processor your 
leg will have been being 
pulled far too long by 
Abecedarian. 

ABE's six lexical verbs are transi- 
tive ones, those that may be followed 
by objects. 

Subject Verb Object 

Sue helps her teacher (1) 

Transitive verbs permit constructions 
that "reverse" subjects and objects. 

Subject Verb Object (Agent) 

Sue's teacher is helped by her (3) 

Many of the verb constructions that 
ABE writes assume this reversal. You 
may enjoy selecting some other 
lexical verbs to teach a clone of 
ABE's. If you do, keep in mind that all 
of the subjects and objects are 
human. 

What little grammar ABE has 
learned is to be found in a small 
portion of Martin Joos' The English 
Verb: Form and Meaning. 2 joos 
postulates a binary schema that as- 
signs either/or "values" to several 
features of finite verb predications. In 
turn, these values can be expressed in 
decimal numbers. His schema shows 
that all finite predications (verbs) may 
be described or coded with a five- 
place binary number. 

ABE accepts decimal numbers. 
The numbers that describe verb con- 
structions range from 1 through 159.3 
ABE analyzes these numbers in the 
subprogram 2610 through 2860. Es- 
sentially, she first strips off the modal 
values, if there are any, in lines 2660 
through 2720, assigning a modal 
code. The remainder of the number 
(31-0) is then passed through a loop 
that assigns "binary" values to tense, 
phase, aspect, voice and function, 
terms and features far too complex to 
discuss here but to be found in Joos' 
book. ABE makes numerous other 
decisions to handle "number" agree- 
ment between the verbs and subjects 

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Full text formatting commands 
The MAGIC WAND allows you to set the 
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You may define up to 128 variables with 
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stores the variables as strings, you may 
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Conditional commands 

You may give any print command based 
on a run-time test of a pre-defined condi- 
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You may skip over unneeded portions of 
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The MAGIC WAND supports proportional 
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Construction, cont'd 

chosen. Among others, for example, 
5 may produce these constructions : 

Sue is helping her teacher. 
You are helping your teacher. 
I am helping my teacher. 
Sue's teachers are helping her. 

In these sentences, the be verb forms 
must agree in number with their 
subjects. 

With the exceptions of 1 and 17, 
ABE writes her sentence-like con- 
structions in yes/no question forms : 

Whenever you converse 
with ABE she asks you to 
choose the lexical verbs 
and nouns she's to gossip 
with. 

With the exceptions of 1 and 17, 
ABE writes her sentence-like con- 
structions in yes/no question forms: 

Is Sue helping her teacher? (5) 
Is Sue being helped by her 
teacher? (7) 

All odd numbers cause ABE to write 
"full" verb constructions— like is 
helping and is being helped above. 
Assuming the sentence characters 
are contextually "accepted" by you, 
questions seem to help lessen other 
context needs somewhat. But they 
also serve another purpose. 

In Joos' schema even numbers 
account for"propredicates," features 
that most of us have traditionally 
called elliptical verbs. 

Is Sue helping her teacher? (5) 
4 Yes, she is. (helping her 
teacher) 




The yes response is followed only by 
a restatement of the subject— in 
pronoun form— and the auxiliary la. 
Since the lexical verb helping and the 
object her teacher don't appear, the 
verb construction in the response 
isn't "complete:" it's elliptical, or, as 
Joos notes, it's apropredicate, in the 
manner of a pronoun standing in 
place of a noun. When an even 
numbered predicate is given to ABE, 
she writes the appropriate odd 
numbered question first and then 
writes a response to represent the 
even numbered elliptical or propredi- 
cate form. If 32 is given to ABE, she 
may write the following : 

Will Sue help her teacher? (33) 

32 Yes, she will. 
You and ABE herself are some- 
times characters when ABE writes, 
first and second persons. Whenever 
you determine ABE to be the subject 

In the end, she's all heart: 
she composes the predi- 
cates by herself. 



"The supervisor eloped with the pro- 
grammer. . . " 



of a sentence, she will produce a 
question about herself, sometimes in 
this form: 

Am I helping my teacher? (5) 

As the person being addressed, you 
may find yourself thinking "If you 
don't know, who does!" or "How 
stupid to ask!" This is a problem of 
context, of sorts. However, if you give 
ABE the number 4, she may do the 
following: 

Am I helping my teacher? (5) 

(ABE asks about herself) 

4 Yes, you are. 

(As if you are replying) 

Are you helping your teacher? (5) 

(ABE asks about you) 

4 Yes, lam. 

(As if you are replying) 

Thus, whenever ABE is given you or 
me to write about, she assumes first 
person in asking a question and you 
then in turn are assumed to be a first 
person giving a response. 

Let's note some aspects of ABE's 
personality in the event you wish to 
clone her. First, she seems to be 
content to write on a 32 or 40 
character screen. Second, she con- 
catenates at times: lines 750, 1050, 
1070 and 1150. Your clone may 
require minor surgery in these in- 
stances. Third, ABE learns her 
vocabulary by loop reading. If your 
clone is to MAT READ, you will need 
to rearrange some of her data diction- 
ary. And, fourth, ABE doesn't under- 
stand ON. ..GO TO or ON. ..GO SUB: 



she loves to IF herself silly. Should 
your clone prefer not to be so iffy, 
there are some places ON's would 
prove helpful; but you should per- 
form such microsurgery carefully. 

Although ABE knows few words, 
she does seem to write a great deal, 
even though she always writes tongue 
out of context, not in cheek. D 

Although ABE knows few 
words, she does seem to 
write a great deal, even 
though she always writes 
tongue out of context, not 
in cheek. 

Footnotes 

1. The "be-being" and "been-being" forms 
toyed with earlier pose euphonic problems 
for most speakers. But they sometimes do 
occur in spoken utterances, though very 
rarely. Most likely you've never read one 
before in print: they do require a coura- 
geous editor. 

2. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison 
and Milwaukee, 1964. 

3. ABE's vocabulary has been stunted. Joos 
includes the additional modals must, ought 
to, dare and need. These, if ABE were to 
learn them, would extend her range from 159 
to 223. Indeed, the quasi-auxlliaries be to, 
be going to, be about to, and have to might 
well be taught to ABE, with considerable 
patience of course. 



too run a»<&) .n«<&) ,\ .»<<<,) ,n(6> 


110 DIM H«<A>,H*<B>.G»<?>.C»< 18>fL<5> 


120 FOR X-l 111 


6 


130 hi: All A*(X> 




140 READ D»<X) 




ISO READ r«<x> 




160 RFAD Ft(X) 




1/0 READ H*(X) 




1H0 NEXT X 




190 FOR X-l TO 


8 


200 READ h»(X) 




210 NEXT X 




?.'0 FUR X=l TO 


9 


230 READ fi»<X> 




240 NEXT X 




250 FOR X-l in 


18 


260 READ C«<X) 




270 NEXT X 




280 PRINT 'MY FIRS! NAHE IS ABECEDARIAN 


290 PRINI "WHA1 


IS YOURS ■" 


300 INPUT Z* 




310 IF Z*-G*( 1 ) 


11(1 N 350 


320 IF Z«Mi»<2> 


1 lit N 350 


330 LET Z-0 




340 GO TO 360 




350 LET . 




360 PRINI 




370 PRINI Z*; - . 


LET'S WRITE SOHE' 


380 PRINT 'SENTENCES ABOUT OURSELVES* 


370 PRINT -AND 


IWO OTHERS. '«G*(Z+3>i*. 


400 PRINI 




410 PRINI "I NEED 111 ASk SOnE QUESTIONS 


420 PRINI 'ANSWER WITH NUnBERS.' 


4 30 PRINI 




440 PRINI 'HERI 


ARl SOME VERBS AND' 


450 PRINI •NOUNS WE'lL USE I ' 


460 PRINT 




470 MIR X-l 10 


6 


4U0 PRINT XSf *<X>» IAB(13)»X»F»(X) 


490 NEXT X 




500 1 OR X = l TO 


25 


510 PRINT 




520 PRINT 'CHOOSE A VERB (1-6) '» 


530 INPUT V 





56 



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APRIL 1980 



57 






■aval 



Construction, cont'd 

540 IF VI THEN 520 

550 IF V>6 THEN 520 

560 PRINT 

570 PRINT 'CHOOSE A NOON <l-6> '» 

580 INPUT F 

590 IF F 1 THEN 570 

600 IF F>6 THEN 5/0 

610 PRINT 

620 PRINT 'SHOUl D '•»F«<F>»*' BE ■ 

630 PRINT • 1 SINGULAR OR 2 PLURAL '» 

640 INPUT N 

650 IF NCI THEN 620 

660 IF N>2 THEN 620 

670 IF M-2 THEN 750 

680 PRINT 'SHOULD * , »F»<F)»" BE' 

690 PRINT ' 1 FEMALE OR 2 MAI E ' . 

700 INPUT R 

710 IF R<1 THEN 680 

720 IF R>2 THEN 680 

730 LET F1»-F«<F> 

740 GO TO 770 

750 LET Fl«=F«<F)t'S' 

760 LET R-3 

770 PRINT 

780 PRINT 'MHO SHOULD OUR SENTENCE' 

790 PRINT ' BE ABOUT?* 

800 PRINT 

810 FOR X^l TO 3 

820 print x;i;t< xi/>; iaiu u.i.xt i.i;*<x.6> 

830 NEXT X 

840 PRINT 

850 PRINT 'CHOOSE A NOMBER <l-6) 'S 

860 INPUT C 

870 IF C<1 THEN 850 

880 IF C 6 THEN 850 

890 PRINT 

900 PRINT 'WHO IS TO BE THE GRAMMATICAL' 

910 PRINT 'SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE?' 



920 


PRINT 






V30 


PRINT 


•1 THE 


• Jl 


940 


PRINT 


' OR 2 


•i 


950 


IF C>3 HIE N 980 


960 


PRINT 


GtlCt/li' 


970 


GO TO 


990 




980 


PRINT 


CKCI6).' 


990 


INPUT 


S 




1000 IF s 


1 1 HI N 


'/JO 


1010 II B 


2 IHEN 


930 


1020 PRINT 




1030 IF S«2 THEN 


111 



1040 If C>3 IHEN 1070 

1050 LET C1«-U«(C)*"S 'til* 

1060 GO TO 1080 

1070 LET C1«*C»<CT12>*' »1F1B 

1080 LET C2»-CI<C+6> 

1090 LET C3I-CKR) 

1100 GO TO 1170 

1110 IF C>3 THEN 1140 

1120 LET Cll-GKO 

1130 GO TO 1150 

1140 LET Cll-CKO 

1150 LEI C2»=C«<Cfl2)I' 'tFl« 

1160 LET C3t-Ct<C> 

1170 PRINT 

1180 PRINT 'CHOOSE ANY NUMBER 

1190 INPUT Y 

1200 PRINT 



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1210 IF Y-0 THEN 1180 

1220 IF r>lS9 THEN 1180 

1230 GO SUB 2610 

1240 IF S"l THEN 1280 

1250 IF C-6 THEN 1330 

1260 IF L<3 THEN 1290 

1270 GO TO 1310 

1200 IF N-2 THEN 1310 

1290 LET A-l 

1300 GO TO 1340 

1310 LET A»3 

1320 GO Ml 1340 

1330 LET A-3 

1340 LET A=AID 

1350 II Y :' rHEN 1500 

1360 IF Y -16 Till tl 1 300 

1370 IF Y-17 THEN 1500 

1380 IF H-0 IHEN 1400 

1390 LET M-MIH 

1400 GO SUB 1630 

1410 GO BUB 16110 

1420 GO SUB 1760 

1430 GO SUB 1830 

1440 GO BUB 10V0 

1450 GO SUB 1 

1460 GO SUB 1990 

1470 IF E-l Till N 1570 

1480 GO SUB 2130 

1490 GO TO 1570 

1500 IF Y«0 IHEN 1560 

1510 II Y-16 III! N 1560 

1520 GO SUB 1600 

1530 00 BUB 2340 

1540 liil BUB 2570 

1550 BO ill 1570 

1560 00 BUB 2450 

1570 PRINT 

1580 NEXT V 

liiVO SI III 

1600 PRINT Cl« 

1610 PRINT TAB<2>» 

1620 RETURN 

1630 IF MO llll N 1670 

1640 PRINI B«<H>I ' '» 

1650 GO SUB 1600 

1660 I El li Bt<M> 

1670 RE I URN 

1680 IF H-0 THEN I 

1690 IF MO IHEN 1710 

1700 LET A J 

1/10 PRINT H*<A>.' '« 

1720 IF MO llll N 1750 

1730 GO SUB 1600 

1740 LET J»-H»(A> 

1750 RETURN 

1760 IF M-0 llll N 1UJC 

1770 IF H-l THEM 1820 

1780 IF B-O THEN 1800 

1790 GO TO 1810 

1800 IF li-0 THEN 1020 

1810 PRINT 'BE '» 

1820 RETURN 

1830 IF II O THEN 1880 

1840 IF B-0 HUH 1860 

1850 GO TO 1870 

1860 IF GO Till U 1880 

18/0 PRINT 'BEEN 'i 

1880 RE 1 URN 

1890 IF MO IIIFN 1940 

1900 IF H-l THEN 1940 

1V10 PRINI Ai<A>.' '. 

1920 GO SUB 1600 

1930 LET J*-A«<A> 

1940 RETURN 

1950 IE G-0 IHEN 1980 

I960 IF B-0 THEN 1980 

19/0 PRINT 'BEING ■ J 

1 900 RE I URN 

1990 PRINT EKV) > 

2000 IF B-l THEN 2060 

2010 II li 1 llll II 2040 

2020 IF H-l 1HEII 2060 

2030 GO TO 2070 

2040 PRINI 'lNli'i 

2050 GO III CO .'(l 

2O60 PRINT 'EH" I 

.•0/0 PRINT 

2080 PRINI TAB<?>( 

2090 II B llll II .1 I" 

2100 PRINT 'BY '» 

2110 PRINT C2»»'?' 



20 RETURN 
2130 IF C<4 THEN 2260 
2140 IF C=5 THEN 2260 
2150 IF S-l THEN 2260 
2160 IF C-4 THEN 2220 
2170 LET C3«*'Y0U' 
2180 IF M>0 THEN 2260 
2190 IF H"l THEN 2260 
2200 LET J»«At.<A-2> 
2210 GO TO 2260 
2220 LET C3«*'I* 
2230 IF M>0 THFN 2260 
2240 IF H-l THEN 2260 
2250 LET Jt-A«<AI2> 

2260 PRINT Y»' Yl !.. '.C3IS' '.J*. 
2270 IF M=0 THEN 2320 
2280 IF H=0 THEN 2320 
2290 IF B-l Till N 2310 
2300 IF G=0 THEN 2320 
2310 PRINT ' HAVE* I 
2320 PRINT '.' 
2330 RETURN 
2340 PRINT EKV). 
2350 IF li- 1 THEN 2420 
2360 IF S-l IH1 N 2390 
2370 II C>2 THEN 7430 
2380 GO TO 2400 
2390 IF N=2 THEN 2 -ISO 
2400 PRINT 'S'l 
2410 GO TO 2430 
2420 PRINI 'I D"l 
2430 PRINT ' ■»C2»'*.* 
2440 RETURN 

2450 PRINT D»<A>»« "♦CI* 
2460 PRINI TAB<2>.E»<U>.' , IC2f>l , T" 
2470 IF S-l IHEN 2550 
2480 IF C-4 TEIEN 2530 
2490 IF C 6 llll II 
2500 LET C3**'Y0U' 
2510 LET A-A -2 
2520 GO TO 2V.O 
2530 LET C3«-'I' 
2540 LET A-AE2 

2550 PRINT Y8'> YES. '.CJ$»' '»0»<A>S'. 
2560 RETURN 

2570 PRINT ' A SECOND FORH IBI" 
2580 GO SUB 1 600 

2590 PRINT Ii*(A)s" '.E»<V>.' '»C2».'.' 
2600 RETURN 
2610 LET W=128 
2620 LET M O 
2630 LET U-16 
2640 LET U"Y 
2650 IF Y 32 IHEN 2730 
2660 FOR P=7 TO 1 STEP -2 
2670 IF U:W THEN 2710 
2680 LET H-P 
2690 LEI U-ll U 
2700 GO TO 2 /JO 
2710 LET W=W-32 
2720 NEXT I 

2730 FOR P-5 TO 1 STEP -1 
2740 IF IKO IHEN 2/80 
2750 LET LI6-E > 1 
2760 I El U II II 
2770 GO TO 2790 
2780 LET L<6-P)=0 
2790 LET lt-ll/2 
2800 NEXT P 
2810 LET H-l (1 ) 
2820 LET H-L<'> 
2830 LET G-L<J) 
2840 LET B-l (4) 
2850 LET E»L<5) 
2860 RETURN 

2870 HA I A IS.DOES.AIH.I hllNH.HAS 
2880 IIATA UAS « ll I II > ANGER •CLASSMATE 
2890 DATA HAD. ARE .DO. AVOID. V1SI IOR 
2900 DATA HAVE .WERE .IUD.HUESTIUN 
2910 DATA HALI GIIARB.IIAD. AM.UO 
2920 DATA HELP. 1EACHTR. HAVE. HAS 
2930 DAI A DID. ANSWER. LIBRARIAN 
2940 DATA HAD. WELL. WOULD. SHAI I 
2950 DATA Slllllll D. CAN. COULD. MAY 
2960 DATA MIGHT .SHE. JUE .SUE AND JOE 
2970 DATA ANN. SAM. ANN AND SAM. YOU 
2980 DATA YOU AND ME. ME. SHE .HE 
2990 DATA THE Y . YUII, Wl . 1 .HER.H1M 
3000 DATA THEM. YOU. US. ME. HER. HIS 
3010 DATA THEIR. YOUR. OUR. MY 
3020 END 



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MICROAP 

The Standard In Information Management Systems 



MIiHI*liI«L'I;l«!l±£I 




Reading Level Difficulty 



There are several formulas, such 
as Fog Index or Flesch Scale, used to 
estimate the reading level of text 
books. Most of these formulas count 
the number of words, syllables, sen- 
tences and polysyllabic words. Other 
formulas tally the occurrences of 
certain key words from a specific list of 
words. 

If you have a large quantity of 
samples to determine the reading level 
or if you need to find the reading level 
only on occasion, this program will 
calculate the approximate grade level 
of the material. 

The Fog Index, developed by 
Robert Gunning, is based on the 
following formula: 

Grade Level = .4 *( W + L) 

W = number of words with 3 or more 

syllables 
L = average sentence length 

There are exceptions involving words 
that end with -ing or -ed or capitalized 
words. 

In my BASIC program there is a 
slight variation from the original 
formulas, inasmuch as counting syl- 
lables is a formidable task. I've used an 
approximation, that any word that is 
nine letters or longer will be three or 
more syllables. I also count the number 
of words with three or more distinct 
vowels and average it with the approxi- 
mation by length. 

So far in all of the samples I've 
tested, this estimation is within .5 of the 
grade level stated for the material. It is 
suggested that you take several pas- 
sages, about 100 words long, through- 
out the book to receive an accurate 
measure of the grade level of that book. 

Ronald Carlson, 44825 Kirk Ct., Canton, Ml 
48187 



Ronald Carlson 



10REM 

20REM READING LEVEL DIFFICULTY 

30REM R. CARLSON 

40REM CANTON, HICH. 

50REM 

601>Ih A»( 100 ) 

70R1=0 

80N>0 

100PRINT "DIRECTIONS" 

110FRINT 

120PRINT"PLEASE DELETE ALL PUNCTUATION EXCEPT AT THE END OF A SENT' 

130FRINT-FIEASE TYPE A SPACE BEFORE THIS PUNCTUATION .Tl 

140FRINT"WILL BE INCREASED IF YOU CHOOSE SEVERAL F 

150PRINT"THE BOOK ." 

160PRINT 

170INPUT "HOW MANY LINES OF TEXT ",A 

180PRINT"TYPE IN THE PASSAGE, ONE LINE AT A TINE." 

190PRINT 

2005=0 

210W=0 

220L = 

J40T1^0 

260FOR B=l TO A 

270INPUT A* 

280X = LEN< At > 

290IF A*<XrX >=" ." THEN 420 

300 IF A*< -, THEN 420 

310IF AVX.X >=••?• THEN 420 

320At~AH" " 

330REM T IS NUMBER OF 3 SYLLABLE U0RHS 

340REM Tl IS THE NUMBER OF THREE SYLLABLE WORDS USING VOWELS 

350REM L IS THE NUMBER OF LETTERS IN A WORD 

IS THE NUMBER OF SENTENCES 

IS THE NUMBER OF WORDS 

IS THE NUMBER OF VOWELS /WORD 

IS AN INDICATOR FOR DIPTHONGS 
400REM N IS THE NUMBER OF SAMI I 

410REM Rl IS THE RUNNING TOTAL OF THE READING LEVELS 
420FOR C = 1T0 LEN( A* ) 
430T*=A$<CrC) 
440 IF T$=»." THEN 600 
450 IF T«="!" THEN 600 
460 IF T0-V THEl>' 
470IF T$=" " THEN 620 
480REM TRIPPING THE VARIOUS C0UNTL 
490L=L+1 

500IF T»="A" THEN 570 
THEN 570 
THEN 570 
T»="0" THEN 570 
THEN 570 



360 REM S 
370REM W 
380REM V 
390 REM D 



510IF Tk 
520IF Tl 
53011 
540IF T$^"U 



550 1 1 

560GOT0 680 

5/0 D«D+1 

580IF D=l THEN V=-VH 

590GOT0680 

600 S 

610GOT0680 

620W=WU 

i 300-0 

640IF L =9 THEN T=T+1 

650L-0 

660IK V-=3 THEN T1=T1+1 

670V=0 

680NEXT C 

690NEXT B 

700T-=INT(( T + Tl )/2 ) 

710R=.4*( T+W/S) 

720FRINT 

730PRINT'THE READING LEVEL FOR THIS FASSAGE IS APPROXIMATELY 

740PRINT Tl" THREE SYLLABLE WORDS" 

750PRINT W!" WORDS IN THIS PASSAGE" 

760PRINT Si" SENTENCES" 

770INPUT"D0 YOU HAVE MORE MATERIAL t ",A» 



60 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Reading, cont 




780N=N+1 

7yORl=Rl+R 

800 IF A»="YL"S" THEN 170 

810PRINT 

820PRINT"THE OVERALL READING LEVEL IS GRADE 

830END 

READY 



RUN 



'JR1/N 



DIRECTIONS 

FLEASE DELETE ALL PUNCTUATION EXCEPT AT THE EN!. 01 
PLEASE TYPE A SPACE BEFORE THIS PUNCTUATION . 
UILL BE INCREASED IF YOU CHOOSE SEVERAL PASSAGES THFi 
THE BOOK . 

HOW HANY LINES OF TEXT 10 

TYPE IN THE PASSAGEfONE LINE AT A TIHE. 

?UE FEEL THIS IS MUCH TOO LITTLE COMING MUCH TOO 
7LATE .IN THAT SENSE UE FEEL HIS PROGRAM IS NOT SUFFU 
'STRONG ENOUGH .UE FEEL HE SHOULD PROPOSE TO CUT DOWN 
?BY AT LEAST 10 PERCENT IN TWO MONTHS RATHER THAN 
TPERCENT IN 10 YEARS .NOU HE CAN CUT THE DEMAND BY 10 
'PERCENT IN TUO MONTHS HE FEEL UI TH A PROGRAM OF EDUCATING 
'AMERICANS .UE CALL ON HIM TO ALLOCATE «100 MILLION 
7FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TO EDUCATE THE AMERICAN 
7PE0PLE HOW TO CONSERVE ENERGY HOW NOT TO USE 
7THEIR CARS TAKE ONE MINUTE HOT SHOWE! 



THE READING LEVEL FOR THIS PASSAGE IS APPROXIMATELY 

7 THREE SYLLABLE WORDS 

9? WORDS IN THIS PASSAGE 

5 SENTENCES 
DO YOU HAVE MORE MATERIAL ? NO 



10.72 



THE OVERALL READING LEVEL IS GRADE 
READY 



10.72 



ARMCHAIR 

Quarterback's 



ILL 



I the leyland co. 

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TD-8CT 

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machine language 
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Offense • MoveQB, pass, 
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30DAYMONEYBACKGUAR. 

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THE LEYLAND CO., INC. 

2920 woodforest - marrietta ga. 30066 
CIRCLE 155 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PLUG INTO SOME FAST COMPANY 



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Reading Practice with the 
TRS-80 Voice Synthesizer 

"Reading, Riting, and Rithmetic" 
— the "Three R's." Without the first "R," 
a person can have much difficulty in 
this Age of Information. If a child is 
having reading troubles, perhaps a 
little extra drill would be appropriate. 
The program "Reading Practice with 
the TRS-80 Voice Synthesizer" may be 
suitable for such extra drill. 

The Radio Shack TRS-80 Voice 
Synthesizer, gives your microcomputer 
the ability to speak. (See "Phonetically 
Speaking," June 1979, Creative Com- 
puting.) This program utilizes that 
ability to give a student drill in reading 
and saying the basic words that should 
be known at a given age. 

The Dolch Basic Sight Word List 
contains 212 words that the average 
third grade child should recognize. 
(You should be able to get a copy of the 
Dolch List from your nearby primary 
school.) By listing those words which 
comprise 50% to 75% of all reading 
matter in a DATA statement along with 
their Voice Synthesizer phonetic 
spellings, you can give a student drill in 
retaining those words in his reading 
and speaking vocabularies. 

Program REMarks 

The program is written in Radio 
Shack Level II Basic, but it can be 
adapted to Level I or to other Basics. 

Lines 20-100 give the student 
instructions in how the drill will 
proceed. Both written and spoken 
instructions are given throughout the 
program. 

Lines 110-155 present the words 
that are to be spoken by the student. 
Subroutine 500 actually writes the 
word on the screen and gives the 
correct pronunciation. For emphasis, 
the word blinks inside a graphics 
rectangle. 

In lines 170-200, the computer 
asks the student to repeat the word 
once more along with the computer. 

Subroutine 400 outlines the 
screen — a "dress-up" to set off the 
written instructions. 

Subroutines 1000 and 1100 send 
the phonetic spellings of words to be 
spoken to the Voice Synthesizer. 

Subroutine 2000 is used by the 
programmer to check the pronuncia- 
tions of words to be listed in the DATA 
statements to ensure clarity and 
correctness. (Just enter RUN 2000.) 

Lines 300 and following contains 
the DATA statement listings of the 
words to be read and spoken. The 
numbers are important for correct 
execution of the program. a 

John F. Rogers. 600 Seventh St.. Morgan City. LA 
70380 



(j\ 



The First "R 



John F. Rogers 




READING PRACTICE 

WITH THE TRS-88 

VOICE SYNTHESIZER 

PROGRAM BV 
JOHN F ROGERS 
608 SEVENTH ST. 
MORGAN CITV, 
LOUISIANA 70368 



GOSUB 1908 FOR K-8 TO 688 NEXT 



GOSUB 1888 



1 REM ♦** 
i REM *•* 

3 REM **» 

4 REM **• 
3 REM •** 

6 REM *** 

7 REM **» 

8 REM *»* 

9 REM *•* *** 
18 CLS GOSUB 488 

28 PRINTH58. "HELLO-"; V0$-"H38L8tU" GOSUB 1888 FOR K»8 TO 688 NEXT 

38 PRINT8278, "TOOAV YOU HILL PRACTICE"; :VO*»"T<UD»*«Y'UH! ILLPR99KT! IS" GOSUB 1888 

33 FOR K-0 TO 968 NEXT 

48 PRINT8484, "SAVING WORDS I SHOW YOU. *l V0»»"S88*E+W/fa>Z, 5M»O0WV'U" GOSUB 1888 

38 FOR I'8 TO 1588 NEXT 

68 CLS GOSUB 488 

78 PRINT8148. "I HILL FLASH A WORD ON THE SCREEN. "J 

75 V0*-";5MUMLLFL79»66U/'RD" GOSUB 1888 FOR K'8 TO 888 NEXT 

88 VO*-"; AMK67SKR ENN" GOSUB 1888 FOR K-8 TO 688. NEXT 

83 PRINT8288, "THEN YOU HILL SAY IT ■; V0*-"«35NY'UH' ILLS8M! IT" GOSUB 1886 FOR K-8 TO 1288: 

98 PRINT8484, "THEN I HILL SAY THE WORD ". :V0$-"«35N8; 5M W ILL S*6*<67U/RD" GOSUB 1888 

95 FOR K>8 TO 1488NEXT PRINT8528, "FINALLY, HE'LL SAY THE WORD TOGETHER ". 

188 V0«="F,MN8LE* W *8LS»*<67H/Rt>" GOSUB 1888 FOR K-8 TO 1848 NEXT V0*«"T<UG35«/R" GOSUB 

185 FOR K-8 TO 1588 NEXT 

118 CLS GOSUB 488 PRINT8217. "R E A D V ?"; V0*-"R345DE«" GOSUB 1888 FOR K-8 TO 1888 NEXT 

128 CLS GOSUB 488 

138 PRINTM48, "THE FIRST WORD IS "> :VO*-"< F^RSTW/RD! IZZ" 

135 READ Z,S$, WD* GOSUB 588 GOTO 168 

148 CLS GOSUB 488 ON ERROR GOTO 988 READ Z 

158 PRINTM48. "THE NEXT WORD IS "; :V0*»"<. N35KSTW/RDMZZ" 

155 READ S*. WD* GOSUB 588 

168 CLS GOSUB 488 

178 PRINT8146. "DID YOU SAY THE WORD CORRECTLY?"; 

175 VO*-"D!IDDV'USM«<67W/RDKOR43KTLE«- GOSUB 1888 FOR K-8 TO 1288 NEXT 

188 PRINT8265, "LET'S SAY IT TOGETHER ". V0»-"L35TS8S»*«' IT8T<UG35«/R" GOSUB 1888 

185 FOR K>8 TO 1888 NEXT 

198 PRINT8484, "READY?"; VO»-"R345DE»" GOSUB 1888 FOR K-8 TO 688 NEXT 

288 PR1NT8538, "THE WORD IS ";S«; VO*-"<67W/VRD! IZZ" GOSUB 1888 GOSUB 1188 

218 FOR I -8 TO 1888 NEXT GOTO 148 

388 DATA 1, CLEAN, KLL ENN, 2. HURT, HKVRT, 3, GREEN, GRR ENN, 4, LAUGH, LL99FF 

488 FOR 1-8 TO 62 STEP 2PRINT8I, "•", NEXT 

485 FOR 1-64 TO 832 STEP 64 PRINT8I, "•"; PR I NT* I +62, "f; NEXT 

418 FOR 1-896 TO 958 STEP 2PRINT8I, "•"; NEXT 

428 RETURN 

588 FOR J-35 TO 94 SETO, 11) SET<J,22>:NEXT 

585 FOR J-ll TO 22:SET<35, J> SET<94, J) NEXT 

S18 FOR I-B TO 7 PRINT8348. " "; FOR J-8 TO 188 NEXT J PRINT8348, S», FOR J-8 TO 688 NEXT 

528 PRINT8598, "THE WORD IS PRONOUNCED "; VO»-"<67W/RD' IZZPRON, UNST" GOSUB 1888 

525 GOSUB 1188 FOR 1-8 TO 1688 NEXT GOSUB 1188 FOR J-8 TO 1388 NEXT 

538 RETURN 

qgg CLS GOSUB 406 

918 PRINT8138, "THE WORD LIST HAS ENDED "; VOM'^TW/RDL! IST8H99Z835ND4D" GOSUB 1808 

915 FOR K-8 TO 1888 NEXT 

928 PRINT8268, "PLEASE CALL THE INSTRUCTOR "; V0$-"PL EZK122LL6C INSTR67KV" GOSUB 1888 

938 RESUME 958 

958 FOR 1-8 TO 1588 NEXT 

968 PRINT8398, "THE DATA LIST OF WORDS"; PRINTM79, "HAS BEEN DEPLETED. "» 

976 PRINT8576, "PRESS BREAK' KEY TO GET CONTROL OF THE COMPUTER "; GOTO 979 

1888 POKE 16383, 63 POKE 16383,32 

1818 FOR VX-1 TO LEN(VOt) 

1828 POKE 16383, ASC<MID*(VO*,YX,l>> 

1838 NEXT VX 

1848 POKE 16383. 32: POKE 16383.63 POKE 16383.32 

1838 RETURN 

1188 POKE 16383, 63 : POKE 16383.32 

1118 FOR VX-1 TO LENCWW) 

1128 POKE 16383, ASC<HID»<ND*. VX. 1>> 

1138 NEXT VX 

1148 POKE 16383. 32 POKE 16383, 63 POKE 16383,32 

1158 RETURN 

2888 CLS 

2818 PRINTS, "THIS IS THE PRONUNCIATION TESTING ROUTINE "; 

2820 PRINTH28, VO» 

2838 PRINT8192, "ENTER PHONEMES. . . " 

2840 INPUT VO* GOSUB 1888 

2938 GOTO 2888 



62 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



r 





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Send to: EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING, ECC Publications Ltd., 30/31 Islington Green, London Nl 8BJ. 



CIRCLE 142 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1980 



63 



An educational aid for language 
teaching and learning. 




The Word Board 



Are you looking for a practical 
application for your home computer? 
Are you interested in educational 
applications or experimenting with 
new devices that can aid the handi- 
capped? Then the "Word Board" is 
just the program for you. Using a 
TRS-80 Level II, Apple or Pet micro- 
computer, you can turn your system 
into a language communicator. 

Program 1 

The "Word Board" accepts key- 
board entry of individual letters and 
displays single words assigned to 
each letter. Its use is unlimited in 
educational applications. 

The "Word Board" may be used to 
aid in language instruction by as- 
signing English words to each of the 
26 keys, for letters A through Z. For 
each English word covering a key, its 
French, German, Italian or Spanish 
equivalent can be displayed. Program 

Howard Berenbon, 2681 Peterboro, W. Bloom- 
field, Ml 48033. 



Howard Berenbon 



1 allows the French word to be dis- 
played when the English word is 
depressed. The words are printed 
towards the center of the video 
display after the enter key is de- 
pressed. It's a handy aid for language 
students to help in memorizing 
foreign vocabulary words. After the 26 
words are learned, the student can 
test his memory by covering the key- 
tops and typing through the list to 
review the vocabulary. (Figure 1a is a 
sample RUN of Program 1 and Figure 
1 b is a list of the French words used.) 
A variation of this "Word Board" is 
to place small pictures on the keytops 
and have the pictures access their 
foreign meanings. Program lines 600 
through 1630 hold the French words 
in "PRINT" statements. An additional 
10 keys, 1 through 0, are used to 
access their equivalent numbers in 
French. The " " sign is used to skip 8 
lines, with lines 1640 to 1670. The 
words may be changed for different 
vocabulary sets and different lan- 
guages. 



UGRD BOARD; OOCABULARS'-ENGLISH TO FRENCH 

COPYRIGHT <C> »S>7S» BY HOWARD BERENBON 

ACCEPTS CHARACTER INPUT <fi-Z, 0-9> AND PRINTS 
WORDS THAT CORRESPOND TO THE LETTERS AND NUMBERS 
ENTERING ON '8' WILL SKIP 8 LINES 
MAY BE USED AS A LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION AID 



ENGLISH 
SPOON 

ENGLISH 
APPLE 

ENGLISH 
HAT 

ENGLISH 
FISH 



FRENCH 
CUILLERE 

FRENCH 
PGrlllE 

FRENCH 



CHAPEAU 

FRENCH 
POISSEH 



Figure 1a 




^=<p£mKi> 




Key 


English Word 


French Word 


A 


Apple 


Pomme 


B 


Airplane 


Avion 


C 


Cup 


Tasse 


D 


Cow 


Vache 


E 


Coat 


Veston 


F 


Dog 


Chien 


G 


Hand 


Main 


H 


Sun 


Soleil 


1 


Book 


Llvre 


J 


Moon 


Lune 


K 


Ear 


Oreille 


L 


Cloud 


Nuage 


M 


Comb 


Peigne 


N 


Eyes 


Yeux 


O 


Ice 


Glace 


P 


Star 


Etoile 


Q 


Spoon 


Cuillere 


R 


Chair 


Chaise 


s 


Horse 


Cheval 


T 


Pencil 


Crayon 


U 


Lamp 


Lampe 


V 


Bird 


Oiseau 


w 


Fish 


Poissen 


X 


Bicycle 


Velo 


Y 


Cat 


Chat 


z 


Hat 


Chapeau 


1 


One 


Un 


2 


Two 


Deux 


3 


Three 


Trois 


4 


Four 


Quatre 


5 


Five 


Cinq 


6 


Six 


Six 


7 


Seven 


Sept 


8 


Eight 


Huit 


9 


Nine 


Neul 





Zero 


Zero 


a 


(skip 8 lines) 





64 



Figure 1 b— French Vocabulary Words 

Program 2 

The second program uses the 
"Word Board" as a language com- 
municator for the handicapped. A 
speech handicapped person may 
communicate using this program. A 
very limited vocabulary of 26 essential 
words (see Figure 2) and numbers 1 
through are assigned to the keys. 

You may also place the foreign 
meanings of the words on the keytops 
and have their English equivalents 
displayed when each key is de- 
pressed. Have the student read the 
word on the keytop and recite the 
English meaning, then depress the 
key to find the correct meaning. 

The program can be used as a 
computer dictionary. The meaning of 
words, assigned to each key, may be 
stored in sentence form at lines 600 
through 1630. Each time a key is 
depressed, the meaning of the word 
assigned to the key is displayed. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 






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books within 10 days and your Trial Membership 
will be cancelled without cost or obligation. 

ELECTRONICS BOM CLUB. Blue Ridge Summit. Pa 17214 



Facts About Club Membership 



• The 5 introductory boohs carry a publisher s retail price of 
$60 75 They are yours lor only Si 99 for all $ (plus postage/ 
handling) with your Trial Membership 

• You will receive the Club Hffrs. describing the current Selec- 
tion Alternates, and other books every 4 weeks (13* a year) 

• It you want the Selection do nothing it will be sent to you 
automatically If you do not wish to receive the Selection or if you 
want to order one of the many Alternates offered you simply give 
instructions on the reply form 'and in the envelope) provided 
and return it to us by the date specified This date allows you at 
least 10 days m which to return the form If because of late mail 
delivery you do not have 10 days to make a decision and so 

eceive an unwanted Selection you may return it at Club e» 
pense 

To complete your Trial Membership you need buy only four 
additional monthly Selections or Alternates during the nert 1? 
months You may cancel your Membership any time after you 
purchase these four books 

• All books — including the Introductory Offer — are fully return 
able after 10 days if you re not completely satisfied 

« All books are offered at low Member prices plus a small 
postage and handling charge 

• Continuing tortus If you continue after this Trial Membership, 
you will earn a Dividend Certificate for every book you purchase 
Three Certificates plus payment of the nominal sum of 11 99 will 
entitle you to a valuable Book Dividend of your choice which you 
may choose from a list provided Members 



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I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
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I 
I 
I 

■ (Vn*d for mwMemtwi one/. Foreign end Cenaoa *dd 15V) CM4W 



ELECTRONICS BOOK CLUB 

Blue Ridge Summit, Pa. 17214 

Please open my Trial Membership in ELEC- 
TRONICS BOOK CLUB and send my 5-volume 
Computer Library, invoicing me for only SI 99 
plus shipping. If not delighted, I may return the 
books within 10 days and owe nothing, and 
have my Trial Membership cancelled. I agree 
to purchase at least four additonal books dur- 
ing the next 12 months after which I may 
cancel my membership at any time. 



Name 



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Address 



City. 



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Zip 



CIRCLE 145 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Word Board, cont'd. 



Program 1 



0010 


PRINT "WORD BOARD: UOCRBULHRV-ENGL I SI- 


TO FRENCH" 


0029 


PRINT 












0020 


PRINT "COPVPIGHT <C> 


1979 BV HOWARI 


0040 


PRINT 












3030 


PRINT "ACCEPTS 


CHARACTER INPUT <A-Z, 


0-9> AND PRINTS" 


0060 


PRINT "WORDS THAT CORRESPOND TO 


THE LETTERS AND NUMBERS" 


0065 


PRINT "ENTERING AN 'fl 


' WILL SKIP 


8 LINES" 


0078 


PRINT "MAV SE USED AS 


A LANGUAGE 


INSTRUCTION AID" 


0100 


INPUT A* 








0998 


GOTO 100 


0105 


PRINT 








1010 


GOSUB 1700 


0110 


IF A*-"A" 


THEN 


600 




1020 


PRINT "EVES" jTA8<20>;"VEUX" 


0120 


IF R*-"B" 


THEN 


640 




1030 


GOTO 100 


0130 


IF A*»"C" 


THEN 


670 




1040 


GOSUB 1788 


0140 


IF fl»-"D" 


THEN 


700 




1050 


PRINT "ICE";TAB<20>i"GLACE" 


0150 


IF A»-"E" 


THEN 


730 




1060 


GOTO 100 


0160 


IF A»-"F" 


THEN 


760 




1070 


GOSUB 1708 


0170 


IF A»-"G" 


THEN 


790 




1088 


PRINT "STAR",TA8<2O>i"ET0ILE" 


0130 


IF A*-"H" 


THEN 


310 




1090 


GOTO 100 


0190 


IF A»""I" 


THEN 


340 




1110 


GOSUB 1700 


0208 


IF fl»-"J" 


THEN 


370 




1120 


PRINT "SPOON" ;TAB<20?;"CUILLERE' 


0210 


IF A«-"K" 


THEN 


910 




1130 


GOTO lOO 


0220 


IF A*«"L" 


THEN 


940 




1140 


GOSUB 1700 


023O 


if A*--rr 


THEN 


970 




use 


PRINT "CHAIR" ;TAB<20> -"CHAISE" 


0240 


IF A*-"N" 


THEN 


1010 




1160 


GOTO 100 


0250 


IF A»-"0" 


THEN 


1040 




1170 


GOSUB 1700 


0260 


IF H#-"P" 


THEN 


1070 




1180 


PRINT "HORSE" jTAB<20> >"CHEUAL" 


0270 


IF A*»"Q" 


THEN 


1110 




1190 


GOTO 100 


0280 


IF A»»"R" 


THEN 


1140 




1210 


GOSUB 1700 


0290 


IF A»-"S" 


THEN 


1170 




1220 


PRINT "PENCIL" ;TA6<20> 1 "CRAVON" 


0300 


IF A#-"T" 


THEN 


1210 




1230 


GOTO 100 


0310 


IF A»-"U" 


THEN 


1240 




1240 


GOSUB 1700 


0320 


IF A»-"U" 


THEN 


1270 




1250 


PRINT "LAMP" ;TA8<20> j"LAf1PE" 


0338 


IF A«-"U" 


THEN 


1310 




1260 


GOTO 100 


0340 


IF A»-"X" 


THEN 


1340 




1270 


GOSUB 1700 


0330 


IF A*-"V" 


THEN 


1370 




1280 


PRINT "BIRD";TAB<20>;"OISEAU" 


0360 


IF A*»"Z" 


THEN 


1418 




1298 


GOTO 188 


0370 


IF A*-"l" 


THEN 


1440 




1310 


GOSUB 1700 


0380 


IF A»-"2" 


THEN 


1468 




1320 


PRINT "FISH">TAB<20> ;"POISSEN" 


0390 


IF A*-"3" 


THEH 


1438 




1330 


GOTO 100 


0400 


IF R»-"4" 


THEN 


1508 




1340 


GOSUB 1700 


0410 


IF A«»"5" 


THEN 


1320 




1350 


PRINT "BICVCLE"jTAB<20>;"UELO" 


0420 


IF fl*-"6" 


THEN 


1548 




1360 


GOTO lOO 


0438 


IF ft#-»7" 


THEN 


1360 




1370 


GOSUB 1700 


8440 


IF A«-"8" 


THEN 


1588 




1388 


PRINT "CAT";TAB<20),"CHAT" 


0450 


IF R*-"9" 


THEN 


1600 




1390 


GOTO 100 


0460 


IF R»»"0" 


THEN 


1620 




1410 


GOSUB 1700 


0470 


IF R»--a- 


THEN 


1640 




1420 


PRINT "HAT";TAB<20> , "CHAPEAU" 


048O 


GOTO 100 








1430 


GOTO 100 


0600 


GOSUB 1700 






1440 


GOSUB 1700 


0610 


PRINT "APPLE" > TAB < 20 > 


;"PonnE" 


1445 


PRINT "ONE";TA8<20>,"UN" 


0630 


GOTO 100 








1450 


GOTO 108 


0640 


GOSUB 1700 






1460 


GOSUB 1700 


0630 


PRINT "AIRPLANE" ;TAB<20>;"AUION" 


1465 


PRINT "TWO" ,TAB<20>;"0EUX" 


0660 


GOTO 100 








1470 


GOTO 100 


0670 


GOSUB 1700 






1480 


GOSUB 1700 


0680 


PRINT "CUP" jTAB<20>;' 


TASSE" 


1485 


PRINT "THREE" ;TRB<20> ; "TROIS" 


0690 


GOTO 100 








1490 


GOTO 100 


0788 


GOSUB 1700 






150O 


GOSUB 1700 


0718 


PRINT "COM">TAB<20><" 


UACHE" 


1505 


PRINT "FOUR">TAB<.20>."GUATRE" 


0720 


GOTO 100 








1310 


GOTO 100 


0730 


GOSUB 1700 






1320 


GOSUB 1700 


8740 


PRINT "C0AT",TA8<20>; 


"UESTON" 


1325 


PRINT "FIUE";TRB<20>,"CINQ" 


0730 


GOTO 100 








1330 


GOTO 100 


0760 


GOSUB 1T0O 






1340 


GOSUB 1700 


0770 


PRINT •■DOG",TRB<20>i , 


CHIEN" 


1343 


PRINT "SIX",TAB<20>;"SIX" 


073O 


GOTO 100 








1550 


GOTO 100 


0790 


GOSUB 1780 






1560 


GOSUB 1780 


0800 


PRINT "HAND" ,TRB<20> 


"MAIN" 


1563 


PRINT "SEUEN";TAB<:20>;"SEPT" 


0803 


GOTO 100 








1570 


GOTO 100 


0810 


GOSUB 1700 






1380 


GOSUB 1700 


0828 


PRINT "SUN";TAB<20>/" 


SOLEIL" 


1385 


PRINT "EIGHT" ;TAB<20> ,"HUIT" 


083O 


GOTO 100 








ISM 


GOTO 100 


0840 


GOSUB 1700 






1600 


GOSUB 1700 


0850 


PRINT "B00K".TAB<20> 


"LIURE" 


1605 


PRINT "NINE".TAB<28)i , NEUF" 


0860 


GOTO 100 








1610 


GOTO 100 


0878 


GOSUB 1700 






1620 


GOSUB 1700 


0888 


PRINT "MOON" ;TAB<20> 


"LUNE" 


1625 


PRINT "ZERO" ;TAB<20> > "ZERO" 


0890 


GOTO 100 








1630 


GOTO 180 


0910 


GOSUB 1780 






1640 


FOR 1-1 TO 8 


0920 


PRINT "EAR^TAB^O);' 


OREILLE" 


1650 


PRINT 


0930 


GOTO 108 








1660 


NEXT I 


0940 


GOSUB 1700 






1670 


GOTO 100 


0958 


PRINT "CLOUD"; 


rABC20) 


-"NUAGE" 


1700 


PRINT "ENGLISH" ;TA8<20>> "FRENCH 


8960 


GOTO 100 








1710 


PRINT " ",TAB<20>i" 


0970 


GOSUB 1700 






1720 


PRINT 


0980 


PRINT "COMB" ,TAB<20> 


"PEIGNE" 


1740 


RETURN 



1=12 = 23 = 34 = 45 = 56 = 67 = 78 = 89 = 90 = 
Qsl W = lt E=ls R = do T = go Y = sleep 
U = here I = please = yes P=no 
A = he S = you = are F = want G = drink 
H = speak J = happy K = thank you L = okay 

C = like 



a = (skip 8 lines) Z = she X = am 
V = to B = eat N = time 



M = not 



Figure 2. a Limited Vocabulary of 26 Essential 
Words and 10 Numbers 

The speech impaired individual may 
use this "Word Board" to "talk" to 
others with the aid of the computer. 
Only two movements are required to 
use the "Word Board" - typing the 
word and typing enter to display the 
word. Sentences may be formed 
calling for the persons basic needs, 
such as eating and sleeping. Alter- 
nately, sentences may replace the 
words for more clearly describing the 
individuals wants and needs. Then 
depressing a certain key can display a 
whole sentence, such as "I am 
hungry, when do we eat?" Of course, 
the sentence won't fit on the keytop, 
so the handicapped person will have 
to choose from a list of letters with 
assigned sentences. 

The home computer sys- 
tem may be less expensive 
than other devices that are 
used to aid the handi- 
capped. 

Regardless of the "Word Board" 
version you use, you can see that your 
home computer may be more useful 
than you ever imagined. Expand on 
program 1 for your educational needs. 
Develop a more detailed language 
instruction program, with several 
lists of vocabulary. Use it to increase 
your English vocabulary by accessing 
and learn the meanings of 10 new 
words a week. The microcomputer is 
a great learning tool, but you have to 
write the programs to utilize your 
system. 

You may or may not have an 
application for program 2. But you 
might want to find organizations in 
your area that help the handicapped. 
Show them the "Word Board." They 
may not know that a home computer 
system can aid the handicapped, and 
your application may be useful to 
them. The home computer system 
may be less expensive than other 
devices that are used to aid the handi- 
capped, and you would be doing a 
service to the community by demon- 
strating your system. Direct them to 
your local area computer store and 
suggest a system. D 



66 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





UTILITIES 



Ramedlt — By V. B. Hester e 1979 - Change a specific item throughout a BASIC program 
without searching/editing each line. A machine language program 157 times faster than BASIC 

32K-48K Disk $34 95 



ST80-D" By L Micklus — Contains extensions for disk drive systems to exchange files with a time sharing 
:omputer or another TRS80. Disk $79 95 

RX — By L Micklus - Will produce a cross-reference table of all line number references, and variables Disk $24 95 

XREF— ByL Micklus-CassetteversionRX. Producesacrossreferenceofalllinenumbersandvariablesusedintheprogram. Cass. $19.95 

Renumber — By L Micklus • A two program package that contains a renumbering utility and a rescue routine Cass $7 95 

enumx — By L Micklus - All three of the above programs on one cassette Cass $24 95 



BUSINESS 



Mailing Lister II — By 

L4 - Designed to handle files of 
up to 350 names Prints client 
listings or mailing labels. Sorts 
inlOseconds. ... Disk$79.95 



Inventory II — By L4 - 

Keeps an inventory of up to 
6.000 items with four drives 
(1.000 items with one drive) 
Complete print-outs of the total 
sales of the day. cost of the sales 
and the gross profits 

Disk $99.00 

Program* for the Amway 
Product Distributor — By F 

Blechman - Three program pack- 
age including an order checking 
program, a simplified bookeeping 
program and a distributor organ- 
ization program. 

Ul 16KCass $24 95 



PERSONAL 

Personal Finance — 2 package program that will maintain yourcheckingaccountand 
maintain a file of all your cancelled checks. By Lance Micklus Cass. $9.95 

Advanced Personal Finance — Budget program automatically collects data from the 
Checking program Finance will produce a 30 page report that gives you the total 
picture of your financial posture. By Lance Micklus Disk $24 95 

Home Financial Management — By T.S.E. • Turn your computer Into a personal 
financial advisor. Easy to use. yet complete enough to be of real use Cass $9 95 

EDUCATIONAL 

Touch Typing I — By L4 • For beginning typists Helps you to learn the keyboard. With 
graphics . . . UI. 16K Cass. $15 00 

Touch Typing II — By L4 • Two different typing drills - timed and untimed • using 
randomly chosen words to help you improve your typing skills With graphics 

Cass. $15.00 

Both programs on one tape $22.50++ 

Super Add — By C.L S. - (ages 5 to adult) Improves and teaches addition skills Divided 
into three categories with a total of 36 learning modules A game can be added as a 
positive reinforcement tool Cass. $24.95 

Super Mult— ByC.LS. - (ages 8 to adult)Contains 25 learning modules to learn and 

improve multiplication facts Problems can be timed or untimed. "an excellent program 

that is suitable for the home as well as the classroom" • 80 Software Critique Issue "2 

Cass. $24.95 



GAMES 

Invaders/sound — By L4 - Based on the 
arcade game. You must defend the earth 
from the colony of aliens who are invading 
it Five skill levels Machine language program 
Cass $14 95 

Creature Tic-Tac-Toe/ sound — By L4 - 
Rayed in a conventional grid. Creatures 
appear as your markers Cass $9 50 

Animated Hangman/sound — By L4 - 

Now he squawks when you don't guess the 
correct letters. Can you guess the word 
before he hangs? Cass $9 50 

Space Battle — By L4 • Command a small 
mercenary star-cruiser and try to avoid 
being destroyed by the aliens High-speed 

graphics Lll. 16K Cass $14.95 

32K Disk. $19.95 

Cylon Raider — By L4 • A battle between 
you and a Cylon Battle ship. The Cylon 
twists and turns in its efforts to avoid being 
hit Lll. 16K Cass. $7.50 



DISK DRIVES & DISKETTES 

Drive © _ w /4 drive cable & DOS Manual $400.00 

Dual Disk Drive — Two drives in one case $698.00*" 

Quad Disk Drive — Four drives in one case ... $1,359.00 

National Brand - Special Offer — Box/10 $32.00 

Verbatim — Box/10 $40.00 

Verbatim Double Density— Box/ 10 $6000 

Verbatim (8~) — Box/10 $45.00 



Learning Level II — 

Written specifically for your Level II TRS- 
80*. this book is designed to help the 
individual learn by himself as well as for 
classroom $15.95 



BOOKS 

By Compusoft - Z-80&8080 Assembly Language Pro- 
ramming — By Hayden - Giving an intro- 
ductory look at assembly language for the 
2-80 and 8080 processors, it is intended to 
provide just about everything the applica- 
tions programmer needs to get the most out 
of his/her machine $7.95 



The BASIC Handbook — By Compusoft 
- While not favoring one computer over 
another, this book explains over 250 BASIC 
words, how to use them and alternate strategies 



TRS Disk & Other Mysteries — Answers 
questions to the TRSDOS that you never 
knew how to ask Explains SuperZap Parts 
of NEWDOS. 3.0 and TRS-DOS~2 2 



$14.95 $2250 




HARDWARE 

New! Just Arrived! — Electric Crayon - Draw in color! ** $249.00 

H-14 Adapter Board — Interfaces the Heath printer with the TRS-80* Expansion Interface . $99.95 

TRS-232 — Serial printer interface w/software Operates off cassette port. . $49 00 

Data Dubber — Loads the most difficult cassette tapes with no problems $49.95 

PRINTERS 

Mlcrollne - 80 — 9x7 dot matrix printer with graphics capabilities . $945 00 

Anldex DP 8000 — 80 col $995.00 

Anldex DP 9500 — 132 col $1595.00 

* A Product of Tandy Corp. 

++ Call in Orders Special $18.50 
* * Needs additional hardware. *** Offer expires 4-31-80 New Price $750.00 
CIRCLE 154 ON READER SERVICE CAR0 
APRIL 1980 67 






■ 




(fra'kas) n.L a noisy V\ 

dispute or fight; loud &m 
quarrel or disturbance; ^ 
brawl; 2. a fantastic 
computer adventure 
challenging any number 
of players to explore a 
secret maze packed with 
hidden treasure, guarded 
by wily adversaries... 

Available NOW for 
APPLE II with 16K 
RAM...ONLY $19.95 
(postpaid) 

(CA residents plrur add win III) 

QUALITY SOFTWARE 
SATISFACTION 
GUARANTEED 



Computersmiths 

Box 755 

Meadow Vista.CA 95722 

(916) 878-2591 



CIRCLE 130 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Professional file access for 
theTRS-80" microcomputer! 

Introducing INSEQ-80 ™ (indexed 
sequential access method— ISAM) 

Finally a professional method of disk 
access like those available for big 
computers. Access any record in the 
file based on a field defined as a key 
(e.g. part number in an inventory file) 
or read the file in ascending key order. 

Access by the field defined as a key 
is through an index maintained by 
INSEQ-ftO.™ Average access time is 
2 seconds. 

INSEQ-80™ contains 4 machine 
language programs that can be called 
from your BASIC program via CJSR 
functions, plus a reorganization utility 
to consolidate files. Includes complete 
user's manual with fully documented 
example program and test files. Will 
run under TRSDOS. NEWDOS. and 
VTOS 3.0. $49.95. 

ComputeiCity^ 

A division of CPU Industries. Inc. 

175 Main Street. Dept.CC-3, Charlestown. MA 

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To order call Toll Free 1-800-343-6522. 

Massachusetts residents call 617/242-3350. 

VISA C Master Charge accepted. 

•TRS 80 is a trademark of lh» Radio Shack division of 
Tandy Corporation 



CIRCLE 124 ON REA0ER SERVICE CARD 



>ard, Cont'd... Figure 2a 


WORD BOARD 




COPYRIGHT CO 1979 BV HOWARD BERENBON 


ACCEPTS CHARACTER INPUT 


CA-Z, 8-9> AND PRINTS 


WORDS THAT CORRESPOND TO 


THE LETTERS AND NUMBERS 


ENTERING AN '9' WILL SKIP 8 LINES 


MAY BE USED AS A HELP TO 


THE HANDICAPPED 


I 

WANT 




TO 




EAT 




THANK 


YOU 


IS 




IT 




TIME 




TO 




GO 





0010 

0020 

0030 

0040 

0030 
0060 
0063 
0070 
0100 
0119 
0120 
0130 
0140 
0130 
0160 
0170 
0130 
9190 
0200 
0219 
0220 
9230 
0240 
0230 
0260 
9279 
9230 
0290 
0300 
0319 
0320 
9330 
0340 
9330 
0360 
9379 
0339 
0390 
0400 
9410 
0420 
9438 
0440 
9438 
0460 
0470 
0430 
0600 

0610 

0640 
0639 
9679 
0680 
0700 
0710 
0730 
0740 
0768 
9778 
9790 
0390 
0810 
9820 
0840 
0339 
0370 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
INPUT 
IF A*> 



-WORD BOARD" 



Program 2 



"COPYRIGHT <C> 1979 BV HOWARD BERENBON" 

"ACCEPTS CHARACTER INPUT <A-Z. 0-9 > AND PRINTS" 
"WORDS THAT CORRESPOND TO THE LETTERS AND NUMBERS" 
"ENTERING AN '«' WILL SKIP 8 LINES" 

BE USED AS A HELP TO THE HANDICAPPED" 



790 
730 
760 
790 



"MAY 

A* 
M R M 

IF A*-"B" 
IF A»»"C" 
IF A*»"P" 
IF A*-"E" 
IF fl»-"F" 
IF A»«"G" 
IF A*-"H" 
IF H»»"I" 
IF A*»"J" 
IF R«-"K" 
IF A*-"L" 
IF A»»"M" 
IF A*»"N" 
IF A*-"0" 
IF A*-"P" 
IF A*-"Q" 
IF fl*-"R" 
IF A*-"S" 
"T" 
"U" 
A*-"U" 
A*»"U" 
A*-"X" 
A*-"V" 
A«-"Z" 
A»-"l" 
A*-"2" 
A»-"3" 
A«-"4" 
A»»"3" 
IP A*-"6" 
IF A»-"7" 
A*»"8" 
A»»"9" 
A«-"0" 
A»»"fl" 
GOTO 180 

PRINT TAB<20>;"HE" 
GOTO 100 

PRINT TAB<20);"EAT" 
GOTO 100 

PRINT TAB<20> >"LIKE" 
GOTO 100 

PRINT TRB<20>*"ARE" 
GOTO 100 

PRINT TAB<20>j"IS" 
GOTO 100 

PRINT TA8<20>i"WANT" 
GOTO 100 

PRINT TAB<20>i "DRINK" 
GOTO 100 

PRINT TPB<20>. "SPEAK" 
GOTO 100 

PRINT TAB<20> -"PLEASE 
GOTO lOO 
PRINT TAB<20> 



68 



IF A*» 

IF A*« 

IF 

IF 

IF 

IF 

IF 

IF 

IF 

IF 

IF 

IF 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 



THEN 600 

THEN 640 

THEN 678 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 310 

THEN 840 

THEN 870 

THEN 910 

THEN 940 

THEN 970 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEH 

THEH 

THEN 

THEN 

THEH 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 

THEN 



1010 
1040 
1070 
1118 
1140 
1170 
1210 
1240 
1270 
1310 
1340 
1370 
1410 
1440 
1460 
1488 
1300 
1320 
1540 
1360 
1580 
1600 
1620 
1640 



9880 GOTO 100 

0918 PRINT TAB<20>; "THANK YOU* 

0920 GOTO 100 

0940 PRINT TA8<20>,"0KAV" 

0930 00 TO 100 

9970 PRINT TAO<20> ;"N0T" 

9988 GOTO 100 

1010 PRINT TAB<20)("TIME" 

1020 GOTO 100 

1048 PRINT TAB<20> j"VES" 

1030 GOTO 100 

1079 PRINT TAB<20);"NO" 

1080 GOTO 100 

1110 PRINT TAB<20>;"I" 

1120 GOTO 100 

1140 PRINT TAB<20>;"DO" 

1130 GOTO 100 

1178 PRINT TAB<20>;"VOU" 

1180 GOTO 100 

1210 PRINT TAB<2©>."GO" 

1220 GOTO 108 

1240 PRINT TAB<20>i"HERE" 

1230 GOTO 100 

1270 PRINT TAB<20>i"TO" 

12S0 GOTO 100 

1310 PRINT TAB<20>J"IT" 

1320 GOTO 100 

1340 PRINT TAB<20>J"AM" 

1350 GOTO 100 

1370 PRINT TAB<20>; "SLEEP" 

1380 GOTO 100 

1410 PRINT TAB<20>;"SHE" 

1420 GOTO 100 

1440 PRINT TAB<20)("1" 

1450 GOTO 100 

1468 PRINT TAB<20>;"2" 

1470 GOTO 100 

1488 PRINT TAB<20>i-3" 

1490 GOTO 100 

1500 PRINT TAB<20>>"4" 

1310 GOTO 100 

1320 PRINT TAB<20>j"3" 

1330 GOTO 100 

1340 PRINT TAB<20>>"6" 

1530 GOTO tee 

1360 PRINT TAB<20>;"7" 

1379 GOTO 100 

1388 PRINT TAB<20>J"8" 

1390 GOTO 190 

1600 PRINT TAB<28>;"9" 

1610 GOTO 100 

1620 PRINT TAB<20>J"8" 

1630 GOTO 100 

1640 FOR 1-1 TO 8 

1659 PRINT 

1660 NEXT I 
1670 GOTO 100 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Let us Take you Elsewhen 



o.jign*d nryt au 
to' us* on I I- I or\ 



TREK-X 

Welcome to the most sophisticated Trek (we've 
seen yet. We'll beam you aboard to command 
this mission at the helm of the Federation Star- 
ship Enterprise. Your briefing follows: 

I. The Romulans and the Kllngons, normally an- 
tagonistic to one another, have decided to form 
an alliance. This alliance has but one end - to an- 
nihilate the United Federation of Planets. 

II. You have a dual mission: first, to explore the 
more distant realms of space; and second, to 
locate and destroy as many Romulan/Kllngon 
warships as possible. Another ally of the 
Romulan/Kllngon coalition may attach the Enter 
prist- you will receive further Instructions. 

III. After you make fifty confirmed "kills," your 
mission will be accomplished, and you can head 



We can take you to the 15th century, to the states of Italy to rule the 
fortunes of many. . . we can take you to 1922 for a solo flight through 
the American Midwest. . . we can take you to the future, where you'll 
journey along the final frontier. . . the choice is yours. 



TRS-80* 



16K 
LEVEL II 



In Trek-X the vastness of space Is depicted by , 
a 12 x 12 x 4 matrix containing suns, planets, p 
moons, and other celestial bodies. Unlike some 
two-dimensional "treks," Trek-X allows you to 
move in front of or behind suns, planets, and 
enemy spacecraft. Note also that quadrant 
boundaries are transparent to you, lust as they 
would be in real life. You'll have both warp power 
and sub-light speeds at your disposal, and a 
detailed map of space will be available on de- 
mand. Your ship's computer will display the pres- 
ent alert condition (e.g., Green, Yellow, Red, or 
CRITICAL), and will keep track of your shield 
power and the number of hits you've received 
from enemy vessels. 

To add even more realism, optional sound ef 
facts - phasor and photon torpedo fire, and their 
resultant explosions - have been included. Trek- 
X: more than |ust a game. For the 8K PET. Order 
NO.0032P *7J6. 
* A trademark of 




Ask for Instant Software at a com* 
puter store near you or call Toll 
Free 1-800-258-5473. 

J 



City 



Stait . 



.i'p. 



Q Crock 

O VISA 



Q Mon«y ordor 



QAMEX 



Q Master Charge 



Cod No . 



Eipiration Dale. 



. Data . 



Order your Instant Software today! 



Ouantity 


OfdarNo 


Unit Coat 


Total Coat 


































Prtcea valid Handling 


St .00 


tnUBAomy Toiaioox 





Instant Software Inc. Dapt CCOOO 
Peteroorougn. MM QMS* USA 



EVERY 

FLIGHT 

IS A SPECIAL 

DELIVERY 



OK, Ace, you survived everything that von Richthofen and the Flying Circus threw 
at you. Well, that was four long years ago -and yesterday's medals don't pay the 
rent. But Just a minute, 'here's an ad: 

"Airmail Pilot wanted . . ." 

AIRMAIL PILOT 

You can almost smell the gasoline as the ground crew fuels your J-4 Jenny biplane to her 
2S-gallon limit. Precious mail is loaded into the cargo area, tagged for Chicago. The weather- 
man reports severe Icing above 6,000 feet, so you know you have to keep the plane low. It will 
be a dangerous flight, but you knew that when you took the Job. The mail must go through. So, 
in the tradition of Lindbergh and a hundred unsung heroes, you bravely turn your plane Into the 
wind. The engine roars. Suddenly you're aloft on the first leg of your journey. Dayton's socked 
in by fog. You change your course for Lucasville. Lightning zigzags the sky. A massive, fast- 
moving thunderstorm forces you to land in a cornfield. As the weather clears, your plane leaps 
once more into the sky. But even clear skies can cause problems- violent air currents buffet 
your fragile wooden aircraft. Your fuel is down to two gallons as Lucasville comes into sight. 
You make it! Refuel and head for Chicago. But you're not out of trouble yet. There's a wind 
shear at the Chicago airport. You have to land In a shifting crosswlnd. Can you make it? AIR- 
MAIL PILOT from INSTANT SOFTWARE. Unlike any other computer simulation you've ever ex- 
perienced. Challenging. Difficult. But never Impossible. An event In a cassette. Crash or fly, it's 
so realistic, you can almost feel the wind. Requires a Level II 16K. Order No. 0106R $7.98. 



Life was short back then, and you'll have only a 
limited amount of time in which to build your 
kingdom. The lives of your serfs will depend on 
your decisions. If you act wisely, then your city- 
state will grow and you will acquire loftier titles. 
If your rule is incompetent, your people will 
starve, and your city-state may be invaded by 
your neighbors. 

You can play the game yoursetf or set up the 
tournament version, which allows up to alx 
players at a time to compete. Either way, you're 
sure to find your route to the throne a challenging 
and rocky one. 

How will you rule your kingdom? Will you be a 
benevolent ruler -an iron fist in a velvet 
glove -or will you become unscrupulous and 
follow the example set by Niccolo Machiavelll In 
his book on government. The Prince'' Only you 
can answer that question - with Santa Paravia 
and Fiumacoo Order tea. 0043R $7.95. 
* A l i aoaaaer *. of Tandy Corporation 




SANTA PARAVIA AND FIUMACCIO 
The yeer is A.D. 1400. and you are the ruler of a 
tiny Italian city-state. You are ambitious by 
nature and intend to build your little city-state in- 
to a powerful kingdom. 

So begins Santa Paravia and Flumacclo, 
where you and your fellow players compete as 
rulers of neighboring cities. You control the grain 
harvest, feed your people, set tax rates, exercise 
Justice, Invest in public works and, of course, try 
to stay on the good side of the church. 



'1>1J» 



•JltYattL 



Jnc, 



Peterborough, N.H. 03458 
603-924-7296 



CIRCLE 150 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1980 



Another new game from Creative Computing 



PERQUAckey 



David E. Powers 




Perquackey is a word game 
written in TRS-80 Disk BASIC for a 32K 
machine. The object of the game is to 
form as many words as possible from 
a set of random letters. Scoring 
depends on the number of letters in the 
words you form and several other 
factors which add an extra element of 
strategy to the game. See the instruc- 
tions in the program for more details. 

Before running the program, you 
should turn on the display of the 
realtime clock with the CLOCK com- 
mand in DOS. Note that the sample 
runs were done on a Radio Shack line 
printer using NEWDOS to print the 
screen display. D 

Rabbi David E. Powers, 10 Wilber Ct., New 
Hyde Park, NY 11040. 

IS THE CLOCK DISPLAYED? VES. 



88:86 47 



88 87 22 



TO CONTINUE. PRESS ANV KEY 

88 88 52 
THE COMPUTER WILL PROMPT VOU AS YOU GO. IN CASE YOU SHOULD NEED 
RNV HELP IN THE MECHANICS OF THE GAME BUT FOR YOUR INFORMATION 
YOU SHOULD KNOW IN ADVANCE THAT ONLY MOWS IN A STANDARD 
DICTIONARY ARE ACCEPTABLE ALL THE PLAVEPS SHOULD AGREE 
ON ONE BEFORE PLAY IS BEGUN OF COURSE, LIKE MOST WORD GAMES. 
PROPER NAMES. FOREIGN WORDS. ABBREVIATIONS OP CAPITALIZED WORDS 
flRE HOT ALLOWED ALSO. VOU MUST RESIST THE TEMPTATION TO USE 
PUNCTUATION MARKS THE COMPUTER WILL NOT ALLOW THEM THEV ARE 
NOT PART OF THE PERQUACKEY VOCABULARY' 



88 89 21 

YOU MAY NOT MAKE A WORD ENDING IN 'S" IF THAT WORD ALSO AFfEARi 
WITHOUT THE "S" DURING THE SAME TURN 

ALL WORDS MUST BE AT LEAST THREE LETTERS LONG 



VOU MAY NOT ENTER MORE THAN FIVE WORDS CONTAINING 
NUMBER OF LETTERS IN ANY ONE TURN 
TO ENTER A WORD. SIMPLY TYPE IT IN 



Hi SAME 



OF COURSE. YOUR ERRORS CmH BE RECOVERED TO DELETE THE 
LHST WORD VOU ENTERED. JUST ENTER ZZ TO DELETE ANY OTHER 
HOK>. TYPE ZZ FOLLOWED. WITHOUT A SPACE. BY THAT WOFl 
EXAMPLE. 22B1GBUG WOULD DELETE THE ENTRY "BIGBUG" 
10 CONTINUE. PRESS ANV 



PERQUACKEY 



08 0? 52 



DO VOU NEED INSTRUCTIONS 



VES. 



PERQUACKEY 



88 87 52 



NG IS A LITTLE COMPLICATED. BUT THE COMPUTER HANDLES 
IT A.ST FINE VOU LL GET ALL THE DETAILS RIGHT AHAV, BUT UP 
FRONT VOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THE BONUSES. BECAUSE THEV I AN 
RFALLV HDD Of 



•PERQUACKEY- IS THE DIFFERENT WORD GAME. FUN FOR ALL. 
ESPECIALLY THOSE WHO LOVE TO HUNT FOR WORDS AND MEET THE 
CHALLENGE OF AN EVER-TICKING CLOCK 

THIS VERSION OF "PERQUACKEV" MAY BE PLAVED BY UP TO 

FOUR PLAYERS VOU CAN EVEN PLAY IT SOLITAIRE, ALWAYS TRYING TO 

BETTER YOUR SCORE FROM PREVIOUS GAMES AND ROUNDS THE COMPUTER 

HILL SET UP YOUR GAMES. TALLY VOUR SCORES. AND EVEN 

MAKE SURE THAT VOU ARE PLAVING FAIRLY 



TO CONTINUE, PRESS ANV KEY 



88 80 ZZ 



THE OBJECT OF THE GAME IS TO FIND AND SPELL AS MANY WORDS AS 
POSSIBLE FROM A LIST OF LETTERS THE COMPUTER HILL GENERATE FOR 
VOU, ALL IN H THREE-MINUTE TIME LIMIT AT FIRST. THE COMPUTER 
HILL GIVE VOU TEN LETTERS WITH WHICH TO WORK AS YOUR SCORE 
INCREASES AND VOU BECOME "VULNERABLE" VOU WILL BE ALLOTTED 
THIRTEEN LETTERS BUT VOU WILL HAVE TO MCHIEVE BETTER SCORES 
OR E€ SET POINTS FuR NON-SUPERIOR PLAV 1 



Ti-p CONTINUE, PRESS ANY KEV 

00 18 i 
REMEMBER. VOU COULD ONLY ENTER FIVE WORDS OF EACH LENGTH^ 
WELL. ONCE VOU DO ENTER FIVE WORDS IN EACH Of TWO ADJOINING 
CATEGORIES (FOR EXAMPLE FIVE THREE -LETTER WORD- AND FIVE 
FOUR-LETTfF WORDS (AHEM 1 »), VOU Gf A RATHER FAT BONUS 

288 POINTS FOR 3 THREE! AN 
588 POINTS FOR 3 FOURS AND 3 FIVES 
388 POINT ES AMD 3 SI 

1206 POINTS FOR 5 SIXES Af«> 3 SEVENS 
• 1858 POINTS FC* '. "I 

-00 POINTS FOP 5 EIGHTS AND 3 NINE' 



NTINUE. PRE 

oo te 

NOW. HERE S THE COHPLICATEI I IF 

VOU BECOME A PEAL EXPERT. YO" LL WAN! 
FOR YOU. ANYWAY 



70 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Mail Order Division 




Formerly the CPU Shop 



TRS-80' 




Disk Drives forTRS-80* 

Reg. Our 

CCI-100™40Track $399 $345 

CCI-200™ 77 Track $675 $549 

CCI-800™8'*Dfive $895 $795 

(Model II) 

Systems 

Reg. Our 
TRS-80* 16K Level II w/keyped $849 $749 
TRS-80* Expansion Interface $299 $279 
Cat Modem — Originateand 

answer. Sameas Radio Shack 

Telephone Interface II $ 199" $ 189 

SAVE EVEN MORE— CALL FOR COMPLETE SYSTEM PRICES 

Printers forTRS-80* 

NEC Spinwriter - letter quality high 
speed printerwith 

TRS80* interface Reg. Price Our Price 
software $2745 $2479 

with Tractor 

779 Centronics Tractor Feed 

730 Centronics Friction and Pin 

PI Centronics Printer 

Paper Tiger (IP440) with graphics option 

TI-810 Upper and lower case, parallel and 

serial, paper tray, and TRS80* 

Interface software. 
MP! Inflation Fighter 
Sanders 12/7 Typographic Printer 




$2979 


$2679 


$1598 


$ 995 


$ 995 


$ 899 


$ 499 


$ 379 


$1195 


$1155 



$2065 
$ 795 
$3994 



$1829 
$ 749 
$3899 



flfcappkz computer $ 1 195 

^^ Call for Special Accessory Prices 

High Technology Mail List (Apple) 



$ 40 



$ 35 



f A| -QV] . 



density floppies. 



CUfor 

price 



Reg. 
32KSystem $4500 

64K System $4960 

Prices in this ad are for prepaid orders. Slightly higher prices prevail lor other 
than-prepaid orders. I.e.. C.O.D.. credit cards, etc. 

Freight collect, F.O.B. 
Charlestown 

ComputerCity 

175 Main Street, Dept CC-4 Charlestown, MA 02129 



77 Track 
Reg. Our 



16 K Memory Upgrade Kits 

Add $2.50 for jumpers and Regular Price Our Price 

programming instructions $79 $62 

Operating Systems forTRS-80* 

35 Track 40 Track 

Reg. Our Reg. Our 
NEWDOSbyApparatt $ 49 $ 44 $ 55 » 50 
NEWDOSPIus $ 99 $ 79 $110 $ 89 $150 $100 

Reg. Our 
CP/M forTRS-80* Model I, Zenith $150 $145 

TRS-80* Model II, ALTOS $250 $ 170 

Manual only $ 25 

ComputerCityTMPatchpak«4byPercomData $9.95 $ 8.95 
Patches and enhances TRSDOS for 40 track and 77 track drives. 
Diskettes5'/2"BoxoflOCallforquantity discounts $ 26.49 

Business Software & TRS-80* bv CSA 

MODEL I MODEL II 



General Ledger 
Accounts Payable 
Accounts Receivable 
Inventory 

Mailing List Name and Address 
Complete Computer 
Checkout Program 
Spooler by CSA- 
Prints while doing data entry 



Reg. 
$125 
$125 
$125 
$125 
$129 



Our 
$97 
$97 
$97 
$97 
$97 



Reg. 
$225 
$225 
$225 
$225 
$225 



Our 

$199 

$199 

$199 

$199 

$199 



$ 29 $26 



$ 29.95 $ 24.95 



y^Mtrtt (Heath) WH89 

The all in-one computer. Floppy Reg. Call lor 
disk storage. Smart video ter- $2595 price 
minal. Two Z80 microprocessors. 
Complete with 16K 
RAM expandable to 48K. 

CClTM- 189 Add-on drives lor Calllor 

WH89 $ 495 price 

WiTTrEL iNtEUiViSiON 

Call for Special Introductory Prices 

ATARI' 400 AND 800 __. 

Call for 

Prices 




TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-343-6522 

TWX: 710-348-1796 MassachusettsResidentscall617/242-3350 



Hours 1 0AM6PM (EST) Mon.-Fri. (Sat. till 5) • For detailed information, call 61 7/242/3350 

Massachusetts Residents add 5% Sales Tax •TMCai00.-189. 200&-800areCc«npuie^ity.lnc. trademarks. TRS 80* isatro* 

Division of Tandy Corporation f Requires Radio Shack TRSDOS* Prices subject to change without notice. Franchise and Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Retail Store/ Charlestown, MA • Framingham, MA • Hanover, MA • Burlington, MA 
Locations / Manchester, NH • Providence, Rl 



APRIL 1980 



CIRCLE 124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



■■ 






FOR THE FIRST THREE-LETTER WORD VOU GET 68 POINTS, HMD 16 MORE 
FOR EACH THEREAFTER 68, 78, 88, 96, 188 POINTS TOTAL FOR 1, 

2. 3. 4 OR 5 THREE-LETTER WORDS 

FOR THE FIRST FOUR-LETTER WORD VOU GET 128 POINTS, AND 28 MORE 
FOR EACH THEREAFTER 128, 148, 168, 188, 288 POINTS FOR 1, 2. 

3, 4 OR 5 FOUR-LETTER WORDS 



TO CONTINUE, PRESS ANV KEV 

88:11:28 
AS THE FIVE-LETTER CATEGORV GROWS VOU GET 288, 258, 388, 
358 AND 488 POINTS 

SIX LETTER WORDS BRING 388, 488, 588, 688 OR 788 POINTS 

FOR ONE THROUGH FIVE ENTRIES 



WORDS MADE BV ADDING S 

DUPLICATE WORDS: 

WORDS INCONSISTENT WITH LETTERS 



♦♦EXAMPLES^S 

♦♦EXAMPLES 

♦♦EXAMPLE**? 




TO CONHNUE, PRESS ANV KEV 

88 14 36 
AFTER THE COMPUTER DISALLOWS WORDS, VOUR OPPONENTS MAV DO SO, 
TOO THEV MAV CHECK WORDS IN A STANDARD DICTIONARY AMD THEN 
ENTER ANV CHALLENGES WHICH THE COMPUTER WILL BRACKET WITH 
♦+ ♦♦C. 



GET SEVEN LETTER WORDS AND VOU'LL WIPE OUT VOUR OPPONENTS AS 
THAT CATEGORV FILLS VOU GET 588, 658, 888, 958 AND 1188 POINTS 

BUT LOOK AT THE EIGHTS 758, 1888, 1258, 1588. 1758 POINTS 



TO CONTINUE, PRESS ANV KEV 

66 11 56 
NINE- AND TEN-LETTER WORDS ARE THE SUREST WAV TO DRIVE VOUR 
OPPONENTS TO DISTRACTION NINES BRING 1888. 1588. 2888. 2588, 
OR 3888 POINTS FOR ONE TO FIVE ENTRIES 



AND TENS ■>■>■> 



FORGET THE REST OF THE PLAVERS AND LOOK! 



AFTER ALL CHALLENGES ARE MADE, ENTER XX, AND THE COMPUTER HILL 
CALCULATE AMD DISPLAV VOUR SCORE AND THEN DISPLAV A SCOREBOARD 
FOR ALL PLAVERS 

DURING PLAV, THE LOWER RIGHT CORNER OF THE SCREEN HILL SHOW THE 
PLAVERS SCORE UP TO THE END OF HIS LAST TURN. THE UPPER RIGHT 
HILL DISPLAV THE TIMER 

TO CONTINUE, PRESS ANV KEV. 

88 15:13 
VOU CAN PROBABLV COME UP WITH ALL SORTS OF REFINEMENTS TO THE 
BASIC GAME WHAT WONDERFUL DEVELOPMENTS THEV COULD BE! LIKE 
THEME GAMES MAVBE DEVOTE ONE WHOLE GAME ONLV TO COMPUTER- 
SCIENCE WORDS 



" 1588, 3888, 5888, 7588 OR 13888 POINTS 
FOR ONE THROUGH FIVE ENTRIES JIJJ1 



OR SCI FI 



OR WHO KNOWS 



WHERE VOUR 



IMAGINATION 



WILL LEAD? 



TO CONTINUE, PRESS ANV KEV 



88:12 33 



NOW SOME VERV IMPORTANT DETAILS 
DON'T SKIP THESE 

TO CONTINUE, PRESS ANV KEV 



TO CONTINUE, PRESS ANV KEV 

MOW, IF VOU'D LIKE TO REVIEW THAT, JUST KEV AN R 
BUT IF VOU'RE READV TO PLAV. KEV ANVTHING ELSE' 



88 16 17 



88:13:85 

ONCE VOU HAVE ACCUMULATED 2888 POINTS VOU BECOME VULNERABLE' 
THAT'S FINE. BECAUSE THEN VOU'LL GET 13 LETTERS TO WORK WITH, 
BUT ALSO VOU MUST SCORE A MINIMUM OF 588 POINTS IF VOU DON'T 
SCORE THE MINIMUM, 588 POINTS HILL BE DEDUCTED FROM VOUR SCORE, 
AND THE POINTS VOU DID MAKE IN THAT ROUND WILL BE DISALLOWED 

WHEN VOU ARE VULNERABLE, VOU MAV NOT MAKE THREE-LETTER WORDS 



THE GAME IS OVER AT THE END OF THE ROUND IN WHICH ANV PLAVER 
REACHES A TOTAL OF 5888 POINTS. 

TO CONTINUE. PRESS ANV KEV 



ft WORD ABOUT THE DISPLAV 



88 13 33 



THE DISPLAV IS SELF-PROMPTING AW> WILL HELP VOU A LOT 

IT IS ALSO SELF-EXPLANATORV, LISTING VOUR WORDS BV LENGTH 

MORDS ENTERED AFTER THREE MINUTES WILL AUTOMATICALLY BE 
DISALLOWED, AND THE TURN WILL BE ENDED TO END VOUR TURN 
BEFORE THE TIME LIMIT EXPIRES. ENTER XX 

WHEN VOUR TURN IS ENDED. THE COMPUTER HILL EXAMINE ALL THE 
ENTRIES AND DISALLOW WORDS MADE BV ADDING S TO OTHER ENTRIES, 
DUPLICATE ENTRIES AMD WORDS INCONSISTENT WITH THE LETTER LIST 

TO CONTINUE, PRESS ANV KEV 



HOW MHNV PLAVERS FOR PERQUACKEV <l-4>? 2 

TaL ME PLAVER 1 'S NAME 

»»> STEVE 

TaL ME PLAVER 2 'S NAME 

•■> MR BILL- 




. <WS 


1/ 


--?»• '. 


9 ) 


s * y 


k 
a 


»*. 


* <• 


& 





17 83 



STEVE PLAYING AND NOT VULNERABLE 88:88 82 



VOUR LETTERS ARE PNSBXOKUEA 
3 4 5: 6 .7: 



DISALLOWED WORDS WILL BE BRACKETED AS IN THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES 



STEVE PLAVING AND NOT VULNERABLE 88 82 44 



72 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



"THE CREATOR®" 

By Complete Business Systems, inc. 
Software Division 



High level language program generator develops 
complete programs in "Basic". 

Enables anyone to write complete, running, debugged 
basic LANGUAGE Programs in 35 to 40 minutes with NO 
PRIOR PROGRAMMING KNOWLEDGE OR ABILITY. 

Now available for trs-80 v TRS-80 Model n ■ , Apple n • 
Tandy 10®, Adds System 70 or 75®. 

IF you are one of the many who bought a micro- 
computer in the belief that with just a little studying 
you could write your own programs, you now know 
that you can't. 

IF you, as a businessman, thought you could have 
stock software modified at a reasonable cost with 
reasonable results, you know that's not possible either. 

IF you are a hobbyist getting tired of the untold 
hours it takes to write a program, only to find it takes 
more hours to debug than to write . . . 

IF you are a skilled programmer you don't have to be 
reminded of the repetitious time spent on each new 
application. 

IF you have left your micro-computer sitting some- 
where gathering dust . . . meet "THE CREATOR®". 

"THE creator®" is not just another data base 
generator! 

"THE creator®", at your direction, makes complete 
running programs that are thoroughly documented, 
easy to modify at any time by YOU! 

"THE CREATOR®" cuts programming time up to 90% 
for a skilled programmer. 

"THE creator®" will make anyone a skilled pro- 
grammer in 30 to 35 minutes! 

"THE CREATOR®" does the work! you answer the 
simple direct questions and "THE CREATOR®" CREATES 

. . . AND ALL IN BASIC LANGUAGE. 



After "THE CREATOR"' 
It be modified? 



has produced a program, can 



A. Yes, the resulting program is modular, fully documented 
and readily accessible for alterations or deletions 

O. Does the program created use so much disc space 
that there Is very little space left for record storage? 

A. No, the code produced is extremely compact despite com- 
plete documentation, if requested "THE creator - " will 
even "pack" or compress information. You may even delete 
the "remarks" making it even more space efficient. 

0. Must I be expert or even conversant with Basic 
Language? 

A. No, all questions to and answers from the operator require 
no computer language knowledge, simple every day English 
will do. 

0. What about math ability? 

A. If you can count your fingers and toes, you'll have no 
problems. 

0. Will the programs which I produce with "THE 
creator - " be bulky, slow or amateurish? 

A. No, the resulting programs will be sophisticated and ex- 
tremely fast operating For example, should you create a 
mailing list or inventory program, the time for any record 
to be retrieved and displayed from a full disc would take a 
maximum of 1 second 



0. Must the programs produced conform to a pre- 
determined format and file length? 

A. No, you determine format and file size to fit your require- 
ments, you may have as many as 22 fields or as few as 1. 

0. Can I develop my own business programs? 

A. For the most part, yes. 

0. What are the limitations? What programs can I pro- 
duce with "THE CREATOR*"? 

A. Your own ingenuity and hardware limitations. 

0. will future versions of "THE creator-" make my 
present copy obsolete? 

A. The purchase price includes your original diskette and user 
Instructions. Your program is registered In your name. For 
a period of one year from the date of purchase you will be 
entitled to receive FREE any improvements or modifica- 
tions. The only expense to you will be a new diskette charge 
(if applicable), packaging and mailing. 



TECHNICAL ASPECTS 

• Record access by a hashing algorithm guaranteeing 
fast record retrieval. 

• Duplicate keys permitted. 

• Record deletion automatically supported. 

• Record access and file maintenance is user trans- 
parent. 

• Minimal disc overhead since there is no special 
assembly language routine called. No "Basic." overhead. 

• Programs produced can be transported between 

6800, 6502, 8080, Z80, 8085. 8086 and Z8000 based 

systems. 

• Can be used with Micro-Soft Basic and CP/M systems. 

• On TRS-80 has automatic blocking for maximum 
number of records per disc. 

• complete file maintenance including up-date of any 
record in any field, delete and add new records even 
with duplicate key. 

we are seeking qualified dealers and distributors to 
handle our growing software lines. Address inquiries, 
on your company letterhead, to: Complete Business 
Systems, inc., Software Division, 9420 W. Foster Ave., 
Chicago, Illinois 60656. 



Enclosed is my check (or money order) in the amount of $250 00 
Please send me my serial numbered, registered copy of "THE 
CREATOR" as soon as my check clears (No wait for certified 
checks, bank checks or money orders.) Sorry, no credit cards 
accepted. 



(Please print). 

Full name 

Address 

City 



State . 



Apt. * . 
_Zip. 



Computer make . 



. Model . 



CIRCLE 119 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1980 



73 





VOUR LETTERS ARE 


PNSBXOKUE 


A 






4 




5 6 






BOM 


BASK 




SPOKEN 






POX 


BONE 










SUN 


PUNK 










Pun 


SUNK 
BAKE 












8 


9: 


16 




e 






* • 


OVERTIME 




86:63:34 


1 CHALLENGES. THEN XX . 










VOUR LETTERS ARE 


PNSBXOKUE 


A 




3 


4 




5 6 




7 


MM 


BASK 




SPOKEN 






POX 


BONE 










SUN 


PUNK 










Pun 


SUNK 
BAKE 












B: 


:9. 


10 




t 






* * 


OVERTIME • ♦ 




86:84 68 




SCORE 


FOR STEVE FOR ThIS ROUND: 


596 






VOUR LETTERS ARE 


: PNSBXOKUE 


A 




:J: 


4 




5 6 






BOX 


BASK 




SfC*,EN 






POX 


BONE 










SUN 


PUNK 










PUN 


SUNK 
BAKE 












8 


9 


IB. 







TOTAL SCORE, POUND : 



PLAYER 
STEVE 
IK. BILL 



LAST SCORE 
596 
6 



iCORE 
596 




8 
08 64 -«2 



VULNERABLE? 

NO 

NO 



TO CONTINUE, PRESS ANY KEY 







16 REM »«» PERUUH — 14 MAY 1979 

28 REM «*« BASED ON *PH C) mOLlIMGSwjRTh . 

38 REN ••« AND ON "PEROUACKEY. THE DIFFERENT MORD GAHE" 

1978 
46 REM •*» PUBLISHED BV LAKESIDE INDUSTRIES. A DIVISION Of 

LEISURE DYNAMICS. INC . MiNNEAPiXIS. Hit* 
56 REN •*« PROGRAM BY DAVID £ POKERS 
60 REM «»» IB WIL6EN CT 

76 REM •*» NEH HYDE PARK. NY 11046 

88 REM «* 
96 POKE (H46A9.<HFF 
186 CLEAR 1688 
118 XX**STRINGJj;64. ■ ") 
126 DEF1KT fc,£,F. ..LN.KR.S.V.M 
136 CLS INPUT MS THE CLOCK DISPLAYED". A* 
146 IF l£FT$<A», 1)«"V" 1MEN 176 

156 PRINT: PRINT -RETURN TO DOS AND ENTER CLOCK COMMAND 
166 CMD-S- 

178 as 

180 PRINT CHRf<23> 

196 PRINT • 274. 'PERQUACKEV' 

268 PRINT * 768. "DO YOU NEED INSTRUCTIONS'- 

216 PRINT 

226 LINEINPUT A* 

236 IF LEFT$(A».1>="N- THEN 946 

246 as 

256 PRINT TAB<28> -PERUUACKEY" 
266 PRINT : 

PRINT CMRt<34) "PERUUACKEY" CHR»c34> ■ IS IHE DIFFERENT HORD GAME. 
FUN FOR ALL. ESPECIALLY THOSE MHO LOVE TO HUNT FOR WORDS AND MEET THE 
CHALLENGE OF AN EVER-TICKING aOCK " 
278 PRINT 
286 PR1NY "THIS VERSION OF ■ CHR*C4> "PEROUACKEV CHR$<34) " MAY BE 




f4« V 




PLAYED BY UP TO FOUR PLAYERS YOU CAN EVEN PLAV IT SOLITAIRE. ALWAYS TRYING TO 

BETTER YOUR SCORE FROM PREVIOUS GAMES AND ROUNDS THE COMPUTER" 

296 PRINT "Mia SET UP YOUR GAMES. TALLY VOUR SCORES, AND EVEN 

MAKE SURE THAT YOU ARE PLAYING FAIRLY " 

368 GOSUB 4656 

318 PRINT PRINT-THE OBJECT OF THE GAME IS TO FIND AND SPELL AS MANY WORDS AS 

POSSIBLE FROM A LIST OF LETTERS THE COMPUTER HILL GENERATE FOR 

YOU. ALL IN A THREE-MINUTE TIME LIMIT AT FIRST, THE COMPUTER" 

326 PRINT -HILL GIVE YOU TEN LETTERS WITH WHICH TO WORK AS YOUR SCORE" 

338 PRINT "INCREASES AND YOU BECOME "CHR*(34> 'VULNERABLE" CHR*t34> " YOU Mia 

BE AaOTTED THIRTEEN LETTERS BUT YOU HILL HAVE TO ACHIEVE BETTER SCORES 

OR BE SET POINTS FOR NON-SUPERIOR PLAV!" 

346 GuSUB 4656 

358 PRINT -THE COMPUTER HILL PROMPT YOU AS VOU GO. IN CASE YOU SHOULD ȣED 

ANY HELP IN THE MECHANICS OF THE GAME BUT FOR VOUR INFORMATION 

YOU SHOULD KNOW IN ADVANCE THAT ONLY HORDS IN A STANDARD" 

368 PRINT -DICTIONARY ARE ACCEPTABLE ALL THE PLAYERS SHOULD AGREE 

ON ONE BEFORE PLAV IS BEGUN OF COURSE. LIKE HOST WORD GAMES. 

PROPER NAMES. FOREIGN HORDS. ABBREVIATIONS OR CAPITALIZED WORDS" 

378 PRINT "ARE NOT ALLOWED ALSO. VOU MUST RESIST THE TEMPTATION TO USE 

PUNCTUATION HARKS THE COMPUTER HILL NOT ALLOW THEM THEY ARE 

NOT PART OF THE PEROUACKEV VOCABULARY!" 

388 GOSUB 4656 

398 PRINT "VOU MAY NOT HAKE A WORD ENDING IN ■ CHR$<34) "S" CMR$(34> " IF THAT 

HORD ALSO APPEARS MITHOUT THE " CHR*<34> •$■ CHR*<34> " DURING THE SAME TURN. " 

466 PRINT 

418 PRINT "ALL WORDS MUST BE AT LEAST THREE LETTERS LONG 9MB>p U E 

YOU MAY NOT ENTER MORE THAN FIVE HORDS CONTAINING THE SAME jjtSk r ",Ol 

NUMBER OF LETTERS IN ANY ONE TURN 

TO ENTER A HORD. SIMPLY TYPE IT IN 

OF COURSE, YOUR ERRORS CAN BE RECOVERED TO DELETE THE" 

426 PRINT -LAST HORD YOU ENTERED. JUST ENTER 22. TO DELETE ANY OTHER 

WORD. TYPE ZZ FOLLOWED. WITHOUT A SPACE, BV THAT WORD (FOR 

EXAMPLE. ZZBIGBUG WOULD DELETE THE ENTRY " CHRt<34) -BIGBUQ- CHR«(34)'. ■ 

438 GUSUB 4656 

446 PRINT 

456 PRINT "SCORING IS A LITTLE COMPLICATED. BUT THE COMPUTER HANDLES 

IT JUST FINE YOU'LL GET ALL THE DETAILS RIGHT AWAY. BUT UP 

FRONT VOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THE BONUSES. BECAUSE THEY CAN 

REALLY ADD UP. 

468 GOSUB 4856 

476 PRINT "REMEMBER. YOU COULD ONLY ENTER FIVE WORDS OF EACH LENGTH? 

HELL. ONCE YOU DO ENTER FIVE WORDS IN EACH OF TWO ADJOINING 

CATEGORIES <FOR EXAMPLE FIVE THREE-LETTER WORDS AND FIVE" 

486 PRINT "FOUR-LETTER WORDS <AHEM!>>. VOU GET A RATHER FAT BONUS 

366 POINTS FOR 5 THREES AND 5 FOURS 

566 POINTS FOR 5 FOURS AND 5 FIVES 

886 POINTS FOR 5 FIVES AND 5 SIXES" 
498 PRINT- 1286 POINTS FOR 5 SIXES AND 5 SEVENS 

1856 POINTS FOR 5 SEVENS AND 5 EIGHTS 
2766 POINTS FOR 5 EIGHTS AND 5 NINES" 

see Gosue 4ese 

516 PRINT "NOW, HERE'S THE COMPLICATED PART SKIP IT IF YOU WISH. BUT IF 
VOU BECOME A REAL EXPERT, YOU'LL WANT THIS INFORMATION, SO MERE 
IT IS FOR YOU. AHVwAY - 
526 PRINT • 

HE FIRS! THREE-LETTER WORD YOU GET 66 POINTS. AND 16 MORE 
FOR EACH TMEREAfTEK 66. 76. 86. 96, 166 POINTS TOTAL FOR 1. 

2. 3. 4 OR S THREE-LETTER WORDS ■ 
538 PRINT - 

UN-LETTER WORD YUU GET 1. MHO 

FOR EACH THEREAFTER 128. 146, 166. 186. 266 POINTS 

3. 4 « 5 FOUR-LET i ER WORDS. - 
546 GOSUB 4656 

556 PRINT "AS Tnt FIVE-LETTER CATEGORY GROWS VOU GET 286. 
356 AND 486 POINTS - 

566 PRINT PRINT-SIX LETTER WORDS BRING 366. 466. 566. 666 OR 766 POINTS 

FOR ONE THROUGH FIVE ENTRIES 

GET SEVEN LETTER WORDS AND YOU'LL WIPE UUT YOUR OPPONENTS AS 

576 PRINT "THAT CATEGORY FILLS YOU GET 566, 656, 888, 956 A* 1166 POINTS. 

BUI LOOK AT THE EIGHTS: 756. 1666. 1256. 1566. 1756 POINTS. " 

588 GOSUB 4656 

596 PRINT -NI*- AND TEN-LETT^ THE SUREST WAV TO DRIVE YOUR 

OPPONENTS TO DISTRACTION NINES BRING 1666. 1566. 2666. 2566. 

OR 3686 POINTS FOR ONE TO FIVE ENTRIES " 

666 PRINT: PRINT "AND TENS 7 ? ? FORGET THE REST OF THE PLAYERS AND LOOK!" 

618 PRINTPRINT TA6(16) STRING*<S,CHR*(94>>' 1566. 3666. 5666. 7566 OR 13668 POINTS" 
628 PRINT TAB(15> "FOR ONE THROUGH FIVE ENTRIES. ' 

STR1NG»(5.CHR»<93>> 
638 GOSUB 4656 
646 PRINT CHkl 
656 PRINT PRINT-NOW SOME VERY IMPORTANT DETAILS 

DON'T SKIP THESE ' •" 
666 XX*«STRING*<32. " ') 
678 GOSUB 4656 
686 XX»*STR1N0»<64. " ■) 

696 PRINT PRINT "ONCE YOU HAVE ACCUMULATED 2668 POINTS YOU BECOME VULNERABLE! 
THAT i FINE. BECAUSE THEN YOU'a GET 13 LETTERS. TO WORK H1TH, 
BUT ALSO YUU MUST i-CORE A MINIMUM OF 568 POINTS IF YOU DUN T" 
786 PRINT -SCORE THE MINIMUM, 566 POINTS WILL BE DEDUCTED FROM YOUR SCORE. 
AND THE POINTS VOU DID MAKE IN THAT ROUND WILL BE DISALLOWED ■ 



MORE 



256, :,w. 



74 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Here's The Second Half 




$1595 

(soft cover) 



Written by the author of your Level il Users Manual, LEARNING LEVEL II picks right up where the Level 
I Manual leaves off. It even supplies the changes needed to make the Level I Manual compatible with your 
Level II TRS-80. 

LEARNING LEVEL II covers all Level II BASIC beyond Level I. plus much more. It shows you how to use 
the Editor, explains what the many error messages are really saying, and leads you thru conversions of 
Level I programs to Level II. 

Dual cassettes, the Expansion Interface with Real Time Clock, use of printers and other features are 
explained in the same easy-to-leam style that made the Level I Manual famous. LEARNING LEVEL II 
was created specifically for your Level II TRS-80! 




I 
I 
I 

l 



Yes, I want to LEARN Level II ! 

COMPUSOFV^ PUBLISHING • 8643CC Navajo Rd. • San Diego, CA 92119 



Please send copies of LEARNING LEVEL 

II. My check for $15.95 each + $1.45 P&H is enclosed. 
(CA addresses add 6% sales tax). 

I understand my order will be shipped promptly and 
there is a 30 day money-back guarantee. 



NAME 

ADDRESS 

CITY 

STATE 

ZIP CODE 



\ 
I 
I 
I 
I 



APRIL 1980 



CIRCLE 122 ON READER SERVICE CARD 










718 PRINT: PRINT "WHEN VOU ARE VULNERABLE, YOU NAY NOT MAKE THREE-LETTER WORDS ' 
726 PRINT- 

THE GAME IS OVER AT THE END OF THE ROUND IN WHICH ANY PLAYER 
REACHES A TOTAL OF 5888 POINTS. " 
738 OOSUB 4656 

746 PRINT "A WORD ABOUT THE DISPLAY 

7S6 PRINT PRINT-THE DISPLAY IS SELF-PROMPTING AND HILL HELP YOU A LOT 
IT IS ALSO SELF-EXPLANATORY. LISTING YOUR WORDS BY LENGTH 
WORDS ENTERED AFTER THREE MINUTES HILL AUTOMATICALLY BE" 
766 PRINT "DISALLOWED, AND THE TURN MILL BE ENDED TO END YOUR TURN 
BEFORE THE TIME LIMIT EXPIRES. ENTER XX 

WHEN YOUR TURN IS ENDED. THE COMPUTER HILL EXAMINE ALL THE" 
776 PRINT-ENTRIES AND DISALLOW WORDS MADE BY ADDING S TO OTHER ENTRIES. 
DUPLICATE ENTRIES AND WORDS INCONSISTENT WITH THE LETTER LIST - 
786 GOSUB 4696 

796 PRINT -DISALLOWED WORDS WILL BE BRACKETED AS IN THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES ■ 
666 PRINT- 
WORDS MADE BY ADDING S: **EXAMPLES**S 
DUPLICATE WORDS: ♦*EXAHPLE**2 

WORDS INCONSISTENT WITH LETTERS: ♦♦EXAMPLE**?" 
616 GOSUB 4656 

826 PRINT -AFTER THE COMPUTER DISALLOWS WORDS. YOUR OPPONENTS MAY DO SO. 
TOO THEY NAY CHECK WORDS IN A STANDARD DICTIONARY AND THEN 
ENTER ANY CHALLENGES WHICH THE COMPUTER HILL BRACKET WITH 
♦* **C " 
838 PRINT- 
AFTER ALL CHALLENGES ARE MADE, ENTER XX, M> THE COMPUTER HILL 
CALCULATE AMD DISPLAY YOUR SCORE AND THEN DISPLAY A SCOREBOARD 
FOR ALL PLAYERS - 
846 PRINT" 

DURING PLAY. THE LONER RIGHT CORNER OF THE SCREEN WILL SHOW THE 
PLAYER'S SCORE UP TO THE END OF HIS LAST TURN THE UPPER RIGHT 
WILL DISPLAY THE TIMER ' 
836 OOSUB 4856 

866 PRINT-YOU CAN PROBABLY COME UP WITH ALL SORTS OF REFINEMENTS TO THE 
BASIC GAME WHAT WONDERFUL DEVELOPMENTS THEY COULD BE' LIKE 
THEME GAMES MAYBE DEVOTE ONE WHOLE GAME ONLY TO COMPUTER- 
SCIENCE WORDS. - 
876 PRINT- 
OR SCI FI 

OR WHO KNOWS 

WHERE YOUR 

IMAGINATION" 
886 PRINT ■ j.iL am - 

896 GOSUB 4656 

966 PRINT "NOW. IF YOU D LIKE TO REVIEW Trtif. JUST KEY rt( ► 
BUT IF YOU'RE READV TO PLAY, KEY ANYTHING ELSE' - 
916 HMINKEY*: IF «*■" THEN 918 
926 IF AM"R" THEN 246 
938 AM" 
946 RANDOM 

956 DEF FNA*<A*>»HID*(A». RNN6), !/■>• ■ 
966 DATA FUNIPT. LTORDN, NUSRIG. BVWOLO. VEJGZX, WOPONC, BRHIKT, 

SRHIFU. HHAEEE, VSVONS. FHLPBN, JGDKCH 
976 READ CM, C2$, C3«, C4$, CM, C6I. C7«, C8», C9*. VA*. V8*. 

vc* 
966 as 

996 INPUT "HOW MANY PLAYERS FOR PERGUACKEY (1-4)-; N 

1666 IF N<1 OR N>4 THEN 998 

1616 DIM W»(7,5). HT<7). WC<7). WD(7>. F<7.5>. H<.H>, VtN.i. St../. -..yHi 

1626 FOR LP«1 TO N 

1638 PRINT "TELL ME PLAYER- LP "S NAME 

1646 LINE1NPUT •—> -, I*<LP> 

1656 NEXT 

1866 P»l 

1876 R*l 

1668 as 

1898 PRINT * IS, I»<P> - PLAYING AND" 

1166 IF V(P)»1 THEN PRINT - VULNtKMBLt . if£ PR1K - >. ! VULNERABLE" 

1116 PRINT « 1616, S<P>. 

1126 IF V(P>1 PRINT 8 323, -NO 3'S- 

1138 PRINT 6 261, ■:J:*j 

1146 PRINT » 272, ":4 ", 

1156 PRINT * 283, -5:-. 

1166 PRINT t 296, " 6 ", 

1178 PRINT * 369, 

118B PRINT • 648. - 8 "l 

1196 PRINT ♦ 663. ■:» ". 

1286 PRINT * 679. ■ 16 . ", 

1216 IF V<P)«6 THEN 1266 

1226 vimfna*(VA*> 

1236 V2MFNA*(VB*> 

1246 V:<*-FNA*(VC*> 

1256 LVMV1**V2«*V3* 

1266 L1MFNA*<C1*> 

1278 L2MFNA*<C2*> 

1286 L3MFNA*<C3*> 

1296 L4MFNA»(C4*> 

1386 L5MFNft*lC3*> 

1318 L6MFNA*<:C6*> 

1326 L?MFNA«(C7»> 

1336 L8MFNA*<C8*> 

1346 L*MfNA*<C9») 




REM CHECK FOR VULNEH*ILITY 




1358 
1368 
1376 
1388 
1396 
1468 
1418 
1426 
1436 

144U 
1456 
1466 
1476 
1486 
1496 
1568 
1516 

1528 
1538 
1546 
15S6 
1566 
1576 
1586 
1598 
let* 
1618 
1628 
1638 
1646 
1656 
1666 
1676 
1686 
1696 
1766 
1716 
1726 
1738 
1746 

1776 
1786 
1796 
1866 
1816 
MM 
MM 
184tf 
1856 

ls?6 
1886 
1896 
1966 
1910 
1926 

1948 

1956 
1966 
1976 
1986 
1996 
2666 
2618 
2626 
2636 
2844 
2B9B 
2666 
2676 



nunwrfwi 

LVMLY«*L1«*L2«*L3*«L4**L5**L6*»L7«*L8**L9**L8* 

PRINT * 128, "PRESS ANY KEY WHEN READY ■; 

FOR LP-8 TO 95 AMINKEY*: IF A»<>" THEN 1426ELSE NEXT 

PRINT « 128, XX*. 

FOR LP-8 TO 56 AM1NKEY* IF A*0"" THEN 1428ELSE NEXT 

GOTO 1376 

PRINT * 128. XXt; 

POKE 4H4641.8 

POKE !H4«M. .i 

POKE (H4643.8 

PRINT * 262. -YOUR LETTERS ARE : ■ LV$; 

CMD-R- 

PRINT » 96. "i 

LINE INPUT A* 

PRINT * 64. XX*. 

IF PEEfA«H4643»6 OR PEEK<«H4642»3 OR >PEEKitH4642/«2 

AND PEEK(tH4841»6> THEN PRINT # 6, XX*. ELSE 1546 

PRINT » 22, -« • OVERTIME •» •", 

GOTO 1766 

IF LEFT*(A», 2)»-XX- THEN 1768 

IF lEFT*lA*,2)="ZZ" AMD LEN<H*>«2 THEN 3326 

IF LEFT*(A*, 2>«-2Z- THEN 3346 

AiMA* 

L«L£N<A*)-3 

IF VtP)=l AND L<1 THEN 1486 

IF L<6 THEN 1486 

IF L>7 THEN L«7 

W*a.WC(L>>«ft* 

WC<L>-WC<L>*1 

IF WC<L»5 THEN PRINT * 64, 'CATEGORY FULL DISALLOWED * ELSE GOTO 1676 

WC<L>>WC<L)-1 

GOTO I486 

B-64*<WC<L)-1) 

IF L«8 PRINT • 325*6. A*. 

IF L=l PRINT 6 33S*B. At; 

IF L-2 PRINT • 346*6. A*. 

IF L«3 PRINT • 338*6. A*. 

IF L*4 PRINT 8 371*8. All 

IF L«5 PRINT 6 789*6%. A*. 

IF L«6 PRINT IP 724*6. AI. 



GOTO 1486 




Piummu/ 



urn 

2116 
2126 

2136 
2146 
2136 
2166 
2178 
216b 
2196 
2286 
2216 

2231 

2246 
2256 
22(8 



PRINT 6 746*6. ft* 

PRINT «• t*.. -INSrtLUNG ENTRIES". 
FOR LP"* TO 7 
WT<lPj>uC< I 
IF WC<LP»4 THEN WC<U>)«4 
NEXT 

REM CHECKS FOR hORDS MADE BY ADDING S 
PPM"**- POM-**S" 
Fuf LP»1 
GOSUB 4630 
FOR LO-8 TO HC(LP) 
IF RIGHT*(W*(LP,L8>.1)0-S' Then . 
FOR LR=6 TO WC<LP-1) 

IF «*(LP-l.LRXX£FT*(.W*aP.lr :. 1926 

F(LP.L0>»1 

ON LP GOSUB 3866. 3688, 3966, 3988. 3948. 3986 

NEXT LR 
NEXT LO 
GOSUB 4646 
NEXT LP ^, 

REM ELIMINATES WORDS INCONSISTENT WITH LETTER LIST / 
PPM"**- PGM"**?" • 

FOR LP-8 TO 7 

OOSUB 4636 
LX««LV* 

FOR L0=6 TO WC<LP> 

IF W*CLP,LO)»" THEN 2166 

IF F<LP, L0>»1 THEN 2146 

LXMLY* 

FOR LR«1 TO LP*3 

TMNID*<W*<LP. LCI), LR. 1 > 
IN=INSTR(LX», T*> 
IF IN>6 THEN 2116 
M1D*<LX*. IN.1)»" - 
GOTO 2138 
F<LP.L8>»1 

ON LP*1 GOSUB 3848, 3868. 3888. 3986. 3926. 3946. 3966, 3966 
NEXT LR 
NEXT LO 
GOSU6 4646 
NEXT LP 

REM ELIMINATES DUPLICATE ENTRIES 
PPM-**- POM-**2" 
FOR LP-* TO 7 
GOSUB 4638 
FOR LO"6 TO HC<LP> 
IF W*tU-.LU>="" THEN 2326 
FOR LR«6 TO WC<LP) 

IK LCKAR AND W*<LP. LCi/«W*(LP,lR; .HEN 2276 
NEXT LR 
GOTO 2368 



* I 



9e 



M 



76 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 









NEW! TPM* for TRS-80 Model II 
NEW! System/6 Package 

Computer Design Labs 



Z80 Disk software 



We have acquired the rights to all TDL software (& hardware). TDL software has long had the reputation of being the best in the 
industry. Computer Design Labs will continue to maintain, evolve and add to this superior line of quality software. 

— Carl Galletti and Roger Amidon. owners. 

Software with Manual/Manual Alone 



All of the software below is available on any of the 
following media for operation wit h a ZSO CPU using 
the CP/M* or similar type disk operating system 
(such as our own TPM*). 

for TRS-80- CP/M (Model I or II) 
for S" CP/M (soft sectored single density) 
for S'V CP/M (soft sectored single density) 
for S'V North Star CP/M (single density) 
for S'V North Star CP/M (double densMyl 

BASIC I 

A powerful and fast ZSO Basic interpreter with EDIT, 
RENUMBER. TRACE. PRINT USING, assembly language 
subroutine CALL. LOADGO for chaining", COPY to 
move tent. EXCHANGE, KILL. LINE INPUT, error inter- 
cept, sequential file handling In both ASCII and binary 
formats, and much, much more. It runs in a little over 1 2 
K An excellent choice tor games since the precision 
was limited to 7 digits in order to make it one of the 
fastest around. $49.95/$ 15. 

BASIC II 

Basic I but with 12 digit precision to make its power 
available to the business world with only a slight sacrifice 
in speed. Still runs faster than most other Basics (even 
those with much less precision). $99 95/$ 15 

BUSINESS BASIC 

The most powerful Basic for business applications- It 
adds to Basic II with random or sequential disk Ikes in 
either fixed or variable record lengths, simultaneous 
access to multiple disk files, PRIVACY command to 
prohibit user access to source code, global editing, 
added math functions, and disk tile maintenance capa- 
bility without leaving Basic (list, rename, or delete) 
S179.95/S2S 

ZEDIT 

A character oriented text editor with 26 commands 
and "macro" capability for stringing multiple commands 
together Included are a complete array of character 
move. add. delete, and display function. $49,957$ 15. 

ZTEL 

ZSO Text Editing Language - Not just a text editor. 
Actually a language which allows you to edit text and 
also write, save, and recall programs which manipulate 
text. Commands include conditional branching, subrou- 
tine calls, iteration, block move, expression evaluation, 
and much more. Contains 36 value registers and 1 text 
registers. Be creative! Manipulate text with commands 
you write using Ztel. $79.95/$25. 

TOP 

A Z80 Text Output Processor which will do text 
formatting for manuals, documents, and other word 
processing jobs. Works with any text editor. Does 
justification, page numbering and headings, spacing, 
centering, and much more! $79 9f/$25 

MACRO I 

A macro assembler which will generate relocaleable 
or absolute code for the 8080 or ZSO using standard 
Intel mnemonics plus TDL/Z80 extensions. Functions 
include 1 4 conditionals. 1 6 listing controls. 54 pseudo- 
ops, 1 1 arithmetic/logical operations, local and global 
symbols, chaining tiles, linking capability with optional 
linker, and recursive/ reiterative macros. This assembler 
is so powerful you' It think it isdoing all the work for you. It 
actually makes assembly language programming much 
less of an effort and more creative. $79 95/$20. 

MACRO II 

Expands upon Macro I's linking capability (which is 
useful but somewhat limited) thereby being able to take 
full advantage of the optional Linker. Also a time and 
date function has been added and the listing capability 
improved $99 95/$25 

LINKER 

How many times have you written the same subroutine 
in each new program? Top notch professional pro- 
grammers compile a library of these subroutines and 
use a Linker to tie them together at assembly time. 
Development time is thus drastically reduced and 
becomes comparable to writing in a high level language 
but with all the speed of assembly language. So. get the 
new CDL L inker and start writing programs in a traction 
of the time it took before. Linker is compatible with 
Macro I & II as well as TDL/Xitan assemblers version 2.0 
or later. $79 95/$20 



APRIL 10SO 



DEBUG I 

Many programmers give up on writing in assembly 
language even though they know their programs would 
be faster and more powerful. To them assembly language 
seems difficult to understand and follow, as well as 
being a nightmare to debug. Well, not with proper tools 
like Debug I. With Debug I you can easily follow the flow 
of any Z80 or 8080 program. Trace the program one 
step at a time or 1 steps or whatever you like. At each 
step you will be able to see the instruction executed and 
what it did. If desired, modifications can then be made 
before continuing. If s all under your control. You can 
even skip displaying a subroutine call and up to seven 
breakpoints can be set during execution. Use of Debug I 
can pay for itself many times over by saving you valuable 
debugging time. $79.95/$20. 

DEBUG II 

This is an expanded debugger which has all of the 
features of Debug I plus many more. You can "trap" (i.e. 
trace a program until a set of register, flag, and/or 
memory conditions occur). Also, instructions may be 
entered and executed immediately. This makes it easy 
to learn new instructions by examining registers/memory 
before and after And a RADIX function allows changing 
between ASCII, binary, decimal, hex. octal, signed 
decimal, or split octal. All these features and more add 
up to give you a very powerful development tool. Both 
Debug I and II must run on a Z80 but will debug both ZSO 
and 8080 code. $99 95/S20 

ZAPPLE 

A ZSO executive and debug monitor. Capable of 
search, ASCII put and display, read and write to I/O 
ports, hex math, breakpoint, execute, move, fill, display, 
read and write in Intel or binary format tape, and more! 
on disk 

APPLE 

8080 version of Zapple 

NEW! TPM no w available f or TRS-BO Modal 
III 

TPM* 

A NEW ZSO disk operation system! This is not CP/M*. 
If s better! You can still run any program which runs with 
CP/M* but unlike CP/M* this operating system was 
written specifically for the Z80* and takes full advantage 
of its extra powerful instruction set. In other words its 
not warmed over 8080 code! Available for TRS-80* 
(Model I or II). Tarbell. Xitan DDDC. SD Sales "VERSA- 
FLOPPY", North Star (SD&DD). and Digital (Micro) 
Systems $79 95/$25 



SYSTEM/6 

TPM with utilities, Basic I interpreter, Basic E compiler. 
Macro I assembler, Debug I debugger, and ZEDIT text 
editor %»■' 

Above purchased separately costs $339.75 
Special introductory offer Only $1 79.75 with coupon!! 




ORDERING INFORMATION 

Visa. Master Charge and COD. O.K. To order call or 
write with the following information. 

1 . Name of Product (e.g. Macro I) 

2. Media (e.g. 8" CP/M) 

3. Price and method of payment (e.g. COD.) include 
credit card info, if applicable 

4. Name, Address and Phone number. 

5. For TPM orders only: I ndicate if tor TRS 80, Tarbell. 
Xitan DDDC. SD Sales (SV or 8"). ICOM <5V or 
8"), North Star (single or double density) or Digital 
(Micro) Systems. 

6. N.J. residents add 5% sales tax. 

Manual cost applicable against price of subsequent 
software purchase in any item except for the Osborne 
software. 



SYSTEM MONITOR BOARD (SMBII) 

A complete I/O board forS- 1 00 systems. 2 serial ports. 
2 parallel ports. 1 200/2400 baud cassette tape inter- 
face, sockets for 2K of RAM. 3-2708/27 1 6 EPROM's or 
ROM. lump on reset circuitry Bare board $49.95/$20. 609~599"2 1 46 



For information and tech queries call 



ROM FOR SMB II 

2KX8 masked ROM of Zapple monitor. Includes source 
listing $34.95/$1 5. 

PAYROLL (source code only) 

The Osborne package. Requires C Basic 2. 
5" disks $1 24.95 (manual not included) 
8" disks $ 99.95 (manual not included) 
Manual $20.00 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE/RECEIVABLE 
(source coda only) 

By Osborne, Requires C Basic 2 
5" disks $124.95 (manual not included) 
8" $99.95 (manual not included) 
Manual $20.00 

GENERAL LEDGER (source cod* only) 
By Osborne. Requires C Basic 2 
5" disks $99.95 (manual not included) 
8" disks $99.95 (manual not included) 
Manual $20.00 

C BASIC 2 

Required for Osborne software $99.95/$20. 



77 



For phono orders ONLY call toll free 

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(Except Florida) 

OEMS 

Many CDL products are available for licensing to 
OEMs. Write to Carl Galletti with your requirements. 

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CIRCLE 127 ON READER SERVICE CARD 









Mai 



2278 IF F (LP, LOW THEN 2388 

2288 F<LP,LR>«1 

2298 ON LPU GOSUB 3848. 3868. 3888. 3988. 3928, 3948. 

2388 NEXT LO 

2318 GOSUB 4848 

2328 NEXT LP 

2338 «*•"■ 

2348 REN ELIMINATES CHALLENGED ENTRIES 

2358 PP*-"«" : PO*«"«*C" 

2378 PRINT 8 64. XX», 

2388 PRINT • 64. "ENTER CHALI ENUES. THEN XX' 

2398 PRINT t 98. ""; 

2488 LINEINPUT M 

2418 PRINT 8 64. XX*. 

2428 PRINT • 99. "j 

2438 IF ft*-"XX"THEN 2688 

2448 IF LEN(M><3 THEN 2488 

2458 L«LEN<A*>-3 

2468 FOR LP=8 TO UC(L> 

2478 IF A**U*<L.LP) THEN 2518 

2488 NEXT 

2490 PRINT • 64, 'CHALLENGED WORD NOT FOUND 

2588 GOTO 2398 

2518 IF F<L.LP>*1 THEN 2588 

2528 F(L.LP>>1 

2538 LQ-LP 

2548 LP-L 

2558 ON L»l GOSUB 3848. 3868. 3888, 3988. 392a 3948. 3968. 

2568 PRINT 8 64. XX*; 

2578 GOTO 2398 

2588 PRINT ( 64. "ENTRV ALREADY DISALLOWED 

2598 GOTO 2398 

2688 PRINT 8 64. XXI, 

2618 FOR LP-8 TO 7 

2628 MT(LP)<MT(LP)-MD<LP> 

2638 NEXT 

2648 REM SCORING 

2658 IF HT<8»8 THEN S=50*iei44T(8> 

2668 IF HT<1»6 THEN S>S»188*28<MT<1> 

2678 IF HT<2»8 THEN S=SU58*58*HT<2> 

2fcS8 IF HT<3»8 THEN S»S»268«U»»MT < < > 

2698 IF HT<4»8 THEN S»S«3Se*15e*HT<4> 

2788 IF MT(S»8 THEN S*S«S88«258*UT(S> 

2718 IF HT<6»e THEN S*S*588»S8e*UT<6> 

2728 IF NT(7>-1 THEN 5*5*1588 ' 

2738 IF HT<7)*2 THEN S«S»3888 

2748 IF UT<7>»3 THEN S»S*5088 

2758 IF HT(7)«4 THEN S»S*75e8 

2768 IF HT<7>«5 THEN S«S»120ee 

2778 IF MT<8>*5 AND HT<1>»3 THEN S=S»388 

2788 IF HT(l>-5 AND MT(2)=5 THEN S»S*S06 

2798 IF MTC2>-5 AND HT(3>>5 THEN S-S+888 

2888 IF MT<3)=5 AND HT<4)»5 THEN S>S+1288 

2818 IF HT(4)«5 AMD MT<5>=5 IHEN S-S-H858 

2828 IF MT<5>«5 AND HT<6>-5 THEN S*S>2788 

2838 IF V<P)=1 AW) S<588 THEN S— 588 

2848 PRINT » 79. "SCORE FOR ■ I*<P) ■ FOR THIS ROUND " S 

2858 SKP)"' 

2868 S<P)-S<P)*S 

2878 FOR LP=8 TO 1588 : NEXT 

2888 as 

2898 PRINT 

2988 PRINT TAB<28> •TOTAL SCORE. ROUND' R 

2918 PRINT 

2928 PRINT "PLAYER". "LAST SCORE", "TOTAL SCORE", "VULNERABLE? 

2938 FOR LP>1 TO N 

2948 PRINT I*(LP). 

PRINT USING 

PRINT USING 




DM 




2958 
2968 
2978 
2988 

2998 



•MM" 



SKLP>. 

MMt*; S<LP). 

if sap»=2eee then print • yes* else print ■ 

if s(LP»'2eee then v<lp>*i else vclp>»8 
if sap»seee then e«i 

3888 NEXT 

3818 PRINT PRIHT PRINT 

3828 IF E»l AND P<N PRINI -GAME OVER AT CONCLUSION OF THIS ROUND" 

3838 IF E'l AND P-N IHEN 3258 

3848 P=P*1 

3858 IF P=N»1 THEN R--RM 

3868 IF P=N»1 THEN P»l 

3878 GOSUB 4858 

3888 PRINT "STAND BY. PLEASE "; 

3890 FIJR LP'S TO 7 

3188 HKLP)=8 

3118 HC(LP>'8 

3128 HD<LP>=8 

3138 FOR L0=8 TO 4 

3148 M*<LP,LQ>""" 

3158 F(LP,LU)=8 

3168 NEXT LQ. LP 

3178 LX*«"" 

3188 LY*="" 

3198 S*8 



* 



* A 



a 



x ft 




3748. 3788 




3288 «*■"" 
3218 Xl««" 
3968. 3988 3228 Sl=8 

3238 Ai*»" 
3248 OOTO 1888 
3258 PRINT "GAME NOM fr«>(. • 
3268 PRINT "TO PLAY AGAIN KEY A 
3278 Z*-INKEY* 
3288 IF 2**"" THEN 3278 
3298 IF Z*="A" THEN RUN 
3388 END 

3318 REM ROUTINE TO DELETE ENTRIES BY PLAYER 
3328 A*=A1* 
3338 GOTO 3358 
3348 A*°RIGHT*(A*.LEN(A*>-2> 
3358 PRINT • 69. "DELE I IMG "A*" 
3368 IF LEN(A*X3 THEN 3438 
3378 X1«=STRING*<LEN<A*>. " "> 
3388 L=LEN(A*>-3 
3398 IF L>7 L«7 
3488 FOR LP-8 TO MC<L>-1 
3418 IF A*-U*(L.LP) THEN 3458 
3428 NEXT 

3438 PRINT • 98, " NOT FOUND". 

3448 GO 10 1488 
3458 M*<L.LP>«"" 
3468 U*(L.LP>*U*(L,MC<L)-1> 
3478 H*<L,HC<L>-1>«"" 
3488 M6*-U*<L»LP> 

3498 ON L*i GOTO 3588, 3548, 3588, 3628. 3668. 3788. 
3588 PRINT • 325*64»LP. XI*; 
3518 PRINT « 325»64«LP, MM; 
3528 PRINT 8 325*64*(MC<L>-1),X1«; 
3538 GOTO 3818 
3548 PRINT • 335«64*LP.X1»; 
3558 PRINT 8 335*64»LP. H8*; 
3568 PRINT 8 333*64»<MC<L>-1>.X1*. 
3578 GOTO 3818 
3588 PRINT 8 346+644.P. XII. 
3S98 PRINT 8 346«64«.P, NO*. 
3688 PRINT • 346«64*<HC(L>-1>. XI*; 
3618 GOTO 3818 
3628 PRINT • 358*64«LP. XI*; 
3638 PRINT 8 358*64*J>. U8*; 
3648 PRINT 8 338*64»<MC<L>-1>.X1*; 
3658 GOTO 3818 
3668 PRINT 8 371*64«LP. XI*; 
3678 PRINT 8 3?1*64»LP, MB*; 
3688 PRINT 8 371*64»(MC<L>-1>.X1«; 
3698 GOTO 3818 
3788 PRINT 8 789»64»«.P. XI*; 
3718 PRINT * ?09»64»LP.M8*. 
3728 PRINT 8 789»64»<HC<L)-1>.X1«; 
3738 GOTO 3818 
3748 PRINT 8 724*64»LP, XI*; 
3758 PRINI 8 724t64«LP.Ne«; 
3768 PRINT 8 724«64*<MC<L)-1>.X1«; 
3778 GOTO 3818 
3788 PRINT 8 748«64*.P. XI*; 
3798 PRINT 8 748«64«LP. M8«; 

3888 PRINT 8 748»64»<MC<L)-1>. STRIH&*(L£N<M8*) 
3818 NC<L>«MC<L>-1 
3828 GOTO 1488 

3838 REM S/R TO DELETE INVALID ENTRIES 
3848 PP»323 PO-328 
3858 GOTO 3998 
3868 PP-333 : PO-339 
3878 GOTO 3998 
3888 PP>344 P8»33i 
3898 GOTO 3998 
NO" 3988 PP'356 P0*364 

I 'SJTO 3998 
3928 PP«369 PO-378 
3938 GOTO 3998 
3948 PP"?87 PO»717 
3958 GOTO 3998 
3968 PP"722 : PQ-733 
3978 GOTO 3998 
3986 PP*?38 PQ=75e 
3998 PRINT 8 PP«64«L0. PP«; 
4888 PRINT 8 PCH64H.Q, P0«; 
4818 HD(LP>>MD(LP>»1 
4820 REIURN 

4838 PRINT 8 188. CHR((14<> kETURN 
4848 PRINT 8 188, " " RETURN 
4858 PRINT 8 896. "TO CuNTINUE. PRESS ANY KEY. "; 
4868 FOR LP*8 TO 75: RA**IN*EY* IF AA*<>"" THEN 4186ELSE NEXT 
4878 PRINT 8 896. XX*; 

4888 FOR LP'S TO 58: AA**1I*EY« IF ARIO" THEN 410HFI if. NEXT 
4898 GOTO 4858 

4108 as 

4118 PRINT 
4128 RETURN 

76 CREATIVE COMPUTING 




ACTION, STRATEGY, AND FANTASY- 
for the SERIOUS games player 



Brain Guinea - 1 demands ingenuity. 

Two players bombard radioactive material with protons 
and electrons until it reaches critical mass and sets up a 
Nuclear Reaction. Dodgem requires you to outmaneuver 
another player to get your pieces across the board first. 
Dueling Digit* and Parrot challenges your ability to 
replicate number and letter sequences. Tones lets you 
make music with your Apple (16K) CS-4004 $7.95. Strategy 
Games and Brain Games are on one disk (16K) CS-4503 
$14.95. 

Strategy Gomes - 1 keeps games players in suspense 

You and your opponent trail around the screen at a 
quickening pace attempting to trap each other in your 
Blockade. A 7 category quiz game will certify you as a 
Genius (or an errant knave!). Beginners will meet their 
master in Checkers. Skunk and UFO complete this classic 
collection (16K) CS-4003 $7.95 

Know Yourself through these valid self -tests 

Find out how your life style effects your Ufa Expectancy 
or explore the effects of Alcohol on your behavior. Sex 
Role helps you to examine your behavior and attitudes in 
light of society's concept of sex roles. Psychotherapy 
compares your feelings, actions, and phobias to the 
population's norms and Computer Literacy tests your 
microcomputer savvy. A fun and instructional package 
(16K) CS-4301 $7.95. Know Yourself and CAI Programs 
are on one disk (16K) CS-4503 for $14. 95 





You're in command in Space Games - I. 

Maneuver the TIE fighters into your blaster sights and 
zap them with your lasers to save the rebel base camp 
from annihilation in Star Wars. Rocket Pilot is an ad- 
vanced real time take off and landing game. High resolu- 
tion graphics, exploding saucers and sound effects add to 
the suspense as you repel the Saucer Invasion. Finally, a 
bonus graphics demonstration, Dynamic Bouncer (16K) 
CS-4001 $7.95. Space Games and Sports Games are on 
one disk (16K) CS-4501 for $14.95 




APRIL I960 



Sports Games - 1 puts you in the Apple World Series 

Take the field in the Great American Computer Game. 
Mix up your pitches to keep the batter off balance. Move 
your fielders to snag the ball before he gets to first. Balls 
and strikes, double plays, force outs, and errors let you 
play with a realistic strategy. Also in the line up— Slalom, 
a championship downhill ski race, Torpedo Alley, and 
Dart* (16K) CS-4002 $7.95. Space Games and Sports 
Games are on one disk (16K) CS-4501 for $14.95 

It's easy to order SENSATIONAL SOFTWARE for your Apple II. 

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add $1 .00 sales tax. Visa, Master Charge and American Express orders may be called In toll 
free to 800-931-8112 (In N.J. 201-540-0445). 

For a FREE Sensational Software Catalog of over 400 programs for eight popular systems circle reader service 8300. 

79 










Bilingual 

Original 

Adventure 



Betsy Staples 



"You are standing at the end of a 
road before a small brick building. A 
small stream flows out of the 
building and down a gully." 

So begins Bilingual Adventure, 
Creative Computing's version of Ori- 
ginal Adventure. For those familiar 
with the Adventure series of games, 
the first move is obvious. For the 
benefit of those who have never 
played, however, a brief explanation 
is in order. 

The object of the game is to find 
and escape with as many treasures 
as possible. Each move presents the 
player with a new situation, which 
may include a new treasure or peril, 
and always requires that a decision 
be made— even if it is only the choice 
of direction to be taken on the next 
move. 

But, back to the beginning of the 
game: the first thing the player 
would want to do is have a look 
around inside the building, so he or 
she types a one or two word 
command and waits to see if the 
computer responds. If it does not, he 
must keep trying until he finds words 
which are included in the vocabulary 
of the program. 

Entering a building is trivial, of 
course, but killing a dwarf may 
require some more taxing mental 
gymnastics. The game itself is quite 
absorbing and challenging even for 
one who has never been much of a 
game player. 

Ancelme Roichel has added a 
new twist to the Creative Computing 
version of Original Adventure. The 
game, which is written in the Sam 76 
language, may be played in either 
English or French. 

When I first heard about this 
version of Adventure my reaction was 
one of enthusiasm on behalf of 
French speaking computer buffs. But 
I was skeptical about its value as a 
tool for foreign language teaching. It 
was with that attitude that I sat down 
to try the game for myself. 

I played for a little while in 
English until I became accustomed 
to the logic and procedures required 




in the game. Each proper command 
is met with an acknowleging phrase: 
"Roger," "OK," or "Done." If the 
player types in an incorrect or 
incomplete command, the program 
responds by repeating the command 
followed by "what?" ("Open what?") 
This is amusing the first time or two, 
but soon becomes tiresome, particu- 
larly since nothing that is typed in 
response is ever accepted. 

It was not until I encountered "a 
vicious looking green snake" that I 
became curious about the French 
translation. I typed "French," waited 
about 15 seconds for the French 
description of my current location to 
appear on the screen, and discovered 
that the snake was an affreux 
serpent. 

I also discovered to my surprise 
that my rusty French was adequate 
for deciphering most of the descrip- 
tions of the snake's surroundings. I 
was not, however, up to doing away 
with the snake en Francais , so I 
returned to English long enough to 
discover that "for ecological reasons, 
snakes can't be killed here." 

Very shortly thereafter I became 
hopelessly lost in a maze and had to 
give up. I started over and decided to 
try the whole thing in French. 
Outside of the fact that I never could 
get out of the brick building, I found 
the experiment very rewarding. 

As I went from one situation to 
another, I remembered the general 
descriptions and was able either to 
guess or remember the meanings of 
most of the French words. The real 
challenge was remembering enough 
vocabulary to give the appropriate 
commands 

I had, for example a very difficult 
time putting down the treasures I 
was carrying. I tried "roster," 
"mettre, " "laisser, " "deposer, " and 
several other verbs that my dictionary 
suggested. None worked. I switched 
to English. 

On the other hand, once I had 
come up with the proper infinitive 



o 



form of the verb, I found that 
Adventure was not fussy about the 
conjugation thereof. It would re- 
spond to the first person singular 
(jeprends) as well as the second 
person plural (prenez) or the infinitive 
(prendre). 

Is it a good way to learn French? 
Probably not if one is starting from 
scratch. As a vehicle for practicing 
the language, however, it seems 
superb. 

Obviously, the student is limited 
by the vocabulary used in the game, 
but that is sizable and far from 
elementary. Much more important is 
the mental exercise the player gets 
trying to think of alternate ways to 
express the same thought. If "put out 
lamp" fails, for example, he can try 
"unlight lamp" or "extinguish lamp." 

This ability to re-cast a sentence 
or thought in words and construc- 
tions that are familiar is one of the 
keys to successful foreign language 
learning. This is a skill that gets a 
workout even when the game is 
played in English, and the French 
version provides even better practice. 

When I mentioned Adventure to a 
member of our editorial staff, he 
expressed impatience with the proce- 
dure of trying to guess the vocabu- 
lary recognized by the program. He 
would prefer, he said, a menu or 
listing of the vocabulary available. 
This approach, I believe, would 
eliminate some of the fun and a large 
part of the educational value of the 
game. When speaking to someone in 
a foreign country, it is frequently 
necessary to rephrase one's question 
or idea several times before the other 
person understands. 

One of the most difficult aspects 
of foreign language teaching is 
motivating students to learn. There 
is, after all, a limit to the amount of 
excitement that can be generated 
using a 500-word vocabulary, and 
each addition to the list seems to 
require a painful round of drills and 
quizzes. 



80 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Bilingual, cont'd... 

After only a brief sojourn in the 
subterranean world of Bilingual 
Adventure, I had increased my 
French vocabulary by eight or ten 
words (including affreux), so I am 
sure that a persistent student with 
access to the game over a long 
period of time could learn quite a bit. 
There is nothing like being threat- 
ened by a knife-wielding dwarf to 
inspire you either to recall or 
discover the word for "kill "! 

Motivation is desirable, but frus- 
tration is not, and not being able to 
understand or extricate oneself from 
a situation in a foreign language 
could be frustrating. This is not a 
problem with Bilingual Adventure. 
The ability to change from one 
language to the other makes it 
possible to bridge a gap in vocabu- 
lary and continue with the adventure. 
(As I mentioned above, even with the 
help of a dictionary, I never did 
discover the French command that 
would allow me to leave the brick 
house.) 

Since the transition is not accom- 
plished instantaneously, the player 
is not tempted to switch back and 
forth frequently. It is much quicker to 




consult a dictionary than it is to shift 
to English ana then back to French to 
find the meaning of a word. How- 
ever, if the whole description is 
unclear, or all attempts to find an 
acceptable command have failed, it 
is very comforting to know that a 
translation is only 15 seconds away. 

The instruction sheet that comes 
with the disk warns that the material 
is "PG Rated," and suggests some 
steps to take "if bawdy material of an 
erotic nature offends you or your 
controller." However, in over 12 
hours of play, I failed to notice 
anything that could be considered 
offensive— with the possible excep- 



tion of the dispatch of numerous 
dwarves, which might offend those 
who are bothered by violence. 

The instruction sheet also pro- 
vides directions for saving a game: 
" 'preserve' allows you to save the 
game as it stands and continue 
later." Unfortunately, it does not tell 
how to recall the game after it has 
been saved. 

With the exception, then, of the 
few annoyances I have mentioned — 
most of which do no more than slow 
the game -my evaluation of Biling- 
ual Adventure is positive. I think it 
can be used very effectively in a 
classroom or tutorial situation for 
practice and reinforcement of vo- 
cabulary and reading skills. And if 
you get tired of self-improvement, 
you can always just play it for fun - it 
should be good for many, many 
hours of diversion even if you don't 
know French. □ 

Bilingual Original Adventure is 
available on 8" CP/M floppy disk 
(CS-9004) for $24.95. It runs in a 32K 
system or, to use the save game 
feature, 48K. A TRS-80 version will 
be available in June. Write Creative 
Computing Software, P.O. Box 
789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. 



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housings which offer 

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YOUR information processing station 
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Locking steel hood optional. 



APRIL I960 



CIRCLE 219 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

81 






The 1980 North American 
Computer Chess 
Championship 



CHESS 4.9 from Northwestern 
University, won the North American 
Computer Chess Championship 
(NACCC) after drawing BELLE from 
Bell Laboratories, in the last round 
battle (see Figure 1). BELLE, who was 



This event is the Indy 500 
of the computer industry. 

Theodore H. Ehara 



11 

i 


* 

i 


*I 


^ 


i 


1 
i * 

£ 


t 


i. 

i 


£ 


& 


£ 




: 
1 




£> 


£ 






£ 




A 


£ 


t\ 


a 




# a 


& 


1 



GAME 1 
CHESS 4.9 - BELLE 



1. P-Q4, N-KB3 

2. P-QB4, P-B4 

3. P-Q5, P-K3 

4. N-QB3, PXP 

5. PXP, P-Q3 

6. P-K4, P-KN3 

7. N-KB3, B-N2 

8. B-K2, O-O 

9. O-O, R-K1 

10. N-Q2, N-R3 

11. P-B3, N-B2 

12. P-QR4, P-QN3 

13. N-QB4, B-QR3 

14. B-Kn5, P-R3 

15. B-R4, P-KN4 

16. B-B2, N-R4 

17. N-K3, B-B1 

18. Q-B2, N-B5 

19. B-B4, B-Q2 

20. KR-Q1, Q-B3 

21. B-N3, N-R4 

22. B-K1, N-B5 

23. K-R1, P-R3 

24. B-N3, P-N4 

25. PXP, PXP 

26. RxR, RXR 

27. B-B1, P-QN5 

28. N-K2, P-N6 

29. Q-N1, N-R4 

30. B-B2, N-B5 

31. N-B4, NXN 

32. BxN, B-N4 



33. B-N3, R-R5 

34. Q-B1, B-B1 

35. R-Q2, Q-Q1 

36. Q-B1, P-R4 

37. K-N1, P-R5 

38. B-B2, B-N2 

39. N-K3, BXB 

40. QxB, R-R8+ 

41. R-Q1, R-R7 

42. Q-Q3, RXP 

43. N-B4, R-QB7 

44. P-K5, Bxp 

45. NXB, PXN 

46. QXQNP, R-K7 

47. K-B1, P-B5 

48. Q-N7, R-R7 

49. B-N6. P-R6 

50. QXN, Q-B3 

51. Q-Q8+, QXQ 

52. BxQ, RXP 

53. R-K1, P-B6 

54. RXP, P-B7 

55. R-K8+, K-N7 

56. BxP, RxB 

57. R-QB8, R-N7 

58. P-Q6, RXP 

59. P-Q7, R-Q7 

60. K-N1, RXP 



61 
62 



RXP, R-Q3 
R-B2, K-B3 



63. K-R2, draw 



FIGURE 1 ' 




defending champion, had drawn 
earlier with CHAOS in the second 
round of the tournament. This gave 
BELLE a final score of three against 
CHESS 4.9's score of three and a half, 
out of four possible points. 

A highlight of this tournament was 
an exhibition game given by CHESS 
4.9. In response to a theoretical 
argument as to whether a strong chess 
player could defeat a weaker player 
who was aided by a strong program, 
CHESS 4.9 and its programmer, David 
Slate (expert) played David Levy 
(International Master). Playing the 
Bird's Opening, Slate and CHESS 4.9 
lost the game after fifty moves (see 
Figure 2). 



This event, which is held by the 
American Computing Machinery in 
their annual convention, has been 
compared to the Indy 500 for the 
computer industry. While the same 




Left to Right: Joe Condon, David Slate, Larry 
Atkin and Ken Thompson In the Chess 4.9 - 
BELLE game. Joe Condon and David Slate 
study the position, while Larry Atkin and Ken 
Thompson await BELLE'S reply. 



Theodore H Ehara. 1004 Hinman Ave.. Evanston. 
IL 60202. 



Crosstable ol the North American Computer Chess Championship 


Crosstable of the North American Computer Chess Championship 


Program 


rate 


perf 


1 


2 


3 


4 


total 


1 CHESS 4.9 


2040 


2099 


8W 


9W 


3W 


2D 


3+ 


2 BELLE 


1950 


1982 


5W 


4D 


7W 


1D 


3 


3 DUCHESS 


1889 


1942 


10W 


7W 


1L 


4W 


3 


4 CHAOS 


1775 


1794 


12W 


2D 


9W 


3L 


2+ 


5 LEXCENTRIQUE 





1640 


2L 


12W 


8W 


6D 


2+ 


6 MYCHESS 





1552 


7L 


10W 


11W 


5D 


2+ 


7 SARGON 3 





1614 


6W 


3L 


2L 


9D 


1 + 


8 OSTRICH 80 


1450 


1374 


1L 


11W 


5L 


10D 


1 + 


9 BLITZ 6.9 





1516 


11W 


1L 


4L 


7D 


1 + 


10 AWIT 


1325 


1314 


3L 


6L 


12W 


8D 


1 + 


11 BS 66 76 





1045 


9L 


8L 


6L 


12W 


1 


12 RUFUS 





644 


4L 


5L 


10L 


11L 





Example of how to read this crosstable: 










LEXCENTRIQUE wasn't rated before this tournament, but 


had a 


performance, in the tournament 


of 1 640 It lost its first round game against 


BELLE, then won its next two games against RUFUS and OSTRICH BO. In 


the final round it drew its game with MYCHESS. for a 


final result of 2+ (2.5). 


A win counts as a point 


a draw counts as half a point 







TABLE 1 



82 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




A New Type of Game j| 



Welcome to an astonishing new experience! ADVENTURE is one of 
the most challenging and innovative games available for your personal 
computer. This is not the average computer game in which you shoot at, 
chase, or get chased by something, master the game within an hour, and 
then lose interest. In fact, it may take you more than an hour to score at 
all, and will probably take days or weeks of playing to get a good score. 
(There is a provision for saving a game in progress). 

The original computer version of Adventure was written by Willie 
Crowther and Don Woods in Fortran on a PDP-10 at MIT. In this version 
the player starts near a small wellhouse. Upon entering the house, he 
finds food, water, a set of keys and a lamp. Armed with only these items, 
he must set out to explore the countryside in search of treasure and other 
objects of play. He must also confront dwarfs, snakes, trolls, bears, 
dragons, birds, and other creatures during his quest. The game accepts 
one-or two-word commands such as GET LAMP* SOUTH* or KILL 
DWARF. Of course, if you don't have the proper tool to carry out an 
action, or if you do something foolish, you may find yourself in big 
trouble. 

In playing the game you wander thru various 'rooms' (locations), 
manipulating the objects there to try to find 'treasures'. You may have to 
defeat an exotic wild animal to get one treasure, or figure out how to get 
another treasure out of a quicksand bog. You communicate thru two-word 
commands such as 'go west', 'climb tree', 'throw axe', 'look around*. 



MISSION IMPOSSIBLE ADVENTURE (by Scott Adams) - Good 
Morning, Your mission is to... and so it starts. Will you be able to 
complete your mission in time? Or is the world's first automated 
nuclear reactor doomed? This one's well named, its hard, there is 
no magic but plenty of suspense. Good luck 

THE COUNT (by Scott Adams) - You wake up in a large brass bed in 
a castle somewhere in Transylvania. Who are you, what are you 
doing here, and WHY did the postman deliver a bottle of blood? 
You'll love this Adventure, in fact, you might say it's LOVE AT 
FIRST BITE 

ADVENTURELAND (by Scott Adams) - You wander through an en- 
chanted world trying to recover the 13 lost treasures. You'll en- 
counter WILD ANIMALS, MAGICAL BEINGS, and many other 
perils and puzzles. Can you rescue the BLUE OX from the quick- 
sand? Or find your way out of the maze of pits? Happy Adven- 
turing 

VOODOO CASTLE (by Scott Adams) - Count Cristo has had a 
fiendish curse put on him by his enemies. There he lies, with you 
his only hope. Will you be able to rescue him or is he forever 
doomed? Beware the Voodoo Man 




dueniurz 



For Apple, TRS-80, Sorcerer, PET, CP/M 

ORIGINAL ADVENTURE (by Crowther, Woods, Manning and 
Roichel) - Somewhere nearby is a collosal cave where others have 
found fortunes in treasures and gold, but some who have entered 
have never been seen again. You start at a small brick building 
which is the wellhouse for a large spring. You must try to find your 
way into the underground caverns where you'll meet a giant clam, 
nasty little dwarves, and much more. This Adventure Is Bl-Llngual 
—you may play in either English or French— a language learning 
tool beyond comparison. Runs in 32K CP/M system (48K required 
for SAVE GAME feature). Even includes SAM76 language in which 
to run the game. The troll says "Good Luck." 

PIRATE ADVENTURE (by Scott Adams) - "Yo Ho Ho and a bottle of 
rum..." You'll meet up with the pirate and his daffy bird along with 
many strange sights as you attempt to go from your London flat to 
Treasure Island. Can you recover LONG JOHN SILVER'S lost trea- 
sures? Happy sailing matey 

sensational software 



TRS-80 Level II (16K) Machine language 

cassettes for only $14.95 

CS-3007 Adventureland 

CS-3008 Pirate Adventure 

CS-3009 Mission Impossible Adventure 

CS-3010 Voodoo Castle 

CS-3011 The Count 

TRS-80 Disk (32K) Menu driven machine 
language routines for only $24.95 
CS-3506 Adventureland and Pirate 

Adventure 
CS-3507 Mission Impossible Adventure 

and Voodoo Castle 

Sorcerer (16K) Machine language cassettes 
I for only $14.95 
I CS-5003 Adventureland 
I CS-5004 Pirate Adventure 
VcS-5005 Mission Impossible Adventure 



CS-5006 Voodoo Castle 

CS-5007 The Count 

CP/M 8" Disk (48K) Includes special Sam 

76 language in which to run the game 

$24.95 

CS-9004 Original Adventure 

Apple II (16K) A night- 
mare simulation program $7.95 
CS-4005 Haunted House 
Apple II and Apple II Plus (32K) 
Adventures for your 32K Apple on 
cassette, $14.95 
CS-401 1 Adventureland 
CS-4012 Pirate Adventure 
CS-401 3 Mission Impossible Adventure 
CS-401 4 Voodoo Castle 

(48K) Adventures for your 48K Apple on 
disk, $24.95 



CS-4509 Adventureland and Pirate 

Adventure 
CS-4510 Mission Impossible Adventure 

and Voodoo Castle 

Pet (24K), $14.95 turns your Pet into a land 
of enchantment. 
CS-1009 Pirate Adventure and 
Adventureland 

Sensational SavingsiTake advantage 
of the one dollar discount certificate on 
page 135 redeamable at your local 
computer store. Or you can order directly 
from Creative Computing Software Dept 
401, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 
07960. Send payment plus $1 shipping 
and handling. For faster service call in 
your bank card order to 800/631-8112. In 
NJ call 201/540-0445. 



APRIL 1980 



For a FREE Sensational Software Catalog of over 400 programs for eight popular systems circle reader service #300. 

83 



Championship, cont'd... 

elements of man and machine exist in 
both events, the battle of ideas seems 
to overflow in the NACCC. Not only 
have programmers taken different 
approaches to their use of hardware 
and programming, but their research 
in improving the chess playing pro- 
gram strikes at the very core of 
problems facing the developers of 
artificial intelligence. 

A good example of the diversity of 
thought at the NACCC is shown 
through the answers given by two 
programmers in separate interviews. 
Answering similar questions, David 
Kittinger and Ken Thompson display 
their personal understanding of 
"where we are" and "where we should 
go" to improve the electronic chess 
player. 

Ken Thompson, along with Joe 
Condon, has developed and refined 
BELLE for the last ten years. It is run on 
a PDP 11/70 with a special move 
generation hardware (100 K words; 16 
bits; 800,000 inst/sec). BELLE plays 
about expert level and is written in C 



I 








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GAME 2 

CHESS 4.9 + Slate vs. Levy 

1. P-KB4, P-Q4 26. K-K2, R-N7 

2. N-KB3, N-KB3 27. Q-Q2, RxRP 

3. P-K3, B-N5 28. R-QN1, Q-K2 

4. P-QN3. QN-Q2 29. R-R1, Q-K5 

5. B-N2, P-QB3 30. KR-QB1, RXR 

6. B-K2, BXN 31.RXR, Q-N7+ 

7. BxB, Q-B2 32. K-Q1, Q-R8+ 

8. N-B3, P-K4 33. Q-K1.Q-N2 

9. PXP, NXP 34. K-K2, R-N1 
10. Q-K2, B-Q3 35. R-R4, R-B1 
11.P-N3, Q-K2 36. R-R5, Q-K5 

12. O-O-O, O-O 37. RxP, QXBP+ 

13. B-N2, B-R6 38. Q-Q2, Q-K5 

14. K-N1.BXB 39. Q-K1, P-B6 

15. KxB. P-QN4 40. K-B2, P-R4 

16. QR-KB1, 41. R-R5, P-R5 
KN-Q2 42. R-R1.P-R6 

17. P-Q4, N-B5+ 43. Q-R1, Q-B7+ 

18. PXN, Q-N5+ 44. K-B3, R-B3 

19. K-B1.QXN 45. Q-QN1, R-B3+ 

20. PXNP, PXP 46. K-N4, Q-K2+ 

21. BXP, N-N3 47. K-R4, R-R3+ 

22. B-N3, N-B5 48. K-N5, Q-R4+ 

23. BXN, PXB 49. K-B4, R-B3+ 

24. Q-K1, Q-R6+ 50. K-K4, 

25. K-Q2, QR-N1 Q-B4 mate 




FIGURE 2 



David Levy points to a demonstration board 
and comments to the audience while the 
programmers await their machines' move. 

and assembly language. It requires 
16Kforthe program and 1K for the tree 
search. BELLE has a book of 200,000 
opening positions, along with special 
end-game databases that are also 
incorporated into the program. 

Participating in its first ACM 
tournament, David Kittinger took 
MYCHESS to the Paul Masson tour- 
nament and in unofficial competition 
achieved a performance of a "C" 
player. MYCHESS runs on a Cromeco 
Z-2D (64K; 8 bits; 600,000 inst/sec) and 
was one of three micro-computers in 
the field of twelve contestants. The 
program is written in Z-80 assembly 
language and requires 19K bytes. 
MYCHESS has a small book of 3,000 
opening positions and searches 9,000 
positions in every move. 

CC: Do you, yourself play chess? 

DK: Yes. I'm about a 1900 (class A) 
rated player, which helps. 

KT: No . . . (being a chess player) 
wouldn't help or hinder programming a 
chess program. It would be just a waste 
of time. 

CC: What do you think of the 
micro-computers, compared to the big 
machines? 

DK: These micros, you're talking 
about a 1/2000 or so computing speed 
and yet their level of skill is certainly 
higher than 1/2000. They play a very 
capable game. 

KT: I don't think micros are fast 
enough to compete. Right now the 
name of the game is horsepower. 
Micros just have to get a lot faster 
before they compete well, or some 
programming revelation will have to 
occur that I don't foresee. 

CC: What are your thoughts about 
the evaluator function (evaluating 
positional advantages) in micros? 

KT: It doesn't buy it. They'll 
(micros) lose the game. You know 
you'll have a very, very pretty position 
and the other opponent will cut your 
throat. It only takes one mistake to lose 
— totally. You can build up a good 
position, but at some point you've got 
to win and while you're building up, 
you can't lose. There are a lot of moves 
in tactics that will lose a game in- 
stantly. Look at SARGON (talking 



about the recent SARGON-BELLE 
game, see Figure 3). They had a totally 
won game and made one move that 
was overwhelmed by tactics. 

DT: (Discussing the SARGON- 
BELLE game) SARGON came close to 
winning it, indicating that a direction to 
pursue in these chess computer games 
is the evaluator function. That's over- 
looked. Between their program and my 
program, I think we have the best 
evaluator tied in with a full width 
search of any program. 4.9 also has a 
good evaluator, I understand, although 
they cut a lot of it out, going for speed, 
because they think extra plys means 
better chess — maybe they're right — 
SARGON should have beaten BELLE 
last night. It came very close. In fact 
they had a draw by repetition in the 
bag, but because SARGON was even it 
tried to avoid the draw. But it had a 
draw against BELLE, which won this 
tournament last year. 

It must be noted that Ken Thomp- 
son intends to improve his hardware by 
building a parallel machine. ("Some- 
thing the size of a suitcase.") This 
machine should speed BELLE up by a 
factor of 100. Thompson estimates it 
will add 2-3 plys more to BELLE'S 
search and added, "That's a jump in 
hardware of about twenty years." He 
hopes to complete the machine for the 
1981 NACCC. 




Levy discussing his game with the audi- 
ence following its completion. 

BELLE also has a micro-version, 
run an a LSI-11. Unlike SARGON or 
MYCHESS, Thompson is not selling 
the program commercially. This little 
BELLE had beaten an earlier version of 
SARGON. When asked if Thompson 
had ever thought of entering the little 
BELLE into a micro-tournament, his 
reply was short and to the point. "No. 
It's much too strong." 



84 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



THE ORIGINAL MAGAZINE FOR 
OWNERS OF THE TRS-80™* MICROCOMPUTER 



SOFTHAIIL 

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A COMPLETE INCOME TAX PROGRAM (LONG AND SHORT FORM) 

INVENTORY CONTROL 

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WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM (FOR DISK OR CASSETTE) 

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Checks random access memory to ensure that all memory 
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APRIL I960 



CIRCLE 137 ON REAOER SERVICE CARD 
85 



YOU'RE 
FACE-TO-FACE 

Wizard, the W R. X H MLf ▼ 1L 

master of mayhem 

and illusion. He's threatening the village of Hagedom. 

Your mission is to kill Morloc and save the village in this dangerous 

REALTIME computer game from Automated Simulations. 

Morloc lives in a 30-room Tower, where his minions and monsters 

do his bidding to create terrible hazards for you. You'll be attacked by 

Ogres, The Creeping Crud, Fire Elemental, Vampire Bats, Salamanders 

and his personal Genie. The fiend will even throw his devastating 

Fireballs at you. 

And, just when you think you have him in your grasp, he'll teleport away. 

He's fearsome and lethal. 
If you can find the magical 
treasures in the Tower, 
you might be able to turn 
them against Morloc. 
Try to find them. Then, 
if you do, try to decipher 
their meaning and use them. 
Even worse, you're in 
REALTIME! 

If you have a 24K PET, 
16K TRS-80, or 48K APPLE, 
you can play "MORLOC'S 
TOWER" and come face-to- 
face with absolute evil. 




HERE'S HOW YOU CAN TOUCH 
YOUR FANTASIES: Ask your dealer or 
rush $14.95 in check or money order to 
Automated Simulations, Oept. CT1 
P.O. Box 4232. Mountain View. 
CA 94040. 

Or. call our FANTASY LINE, toll tree. 
800-824-7888. Operator 861 to place 
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tasies you would like to touch. (Cali- 
fornia.call 800-852-7777.Operalor 861 . 
Alaska and Hawaii, call 800 824-7919. 
Operator 861.) 



A 



AUTOMATED 
SIMULATIONS 



I want to TOUCH my fantasies. Rush me 

"MORLOCS TOWER" for $14.95 (CA. residents add 6%) 

I have: PET □ TRS-80 ' APPLE 



Payment enclosed 
Account # 



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Bill my VISA D M.C.D 
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Address 
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If I'm not completely satisfied, 

I will send "MORLOC'S TOWER" back 

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CIRCLE 111 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



86 



Championship, cont'd. 



i 



H 1 1 
JL 



m 



MM ■■ a Btt 

til £A£ 



GAME 3 
SARGON 3 - BELLE 



1. N-QB3, P-Q4 35. 

2. P-K4. N-KB3 36. 

3. PXP, NXP 37. 

4. NXN, QXN 38. 

5. N-K2, N-B3 39. 

6. P-Q3, P-K4 40. 

7. N-B3, B-QN5 41. 

8. B-Q2, BXN 42. 

9. PXB, B-B4 43. 

10. P-QB4, Q-Q5 44. 

11. B-K3, Q-B3+ 45. 

12. B-Q2, Q-R6 46. 

13. P-N4, B-Q2 47. 

14. B-N2, O-O 48. 

15. O-O, P-B4 49. 

16. Q-N1. QR-N1 50. 

17. PXP, BXP 51. 

18. Q-N5, P-QR3 52. 

19. Q-Q5+, R-B2 53. 

20. KR-N1. R-Q8 54. 
21.Q-B3, N-Q5 55. 

22. Q-Q1, P-B3 56. 

23. B-N5, QR-KB1 57. 

24. B-K3, Q-B6 58. 

25. R-B1, Q-N2 59. 

26. P-QR4, B-N3 60. 

27. QR-N1, Q-R3 61. 

28. R-R1.Q-B6 62. 

29. B-Q2, Q-N7 63. 

30. QR-N1, Q-R7 64. 

31. QR-Q-N7 65. 

32. B-K3, K-R1 66. 

33. QR-N1, Q-R3 67. 

34. R-R1, Q-B6 



B-Q2, Q-N7 
QR-N1, Q-R7 
R-R1. Q-N7 
B-K3. R-K2 
QR-N1, Q-R6 
R-R1, Q-B6 
B-Q2, Q-N7 
QR-N1, Q-R7 
B-N4, KR-B2 
R-R1, Q-N7 
QR-N1, Q-R7 
BXR, RXB 
R-R1, Q-N7 
K-B1, R-KB2 
QR-N1, Q-R7 
Q-K1, NXP 
QxP, BxP+ 
K-N1, Q-R6 
Q-N8+, R-B1 
QxP, N-Q5 
R-R1, Q-B4 
R-Q1, BXP 
K-N1. B-Q4 
BxB, QxB+ 
K-N1, N-K7+ 
K-B1, Q-B6 
K-K1, QXP 
K-Q2. R-Q1 + 
K-B2, N-Q5+ 
K-Q3, N-N4+ 
Q-Q7, RXQ+ 
K-B4, Q-B7+ 
K-N4, 
Q-B3 mate 



figure 3 

When asked if CHESS 4.9 would 
pursue advances in speed along with 
BELLE, David Slate replied, "No We 
really aren't into the hardware busi- 
ness." In addition, the most interesting 
member of the Northwestern team 
didn't show up at the tournament — 
CHESS 5.0. CHESS 5.0 is a complete 
rewrite of the program. It wasn't 
entered in the 1980 NACCC because 
they were still getting the bugs out of it. 
Instead of assembly language, CHESS 
5.0 is written in Fortran. According to 
Slate, it is playing master-level chess. 

If all these different ways of 
improving chess programs seem con- 
fusing, things might clear up a little, 
probably after the 1981 North Amer- 
ican Computer Chess Championship. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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PACKER 



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This Is the ultimate editing 
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So if your programs need more 
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order your 'packer' 1 16k, 32k and 
48k versions supplied on two 
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Morloc's Tower 

from Automated Simulations 
As Brian Hammerhand, you race to 
save the comely wench Imelda from 
the fireballs of Morloc the Mad. 
An exciting fantansy role playing 
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"Datestones of Ryn" $14.95 
"Temple of Apshai" $24.95 
Supplied on disk for an additional 
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eon 

from ChalKeleon 
A full fantasy fc adventure where 
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Galactic Trader 

by Douglas Carlston 
Trade your way to a fortune in a 
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Also available "Galactic Empire" 
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STRUCTURED 

BASIC 

TRANSLATOR 

by Gene Bellinger 

Try structured programming. You 
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Requires 32k and one disk drive. 
Supplied on disk for $29.95. 




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Transform your TRS-80 into a 
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Real-time, "shooting gallery" game 
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Space War 

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87 



CIRCLE 182 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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Dr. Gordon Bell Is Vice Preside/, 
of Engineering of Digital Equip- 
ment Corporation, the world's 
largest manufacturer of 'minicom- 
puters. He was previously a 
Professor of Computer Science at 
Carnegie-Mellon University. Pub- 
lisher David AM, an alumnus of 
both Carnegie-Mellon and DEC, 
talked to Gordon following his 
presentation at Brown University. 
Here are some excerpts from their 
conversation. 



Dave: In contrast to some people 
in the educational community, you 
seem to feel that computer research 
can be done at places other than 
universities and posed a couple of 
alternatives giving the Japanese ex- 
ample; do you think you could get any 
agreement on that? Also, where should 
it be done? 

Gordon: Need certainly plays a big 
part. Research is sometimes done by 
accident and sometimes with plan- 
ning. In the meantime, one recognizes 
that, essentially, a flow of ideas is 
needed to make a product. But we 
sometimes have problems and we 
don't see immediate solutions and one 
can't be developed; we do research 
based on meaning. 

Dave: For example, do you think 
the Japanese system, where govern- 
ment doesn't fund any kind of research 
except by pumping money into com- 
panies, works better? 

Gordon: They find out about a lot 
of research through the industry and 
industry puts the money back in, but I 
don't know whether they control on 
that basis. I would certainly like some 
similar controls because that would 
solve the basic problem of flow. If 
you've got ideas the biggest problem is 
how to develop and research them. 
Getting it to move out of this environ- 



Interview 

with 

Gordon Bell 




David Ahl 



ment is virtually impossible. An idea 
may sit there for years. They sit there 
and will never be resolved. I really 
believe in a healthy buyer-seller 
relationship. There are people who 
have some research needs and so 
people do that because there is a need. 

Dave: Which generally doesn't 
exist in the university? 

Gordon: Certainly NSF is not 
oriented that way; you are writing for a 
group of peers. It has no other purpose 
than to have a by-product with which 
to educate the faculty so they can 
teach and to generally get some more 
knowledge in the field, which is fine. 
It's a self perpetuating community. 

Dave: You also said that you didn't 
feel we need any more language 
compilers or typesetting systems but 
gave a couple of examples of business 
and the arts being more productive 
areas for new applications. Specifi- 
cally, what do you think are areas 
where young people can concentrate 
and have some expectation of payoff if 
they want to do something interesting 
in computer science. Should it be done 
through a company or should they 
work on their own with a microcom- 
puter. Where are the greatest oppor- 
tunities for significant achievement? 

Gordon: In the whole application, 
pick an area and do work in that area. 
Some of them aren't going to material- 
ize for awhile but, for example, the use 
of data bases for tracing historical 
ideas and doing fundamental concept 
analysis will ultimately exist, but it will 
be rough going for a time. I think large 
data bases will trigger a lot of ideas in 
themselves. 

Dave: What kind of data bases and 
how would people get access to them? 

Gordon: I think personal data 
bases will be developed and used as 
tools. For example, right now we are 



At Brown University Symposium (L to R) 
Kent Curtis (NSF), Gordon Bell (DEC), Peter 
Denning (Purdue Univ.) 



building a computer museum and 
there are already a couple of programs; 
one that keeps track of everything in 
the museum, whether a manual or a 
part, or whether there is a manual for a 
part, whether there is a photograph of a 
part or a negative attached to that; just 
keeping track of those kinds of things. 
That was a natural thing that we 
needed. Also, a program to lead one 
through the museum; those kinds of 
things. There is some fairly interesting 
work being done now in computer 
graphics and computer art. Those are 
all possibilities. I don't know what the 
opportunities are in the language area, 
but there are new ideas that say maybe 
we can do reasonable machine-aided 
translation. We would like to see a 
machine-aided translation aid, say for 
translating technical manuals. That's a 
really clear kind of application because 
the manuals are typically very sterile 
and you can have quite a stylized 
description particularly in describing 
how a piece of software works. 

Dave: Our main criticism of most 
manuals is that they are just not clear 
enough. 

I think large data bases 
will trigger a lot of 
ideas in themselves. 



Gordon: This actually might help. 
You could write them i n a more sty I ized 
form. I'm trying to push to use the 500 
word basic language. It is a language 
which deals with a fairly small vocabu- 
lary; the theory is that it would be 
easier from which to translate — either 
mechanically or by human endeavor, 
from one natural language to another 
language. People get too hung up on 
vocabulary or syntax vs. context; that's 
why I need a wide vocabulary to 
express my thoughts. 



88 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Bell, cont'd... 

Dave: I spoke to Dick Neisser 
recently, in the Artificial Intelligence 
field, and, after being involved in doing 
language translation and dealing with 
many failures, his strong feeling is 
that a computer will never be able to 
translate language because it doesn't 
have the same cultural heritage to 
provide the context in which thoughts 
and sentences are expressed; that 
without understanding the context, it 
couldn't really translate. 

Gordon: That's right. If you try the 
general problem it can't do general 
language translation. 

Dave: But by translating text 
books or manuals you provide the 
context. 

Gordon: Yes, an extremely well 
defined context. Also remember that I 
said "machine-aided," not machine 
translation. Just getting 90% of the 
thing out and then cleaning it up may 
be the right way to do it. 

Dave: Just prior to the time I left 
DEC in 1974 I remember Ken Olsen 
(president of DEC) saying that he 
couldn't see any need or any use for a 
computer in someone's home and, as I 
recall, at the time you took some issue 
with that. Then he repeated it several 
years later at the World Future Society 
meeting in Boston and some people in 
the audience took issue with that. How 
does he feel today? 

Gordon: We have a word process- 
ing terminal at home, and it also runs 
the payroll and the accounts payable. 
I've had a terminal at home for at least 
ten years, probably more. Right now 
we do a lot of word processing, a little 
computing for accounts payable but 
fundamentally the real computing is 
somewhere else. We use it 10 to 20% 
of the time as a terminal to the elec- 
tronic mail system. Ken also has 
a terminal at home. I personally 
wouldn't recommend anything other 
than a terminal for home because 
microcomputers aren't big enough. 
Right now I don't think I want a home 
computer because I have always used 
a big computer and why should I live 
with a little computer when I can have 
access to a big computer? 

Dave: Are there any projects on 
the horizon at DEC that push down into 
the real micro area besides the LSI-1 1? 

Gordon: We just announced an 
11-23. It's a little cheaper than the 
current LSI-1 1. We are gradually get- 
ting into that area. We don't want to 
give up this main base that we have at 
the current price level. Lots of the 
machines do end up in the home like 
that. 



Dave: What's a useful thing for 
younger children, say 6th, 7th and 8th 
grade to do with computers other than 
play games and write games and have 
fun with them. 

Gwen: Edit their papers. Writing 
and rewriting by hand is really difficult 
for a kid. 

Gordon: With a computer, they 
can do a real quality job. Maybe the 
best thing that happens is you get kids 
into thinking rapidly. 

Dave: I see text editing probably 
affecting the biggest base of the popu- 
lation. 




The Brown Symposium, "Bridging the Gap 
Between Theory and Practice" brought to- 
gether Gordon Bell and Don Knuth. 



Gordon: For younger children I 
think, voice, music and graphics I/O 
are probably the only things that are 
going to attract them. Games may be 
attractive but I think it is really im- 
portant for all children to learn about 
programming. I think, from acomputer 
design standpoint, it means we've got 
to have attractive enough transducers 
so they find out that it is worth them 
getting on so they can get some 
reasonable output. We've gone 
through the high school era where 
essentially students had no reward 
for writing a program, because they 
didn't get anything back. They would 
write a program to play blackjack, but 
blackjack isn't that much fun. Usually 
it was on a teletype and that's not 
much fun either. We have a daughter 
who would like to learn to program; 
she's a musician and if we had good 
transducers on the machines I think 
she'd go on immediately. We're not 
very far away from having that rich 
environment where there is a reward 
to have it do something. 

Dave: We've been working re- 
cently with the ALF music boards for 
the Apple. It gives you a regular staff 
of music. You p*jt the note where you 
want it with youi paddle control. Then 
press the'button and you can program 
up to six parts and play them back- 
ward, forward and upside down and 
experiment anyway you want. You 
can really relate to that. □ 



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In a very general way, the theory of 
complexity as it refers to computer 
technology, deals with determining the 
extent of the equipment needed for the 
completion of a specified task. In the 
process, it seeks to reduce the number 
of components through developing 
greater efficiency amongst those that 
are in a system, and by producing new 
designs for expediting procedures 
within systems. In another sense, 
complexity theory can be viewed as a 
means of examining the time required 
to accomplish a specified task. Not 
only is the issue of determining the 
complexity of a problem of significant 
theoretical interest, but it is also of 
substantial practical value since, if an 
efficient algorithm can be brought to 
bear on the solution of a problem, then 
the running time required for problems 
containing large numbers of cases 
might be significantly shorter. 

Interestingly, in certain problems, 
the time required for solution is 
directly related to the number of 
multiplications required. We assume 
that the basic computer arithmetic 
operation is addition, requiring, for all 
intents and purposes, insignificant 
processing time. Multiplication, on the 
other hand, based on multiple addi- 
tions generally requires time which is 
substantially greater than that of 
addition. Thus, if a problem containing 
a number of multiplications is reduced 
by one or more of them, even at the 
cost of several additions, the solution 
method has been made more efficient. 

In order to demonstrate this point, 
suppose we examine the elementary 
problem of finding the coefficients of 
the polynomial resulting from the 
multiplication of the two binomials, 
say, 5X + 3 and 2X + 1. Our usual 
procedure would require four multipli- 
cations as follows: 




5X 


+ 


3 


2X 


+ 


1 


10X 2 + 

+ 


6X 
5X + 3 


IflX 2 


+ 11X + 3 



Complexity Theory and 
Elementary Mathematics 



Kenneth Sipser, Ph.D. 

and 
Michael Sipser, Ph.D. 



Kenneth Sipser, Ph.D., Dept of Secondary Educa- 
tion, State University College. Oswego. NY 13126. 
Michael Sipser. Ph.D.. Computer Science Div., 
University of California, Berkeley. CA 94710. 



Can the coefficients of the product 
polynomial be found in three multipli- 
cations? Surprising as it may seem, the 
answer is yes! First, add the coefficient 
and constant term of the first binomial 
5 + 3 = 8, and of the second 2+1=3. 
Find the product of these sums 8X3 = 
24. That's one multiplication. Multiply 

Complexity theory can 
be viewed as a means of 
examining the time re- 
quired to accomplish a 
specific task. 

the coefficients of the X terms 5x2 = 
1 0, and of the constant terms 3X1=3. 
That takes care of 3 multiplications. 
The last two products obviously 
provide us with the coefficients of the 
X 2 and constant terms, respectively. 
The sum of the last two products 10+3 
= 13, subtracted from the product of 
the sums 8 x 3 = 24 yields the 
coefficient of the X term. Algebraically, 
given AX + B and CX + D, let S, = A + B 
and S 2 = C + D represent the respective 
sums of A and B, and C and D. The 
product of these sums S,S 2 = AC + AD 
+ BC + BD. This is one multiplication. 
A x C = AC and B x D = BD produce the 
coefficients of the X 2 and constant 
terms, respectively. The differences 
S t S 2 - (AC + BD) produces the 
coefficient of the X term. 

While we may reduce the number 
of multiplications required for finding 
the product of two polynomials from 4 
to 3, a much more dramatic reduction 
may be made in the number of multi- 
plications for the product of two 
matrices. 



(c d)(g h) ( 



_ /AE + BG AF + Bm 
CE + DG CF + DH J 



The product of two 2X2 matrices, 
employing the usual rules of the inner 
product for matrix multiplication 
requires eight multiplications. As the 
order of the matrices increases, the 
number of multiplications rises cubi- 
cally so that two 3 x 3's require 27 
multiplications, two 4 x 4's, 64 multipli- 
cations. A remarkable property of 
matrix multiplication is that the 
product of two 2n x 2n matrices can be 
carried out by partitioning each of the 
matrices into four n x n matrices, 
calculating their respective inner 
products, and using these in the 
resulting 2x2 matrix multiplication 



mm ( 



AE + BG 



CE+ DG 



AF + BH> 



cf + dh; 



where the A, B, . . . are square matrix 
partitions of the original matrices. A 
reduction in the number of multiplica- 
tions in the 2 x 2's by even one would 
therefore be significant, not so much 
for the saving represented by 7 multi- 
plications over 8, but by the increasing 
difference developed as the order of 
the matrices increases. For example, in 
the case of the 4 x 4's this procedure 
yields 7 2 or 49 multiplications whereas 
it would ordinarily require 4 3 or 64 
multiplications. 

The Bridges of Koenigs- 
berg is an old and famous 
problem which because 
of its simplicity has an 
appeal for students at all 
levels. 

Before you start trying to solve this 
problem, be advised that in 1969, V. 
Strassen 1 in a paper "Gaussian Elimi- 
nation Is Not Optimal" produced the 7 
multiplication solution for the 2 x 2's. 
This is reproduced here without 
rationale, since an analysis of the 
procedure is beyond the scope of this 
paper. Given two 2X2 matrices: 



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Complexity, cont'd... 



( A 


B \ 


/E 


5)- 


/P„ 


\c 


o) 


VG 


Ip 21 


where 










P„ 


= m, 


+ m 2 - 


m 4 + nig 




Pl2 


= m 4 


+ m 5 






P 2 1 


= m„ 


+ m 7 






P» 


— rrt2 


- m 3 + 


m 5 - m 7 


where 










m, 


= (B 


-D)(G 


+ H) 




rrt2 


= (A 


f D)(E 


+ H) 




m 3 


= (A 


-C)(E 


+ F) 




m« 


= (A 


f B)H 






m 5 


= A(F 


-H) 






me 


= D(G- 






m 7 


= (C 


+ D)E 





p 

P22 



") 

22/ 



The seven multiplications (mj) are 
brought together by selective addi- 
tions and subtractions in the four P.^, 
so that P,, = AE + BG, etc. 

Very recently another mathema- 
tician, Victor Pan, z of the IBM Thomas 
J. Watson Research Center, in a paper 
titled "Strassens Algorithm Is Not 
Optimal" improved on this technique 
still further. Unfortunately, his results 
are also too intricate to be reproduced 
here. 

Another aspect of complexity 
theory deals with the efficiency of 
algorithms as they relate to the 
solution of some mathematics prob- 
lems. In general, those problems which 
can be solved algorithmically fall into 
certain categories according to the 
extent of their solvability. Two of these 
are: 1) P, the class of polynomial time 
problems, and 2) NP, the class of non- 
deterministic polynomial time prob- 
lems. The first of these, containing 
problems on the order of the Bridges of 
Koenigsberg, have efficient solutions 
and are therefore solvable in poly- 
nomial time. This refers to that set of 
algorithms which can produce a 
solution in polynomial time growth as 
the problem size increases as opposed 
to those whose time growth is expo- 
nential. The Bridges of Koenigsberg is 
an old and famous problem which 
because of its simplicity has an appeal 




for students at all levels. In old 
Koenigsberg, now Kalinin, USSR, 
there are two islands in a river which 
are connected to each other and to the 
two banks by seven bridges (see 
Figure 1). The question is: can one 
start at any point and cross all of the 
bridges exactly once? The problem 
can be attacked by brute force, that is, 
by listing all of the possible paths, and 




Figure 1 



Figure 2 
then finding the solution(s) if there are 
any. The mathematician, Leonhard 
Euler, solving this problem more 
efficiently, wrote of the listing solution: 
"This method is too tedious and too 
difficult because of the large number of 
possible combinations, and in other 
problems where many more bridges 
are involved it could not be used at 
all." 3 Euler produced a point-line graph 
of the islands and bridges (see Figure 
2), argued that each point, except the 
start and end. required one line leading 
to it and one leading away and must 
therefore have an even number of lines 
connecting them to other points. Since 
the point-line graph has four points all 
of which contain an odd number of 
lines, the tour is impossible. This 
solution method was qualitatively 
simpler than the brute force listing; 
Euler had produced a solution in 
polynomial time. On the other hand, 
problems which can be solved only 
through methods which are compar- 
able to the brute force listing or other 
such inefficient methods are classified 
as nondeterministic polynomial time. 

According to Ron Graham of Bell 
Telephone Laboratories "the trouble 
with this brute force approach is that as 
the number of tasks in a set becomes 
large the number of possible priority 
lists (and thus the number of sched- 
ules) grows so explosively that there is 
no hope of examining even a small 
fraction of them. If there are n tasks in a 
set, the number of different lists is n! , or 
n(n-1) (n-2) . . . 1, a very large number 
even for relatively small values of n. For 
example, when there are 20 tasks, even 
if a computer could check as many as a 
million schedules per second, it would 
take more than 70,000 years to check 
all 20 lists!" 4 

A problem which falls into the 
class NP is that of determining whether 
an integer is composite. There is no 
way of finding the factors of an integer 



other than the inefficient method of 
looking for proper divisors. There are 
indeed divisibility techniques for ruling 
out some unnecessary trials, but no 
algorithm exists which will reduce the 
number of trials to a point wherein the 
problem could be solved in polynomial 
time. Other well known problems 
which fall into this class are: 

1) The Traveling Salesman Prob- 
lem: Given a set of cities (points), find 
the shortest round-trip route connect- 
ing lines (air routes) in which all of the 
cities are visited. 

2) The General Scheduling Prob- 
lem: Given a set of identical machines, 
with a set of tasks to be performed, 
each with specific requirements for 
deadline time, priority of importance, 
running time and precedence con- 
straints, find the most efficient sched- 
ule for assigning these tasks among 
the given machines. 5 

3) The Three Color Map Problem: 
Given a set of regions of a map, color 
all of the regions in one of three colors 
in such a way that no two adjoining 
regions share the same color. 

Today's computers and 
telephone exchanges 
present problems be- 
yond our understanding, 
but these systems are 
dwarfed by even the 
humblest biological 
systems. 

There is a set of problems, of 
which the above three are members, 
which form a kind of super category, 
NP-complete. If a polynomial time 
algorithm can be found for any one of 
them, then with minor adjustments, the 
algorithm can be applied to all NP 
problems solving them in polynomial 
time as well. Accordingly, it is likely 
that NP-complete problems are diffi- 
cult, if not impossible to solve effici- 
ently. 

©CmtiveComputing i 




"You won't believe this, but Zarg can 
actually add without a computer. " 



92 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Complexity, cont'd... 

In this article we have attempted to 
overview this new and exciting field of 
complexity theory which links com- 
puter science with mathematics, and 
ultimately to the solution of theoretical 
as well as practical problems in society 
and technology. In an article on 
complexity theory as it refers to the 
solution of problems in telephone 
technology, Pippenger says: "Today's 
computers and telephone exchanges 
present problems beyond our under- 
standing, but these systems are 
dwarfed by even the humblest biologi- 
cal systems. While complexity theory 
struggles with problems within its 
reach, far greater problems lie 
beyond." 7 D 

References 

1. V. Strassen. "Gaussian Elimination Is Not 
Optimal." Num. Math.. Vol. 13. (1969). pp. 
354-356 

2. Victor Pan, "Strassen's Algorithm Is Not 
Optimal. Trilinear Technique of Aggregating. 
Uniting and Cancelling for Constructing Fast 
Algorithms for Matrix Operations." 

3. Euler. Leonhard. "The Seven Bridges of 
Koenigsberg". The World of Mathematics, 
edited by James R. Newman. Simon and 
Shuster. Vol. 1. p. 574. 

4. Ronald L. Graham, "The Combinatorial Mathe- 
matics of Scheduling." Scientific American. 
Vol 238. No. 3. (March, 1978), p. 128 

5. While most scheduling problems fall into the 
class NP. some special cases have been found 
to fall into P(polynomial time). Very recently 
Barbara Simons of the Computer Science 
Division at the University of California at 
Berkeley reported in her paper "A Fast Algor- 
ithm lor Single Processor Scheduling" of her 
discovery of one such special case in which 
running time was held constant. 

6. Harry R. Lewis and Christos H. Papadimitriou. 
"The Efficiency of Algorithms." Scientific 
American, Vol. 238. No. 1, (January. 1978), 
p. 107. 

7. Nicholas Pippenger, "Complexity Theory", 
Scientific American, Vol. 238. No. 6. (June. 
1978), p. 124. 




"You have a slipped disk. " 

APRIL 1980 




FUN FOR YOU FUN FOR TWO 

THE STOCK EXCHANGE • Stock Trading for 1 or 2 sis.ss 

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APRIL 1980 






95 



Eliminating the TRS-80 Power Cord Mess 



Delmer Hinrichs 



Do you dislike the tangle of 120 V. 
power cords behind your TRS-80? Is 
it difficult to find a wall outlet with 
three sockets? 




Double outlet socket installed in back of 
monitor. 

This problem affects most TRS-80 
owners, but it is easy to fix: Just install 
a double socket on the back of your 
CRT monitor, as shown in Photo 1. 
Then you can plug your comDuter 
power supply and your cassette re- 
corder into the monitor. Only one cord 
(the monitor cord) then needs to be 
plugged into a wall socket. A further 
advantage is that now the whole sys- 
tem can be turned on or off with one 
switch, the monitor "Power" switch. 

How is this modification done? First, 
you must collect the necessary tools 
and materials. For tools, you will need 
a V<" nut driver (it looks like a screw- 
driver, but has a V* " hex socket on the 
end), a drill and bits, a coarse file, a 
screwdriver and a soldering iron. Ma- 
terials required are a double electrical 
socket (the type used for wall outlets), 
about two feet of fairly heavy-duty 
electrical wire, solder and two nuts for 
the socket mounting screws (they are 
not included with the socket, as the 
socket screws were intended to screw 
into a wall outlet box). 

Delmer Hinrichs. 2116 SE 377th Ave., 

Washougal, WA 98671. 



Now to work! First unplug the moni- 
tor, and place it face down on a soft 
surface. Be sure that it has been "off" 
long enough for the hazardous high 
voltage inside the case to dissipate. 
Use the nut driver to remove the five 
hex-headed screws holding the back 
onto the monitor (four are in deep re- 
cesses). Gently remove the back, be- 
ing very careful of the CRT socket, 
which protrudes and is fragile. Mark 
where you want to put the double out- 
let socket, making sure that it will 
clear things inside the case. A spare 
outlet socket cover plate makes a 
good marking template. Drill starter 
holes through the plastic back, then 
file them to shape to accept the 
double outlet socket. This usually 
takes a bit of file and try, file and try. 
Drill holes for the socket mounting 
screws and mount the socket in place. 
Fasten one end of the wire pair under 
the screws of the socket, and solder 
the other end to the terminals under 
the CRT yoke, as shown in Photo 2. 




Inside of monitor, showing outlet socket 
installation. 

These terminals are shown in Figure 
1. Now carefully put the back on 
again, being sure that the added 
wire has enough free space, and that 
the socket doesn't interfere with 
anything. 

You can now plug your computer 
power supply and your ' cassette 
recorder into the back of your moni- 
tor and eliminate that tangle of power 
cords. Neatness triumphs! □ 



yonitor 
Line Cord 




Fuse 



Figure 1. 

Connections to monitor terminal board. 



96 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






by 

Gene 

Bellinger 



A new approach 
for easier programming! 



%PROCSBT 

%CALL INITSBT 
%CALL XALL 
%CALL FINISH 



%END-PROC 



STRUCTURED 

BASIC 

TRANSLATOR 

Tired of attempting to make program modifications 
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Have you managed to forget how portions of your 
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Acorn produces several other utility programs 
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• TRS 80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp 




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CIRCLE 104 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



97 



CIRCLE 143 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Sport of Kings and a computer 




Stan and the 
Two-Horse Team 




When Stanislaus came whipping 
into the living room in his Little League 
gear, his pop looked up from the 
Racing Form and smiled. 

"My boy!" said Pop, "I have a 
problem for you and your pile of semi- 
conductors." 

Two bits an hour for consultation 
and the programming, and a buck a 
page for printouts," Stan said. "What's 
up?" 

"That ought to come to about 
three or four dollars," Pop said. 

"The meter is running," Stan said. 
"C'mon up to my room." 

"Strictly a hypothetical case," Pop 
said. "We don't much approve of horse 
race gambling, you know." Stan gave 
him a look and a nod. So Pop laid it out: 

In any one race, there might be two 
horses that look too good to ignore. 
Either could win. Suppose a person 
wants to bet on both. Now, each will be 
offered at some price, such as 5 to 2, or 
4 to 1, or whatever. Can we make the 
computer tell us how much to bet on 
each, so as to yield a profit of, say, a 
hundred dollars?" 

"Easy," said Stan, turning on the 
power and loading Basic. And he 
wrote: 

10 UPtfl "FUST HOUSE PATS";A 

20 ihput "...ro« what p.et"jb 

30 IHPUT "SECOKD HOUSE PATS";C 
»0 IKPUT "...FOP. KHAT BET-jD 
50 INPUT "PROFIT WAWTED";P1 

And he stopped to think. 
Then he wrote: 

100 XmB/(A.B):Ti0/(C.D) 

"These will be decimal fractions. I 
think if we add them, and subtract their 
sum from 1 . . . " 

110 11. I. T: 2.1-21 

"And then find the ratio between 
each decimal value and the remainder 
Z . . . and multiply that by the profit you 
want . . . we'll have it." He wrote: 

X30 Bl.I«T((X/2)«P1..5):I)1.I«T((r/2)«P1..5) 

"I've gone for the integer, round- 
ing up. Okay?" 

Pop let his jaw hang open but 
didn't speak. 

Ii0 PHUT SI, 01 



"Ready?" said Stan. "We'll use 
what you said, 5 to 2 and 4 to 1 , and one 
hundred dollars." He tapped in RUN, 
and filled in the INPUTS. 

The screen said "56 39". 

"Want to check that out?" 

Pop did. He found that 56 bet at 5 
to 2 would yield 140, minus the 39, to 
leave a profit of 101. And 39 at 4 to 1 
would yield 156, less the 56, for a prof it 
of 100. 

"Terrific!" Pop said. 

"Good," said Stan. "That'll be 15 
cents, unless you want me to print it." 



"Er ..." said Pop. "I'd really like to 
have it on paper, as tables, y'know? 
And there are other ratios — " 

"How many?" said Stan. 

"Uh, forty-nine altogether." 

"Gulp," said Stan. "The calcula- 
tions are easy, but the formatting is 
going to be a problem, and I'm not sure 
about that rounding-up routine. Do 
you mind if we have supper before I 
knock this off?" 

Stan is fast, but it took him most of 
Sunday to get things to the point where 
he showed his pop a partial printout: 



Exhibit A Stan on bet ratios 



N. B. Winkless. Jr.. 
wood. CA 91607. 



11745 Landale St.. No. Holly- 



6-5 
7-5 
3-2 
8-5 
9-5 

2- 1 
5-2 

3- 1 
7-2 
1 - 1 
9-2 
5- 1 



7 
W9 
92 
85 
79 
69 
62 
19 
40 
35 
30 
27 
24 



1 

30 

28 

27 

26 

25 

24 

22 

20 

20 

19 

19 

18 



8 
105 
89 
82 
77 
68 
60 
48 
40 
3» 
3D 
26 
24 



1 

26 

24 

23 

23 

21 

20 

19 

18 

17 

17 

16 

16 



9 
103 
87 
80 
75 
67 
59 
47 
39 
33 
29 
26 
23 



1 

23 

21 

20 

20 

19 

18 

17 

16 

15 

15 

14 

14 



10 


1 


11 I 


00 


20 


99 : 


85 


19 


84 ! 


79 


18 


78 : 


74 


18 


73 ! 


65 


17 


64 : 


58 


16 


58 : 


46 


15 


«6 : 


38 


14 


38 : 


33 


14 


32 : 


29 


13 


28 I 


26 


13 


25 : 


23 


13 


23 I 



1 

19 
17 
17 
16 
15 
15 
14 
13 
12 
12 
12 
12 



12 
98 
83 
77 
72 
64 
57 
45 
38 
32 
28 
25 
23 



1 

17 

16 

15 

15 

14 

14 

13 

12 

11 

11 

11 

11 



13 
96 
82 
76 
72 
63 
56 
45 
37 
32 
28 
25 
22 



1 

16 

14 

14 

14 

13 
12 

12 
11 
11 
10 
10 
10 



The calculations are based on $100 wins (approximate). The left-hand number is 
the bet on the pick at the left end of the line. The right-hand number is the bet on 
the pick at the top of the column. Example: 



a 



5-2 




If your two picks go at 7 to 1 and 5 to 2, you put $22 on the 7-1 shot and $49 on the 
5-2 shot. If the 7-1 comes home you win 7 times 22, or $154, and lose $49 — 
profit $105. If the 5-2 comes home you win 5/2 times 49, or $122.50, and lose $22 
— profit $100.50. 

To win more or less, just adjust the bets. That is, to win $50, bet half of what the 
tables show. To win $200, bet twice what the tables show. 



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APRIL 1980 



CIRCLE 1 10 ON READER SERVICE CARO 



Two-Horse, cont'd 




•'I'm going to fill one page with 
this," he said, "and there will be six 
more pages." 

"Wow," said Pop. "Will I under- 
stand the program?" 

"I think so. I wrote in a lot of 
explanation, just for you." 



I lFOtWITED FOR 7 COJUMN RATIOS AM) 1 RATIO AT THE LEFT 

9 P0KE(16R0512)=130:! Sets maxtaun printer width 

10 COSUB 150: PRINT CHAR$(6); 

II I Turns en printer, clears the screen 

20 DM A(49),B(49).C(49),D(49): (We'll need these subscripts 

21 ! We're 'filling the boxes' with ratios to draw on in succession 
22C(1)*1:C(2)=1:C(3)=2:C(4)=1:C(5)=3:C(6)=4:C(7)*1:C(8)=6 

23 DO)=9:D(2)=5:D(3)=5:D(4)=2:D(5)=5:D(6)=5:DC.7)*l:D<8)=5 

24 C(9)=7:D(9>=5:C(10)=3:D(10)=2:C(11)=8:D(11)=5:C(12)^:D<12)=5:C(13) 
=2:D(13>=1:C(14)=5:D(14)=2:C(15)=3:D(15)=1:C(16)=7:D<16)=2 

25 C(17)=4:D(17)=1:C(18)=9:D(18)=2:C(19)=5:C2=5 

26 FTR C1=2D TO 39:C2=C2+1:C(C1)=e2:NiXT C1:C1=0:C2=0 

27 C(40)=30:C<41)=35:C(42)=40:C(43)=45:C(44)=50:C(45)=&0:C(46)=70:C(47 
>=fl0:C(48)=90:C(49)=99 

28 PCR D1=19 TO 49:D(D1)=1:N£XT D1:D1=0 

29 FER D3=1 TO 49:A(D6)=C(DS):B<D3)=D(De):lEKT D6: D3=0 

60 r<=CHAR$(27)*CHAR$(31)*CHAR$(9):OPEN 0«P":PUI D$;:CLCSE0 

61 I Line 60 sets horizontal character spacing 
70 CDSUB 460:!Tums ofT the printer 

80 INPUT "KM MUCH YOU HAWU WIN CN THIS PAIR OF BETS";P1 

91 INPUT "START TOP LINE WHERE";T1:! Can't get it all en one page, so. 

93 INPUT "START LEFT LINE W£RE";L1:! Mostly for trial runs 

94 ClxTl: C2=T1 

95 R=12 

99 02=0 

100 (Starts printing the top line of ratios 

102 C1=C1*1:I Counters to move up the line of subscripted boxes 

103 C2=C2*1 

106 A=A(C1):B=B(C2):! Extracts the values from the boxes 

110 K$=STR$(A):L»=STR$(B):!Tums the timbers into strings for fcrmatti 
ng 

111 IF LEN(K$)<6 THEN K$=" "+K$: COTO 111:1 Formats neatly 

112 IF LEN(L$)<6 THEN L$=L$*" ": COTO 112 
115 K$=K$*":"+L$ 

120 (Next line turns on the printer again 

129 OOSUB 150:PRINT TAB(R);M$;:! Printing the headers 

132 R=R*15 

136 02=02*1 : IF 02=7 THEN Q2=0:R=0:T=0:COTO 160: (Limits colum headers 

to seven 

1110 COSUB 460 

150 COTO 100:! Returns to find the next values 

160 I I used to have a line here. 

190 C3=L1:CU=L1:! Permits choosing start-point for left colum 

200 ! Preppering to print the second ratio, left colum 

201 IF T4=49 THEN 1000: (Cuts off after49 lines 
202C3=C3*1 

203 C4=C4*1 

205 IF C3>H9 THEN WOO 

206 C=C(C3):D=D(C4):! Sets up next ratio in lea colum 

208 XtcSTRXC) 

209 Y*=STR$(D) 

210 IF LEN(X$)<4 THEM X$=" "*X$:COTO210 
218 COSUB 160:! Turns en printer again 

220 PRTNT:PRINT X$*"-"*Y$;:( Prints the left ratio 

230 T=9 

2M0 COSUB H60:! Turns off printer 

290 C1=T1: C2=T1:I Picks values from boxes to correspond with headers 

300 T=13:! Sets tab stop 

302 C1=C1*1: I Increments box-count as we go along 

303 C2=C2*1 

304 IF C1>50 THEN 1000:10*3 off if too deep. Do we need this? 

306 A=A(C1):B=B(C2) 

307 T3=T3*1 



310 OOSUB 400: (We'll calculate at 400* 

315 IF D1<0 THEN A$=" NO ": ODTO 322:!lf impossible, say No 

316 A$=STR$(D1):! ... else make a string of the value 

317 IF LEN(A$)<6 THEN A$=" "*A$: CCTO 317 
322 IF B1<0 THEN B$=" NO ":COT0 339 

328 B$sSTR$(B1): (Stringing helps the formatting in neat colum 

329 IF LEN(B$)<6 THEN B$=B$*" ": COTO 329 
339 COSUB 450:1 turns en the printer again 

3M0 E$=A$*"!"+B$: PRINT TAB(T);E$;:! Prints the bets 

3M5 T=T*15:( Incrementing the tab set 

350 COSUB 460:1 YOU know; turns off printer 

355 IF T3=7 THEN T3=0:T4=T4+1:CDTO200:! Cuts off after seven colums 

360 COTO 302:1 Returns to cycle for next bet en the line 

400 X=B/(A*B): Y=D/(C*D):!The decimal frac of the two odds — remember 

? 

405 IF A/B=D/C THEN D1=-1:B1=-1: COTO 440:1 Can't work out if 

406 I the two ratios are reciprocals. Think about it. 

410 Z1=X*Y: Zs1-Z1:( Adds them and takes their complement of 1, per br 

ief example 

420 B1=INT((X/Z)«P1):!Calcs per example 

430 D1=1HT((Y/Z)»P1) 

431 I Abandoned the simple '*.5' romding-off method... 

432 I because it didn't seem to work for everything. 

434 IF B1<D OR D1<0 THEN 440: 1 Eliminates certain impossibles 

435 M1=B1»(A/B)-D1:IF AND H1>=P1 THEN 0=0: COTO 440 

436 IF M1<P1 THEN B1=B1+1:0DTO435 

437 M2=D1«(C/D)-B1 

438 IF M2<P1 THEN D1=D1*1: COTO 437 

439 IF M2>=P1 THEN O=1:0DTO435 

440 RETURN: (Goes back into program at 320 

445 (435 to 439 is cne giant effort at round ing-off. Obvious? 
450 PRINT CHAR$(16);: RETURN 
460 PRINT CHAR$(15);: RETURN 

WOO (PRINT: PRINT: PRINT:PRINT:PRINT CHAR$(16) 

1005 PRINT THE FORM ' XX ! YY' SHOWS BETS TO GAIN $100 (APPR0X)" 

1006 PRINT "USDC THE XX FEURE FOR CODS AT THE LEFT," 

1007 PRINT " THE YY FIGURE FOR THE OTXS AT TOP OF COLUMN." 
1010 PRINT "TO GAIN MORE CD LESS, MULTIPLY Cft DIVIDE THE $100." 
1020 PRINT "(THAT IS, TO GAIN CNLY $50, BET HALF WHAT'S SHOWN." 
1025 PRINT "TO GAIN $200, BET TWICE WHAT'S SHOWN.)" 

1030 PRINT CHAR$(15) 
1100 EX): (At last!! 
READY 



"Er, Stanislaus," Pop said. "Sup- 
pose we adjust this to handle three or 
four horses in a race ..." 

"I've been thinking about that, 
Pop. Four horses would take the tables 
to 7 times 49 times 49 pages. At a buck 
a page, that'll be about $17,000. I'm 
game for it if you are Pop.Pop?Pop?"D 



100 



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■ At a major medical center an anesthesroiogtsl uses our pen to select proper dosages in Holland 
they use it to create graphics A man in New Vork uses it to teach his pre school age daughter how 
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Are you missing any back issues of Creative Computing or 
ROM magazine? The applications, programming techniques, 
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actually increasing in value. 

Prices are $2.00 each, three for $5.00, or ten for $15.00. 
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issues of Computer Notes — 32 magazines in all — for only 
$40 postpaid! 

creative contpattRg 



Vol. 3, No. 4 - Jul/Aug 1977 

Guide to selecting a microcomputer. 
Write your own CAL. Part 2 Computers 
in medicine and health care. Dwyer "8- 
Hour Course in Basic-Part 1." Thinking 
Strategies-Part 3." Sherlock Holmes and 
Charles Babbage. Four new games. 

Vol. 3, No. 5— Sep/Oct 1977 

A dynamic debugging system for 8080 
assembly language, bibliography of 
"limits to growth" models. Dywer: 8- 
hour course in Basic-Part 2, Pro- 
gramming approaches to solving com- 
plex equations. Electronic information 
exchange. Symmetric art with your 
computer, in-depth reviews of S micro- 
computer BASICS, software technology 
music system. Games: Nomad. Rotate. 
Lissajous. 

Vol 3, No. 6— Nov/Dec 1977 

Programming techniques- Part 1. CAI. 
Topics in Logic Three 8080 8K BASIC 
evaluations. Smart electronic game 
reviews How computers can write final 
exams Mastermind II and Othello 
computer games Profile of the Alpha 1 
and Alpha 2 for the TDL Xitan. 

Vol. 4, No. 1— Jan/Feb 1978 

File structures, 16-bit computers. LOGO 
Language. Murphy's laws, review of 
Radio Shack TRS-80 and Heath H8. 
World model, biorythms. how to write a 
simulation. Hart sort algorithm. 3 
games. 8-Hour Basic Course - Part 4. 

Vol. 4, No. 4— Jul/Aug 1978 

Reviews of Commodore PET, Apple II. 
Atari computer. Video games, inter- 
facing to the real world: 5 articles, 
business. computing 4 word process- 
ing systems. ROM section: 7 articles, 
backgammon game, bar code 

Vol. 4, No. 5— Sep/Oct 1978 

Equipment profiles: TRS-80. Exidy 
sorcerer. Bally Arcade. PolyMorphic 
8813, Merlin Video Display preview of 
nine new personal computers. Ac- 
counts receivable systems. All about 
PASCAL, real world games, a real time 
clock to build. PET cassettes, special 
education features, new software Star 
Wars. Hex. 

Vol. 4, No. 6— Nov/Dec 1978 

Subject index and file index in BASIC, 
consumer computers buying guide, 
electronic game reviews, critical path 
analysis, mailing label programs, robot 
programming, experiment in teaching 
strategic thinking, evaluations of North- 
star Horizon. CP/M operating system 
end backgammon computers, columns 
on Apple II PET and TRS-80. plus game 
section ncluding "Corral". "Joust" and 
Puzzle' 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Vol. 5, No. 1— January 1979 

Computers in fiction; Survey of 
Educator's Attitudes: K-State; How to 
Hide Your Basic Program: World Chess 
Championship Computer; Compleat 
Computer Catalog. Microchess for the 
TRS-80: Exidy Sorcerer; Ohio Scientific 
superboard II; Robots in Fiction; Help 
for the Weary Taxpayer. A counterfeit 
Cursor for your PET: Medical Audit 
Time. 

Vol. 5, No. 2— February 1979 

Evaluations: Electric Pencil. Heathkit H- 
8. Computer Music Records. Computer 
Games: Gold Mine, Atom-20. Com- 
puterized Sports Predictions. Multiple 
Regression Analysis Simplified, Value of 
Computers in Education. Budget Man- 
agement System. Help for the belea- 
guered consumer. 

Vol. 5, No. 3— March 1979 

Six articles on data base management; 
Evaluations of TRS-80 and Apple Disk 
Systems; Payroll system: the Game of 
Go: Small business computing with the 
Sourcerer; Judging of sports events; 
Social Science survey program. 

Vol. 5, No. 4— April 1979 

Safeguarding your computer: Inter- 
pretive programming; Elements of a 
good computer game. Music com- 
position; "What will happen if"; Vertical 
graphs and bar charts; People Pro- 
gramming; Home applications. 

Vol. 5, No. 5— May 1979 

Word processing systems — buying a 
system and 5 evaluations; Writing 2 
user-oriented program; Tutorial on 
PILOT; 3 new games; Amoritization 
schedules, reading and comprehension 
tests 

Vol. 5, No. 6— June 1979 

8 Articles on computer graphics and 
plotting; Evaluations: HiPlot, NAD 
System, ALF/Apple Music Synthesizer; 
Copyright of Software: Sesame Place: 
Probability Study; String Manipulations: 
3 New Games. 

Vol. 5, No. 7- July 1979 
Two Ecology Simulations, Creativity 
Test; World Power Systems; Files and 
Data Basis — 4 Articles: Evaluations of 
Six Peripherals and Software Systems; 
Personal finance Model, 2 logic games. 

Vol.5, No. 8 August 1979 

Adventure, Computers and Dance, 
Can Computers Think? The Law and 
Your Computer, muMath, Image Pro- 
cessing, Manipulating Pencil Files, 
Structured Programming Techniques. 
Evaluation of TI99/4, TRS-80 Model 
II, SWTPC PR-40, IMSAIVIO. Games: 
H VOLT and Fort. 

102 








Vol.5, No. 10 October 1979 

Battle of the Word Processors, The 
Computer as a Gun, Computer Driven 
Real 3-D Display. Applications: RCA 
VIP and COSMAC ELF' Graphics 
Digital Clock. Evaluations: Perip- 
hicon 511. Compucolor II, Health H14 
Printer, Atari Video Computer Cart- 
ridges, Mountain Hardware Super- 
Talker. 

Vol.5, No. 11 November 1979 

Comparison Chart of Six Popular 
Personal Computers, Comparison of 
Single Board Computers, Electronic 
Toys and Games, Quick Printer II, 
Interact Computer, TRS-80 Level III 
Basic, Battle of the Word Processors, 
lntrolX-10 Home Control System, 
Adventure: Complete Listing in Ba- 
sic, Build Your Own Telephone Dialer 
and Joysticks. 

Vol.5, No. 12 December 1979 

More Electronic Games, Language 
Translators, APFMP1000 Video Game 
System, Buying a Word Processor 
printer, Satellite Tracking Software, 
Syskit for the 8080, Assemblers: 
CP/M vs. TSC, Statistics for the 
TRS-80. Part 2: Controlling House- 
hold Devices, Computerized Biofeed- 
back. Applications: The Microcom- 
puter as an Investment Tool, "Turn- 
key" CP/M systems, Animation for 
the Apple. Digitized Video Images. 



Volume 6, No. 1 January 1980 

Interviews with Donald E. Knuth and 
William Wulf ; Six Features on Artifi- 
cial Intelligence; Air Traffic Control- 
ler; Computerized Resume; GROW 
A Program that Learns; Evaluations 
Six Basics; NEWDOS and TRSDOS 
Auto Scribe; Micro Music. 



Volume 6, No. 2 February 1980 

Six articles on Investment Analysis; 
David Levy: Intelligent Computer 
Games; Programs: Geneology, 
Graphing, Genetics; Evaluations of 
Word Star vs Electric Pencil; Pascal 
for the TRS-80; Micro Composer; 
Data Dubber; Sorcerer Word Proces- 
sing Pac; Trivia Contest Results. 



Volume 6, No. 3 March 1980 

Evaluations: Tl 99/4; Cobol: Micro- 
soft vs Micro Focus; Pencil Sharp- 
ener; Mailroom Plus; Ten software 
packages; Networks for Personal 
Computers; Three Mile Island 
Game; Interview with Joel Birn- 
baum ; Hov. to Make a Basic Tree. 



nwrf 



July 1977 

SOL. The Inside Story; Braille and the 
Computer Video newspaper: A Chip is 
Born; The Care and Feeding of Your 
Home Computer; Digital Foam — the 
peripheral of the future. 

August 1977 

The Kit and I, Part I, by someone who's 
never soldered before: Introduction to 
the fundamentals of Computer Memory; 
Tips for the do-it-yourself hardware 
beginner; Binary clocks; APLomania. 

September 1977 

Xeroxes and other hard copy off your 
CRT; Payroll Program; How Computers 
Work; The Kit and I. Part II: or Power to 
the Computer: CCD's How They Work 
and How They're Made: A look at 
PLATO, an Educational Computer 
System; IBM 5100. 

October 1977 

Binary Arithmetic For the Beginner; 
Microprocessor Aid for the Deaf and 
Blind; The Kilobyte Card: Scott Joplin 
on Your Sci-Fi Hi-Fi; Building a Basic 
Music Board; Flowcharting; Payroll 
Program. 

November 1977 

Solar Energy Measurement; A Begin- 
ners Introduction to BASIC: The Kit and 
I, Part III; More Music to Play on Your 
Computer; Micro Maintenance: Solo- 
mon and Viet: Putting Together a 



Personal Computing System; 
Sharing on the Family MICRO. 



Time 



December 1977 

A Beginners Guide to Peripherals; The 
Best Slot Machine Game ever; Artificial 
Intelligence?; An Electronic Jungle 
Gym for Kids; File Copy Program; Better 
Health Through Electronics; the Kit and 
I Part IV 

January 1978 

Synthetic Skin for Your Robot and How 
to Make It; TLC: A Visual Programming 
Language; The Code That Can't Be 
Cracked: Beginners Guide to Computer 
Graphics: The Computer and Natural 
Language: First-Timer's Guide to 
Circuit Board Etching. 

February 1978 

A Practical Mailing List Program; 
Artificial Intelligence: Assemblers: 
Flowgrams— A New Programming Tool; 
Refresher Course in BASIC; Micros and 
Analyzing Election Results; Upgrading 
Your BASIC 

March-April 1978 

Introduction to real time concepts: 
Felsenstein: An Absolute-Time Clock; 
Dreyfus: Things Computers Still Can't 
Do: Introduction to Interpreters; Othello 
Games; Weizenbaum: Incomprehen- 
sible Programs: The Quasar Robot 
Revealed; Chesson: Cryptanalysis 



Send order to Creative Computing, P.O. Box 789-M, 
Morristown, NJ 07960. Or save time and call your credit card 
order toll, free to: 800-631-8112 (in NJ, 201-540-0445). 



103 



APRIL 1980 



A new game for the Apple... 

Ten to the 
Thirty-Eighth 




TOE TO 

PLACE 

VQUR 
BETS! 



Readers of Martin Garner's book 
"New Mathematical Diversions from 
Scientific American," may recognize 
the game described here. It is a ver- 
sion of the game "Googol," discussed 
in Gardner's book. I will explain later 
why I changed the name of the game. 
I have also added some twists which 
you may find of interest. 

A googol is the num- 
ber ten multiplied by 
itself one hundred 
times. 

Invention of the original game of 
Googol is attributed to John H. Fox, Jr. 
and L. Gerald Marnie. As described in 
Garnder's book, the game is played by 
having someone (the computer in this 
case) select a number of slips of 
paper. On the back of each slip, a 
positive number is written which you 
are not allowed to see. The values of 
the numbers range from small frac- 
tions up to numbers the size of a 
"googol" or larger. A googol is the 
number ten multiplied by itself one 
hundred times, or "ten-to-the-one- 
hundredth." The game thus derives 
its name from the not very ridgidly 
defined upper limit to the numbers 
written on the slips. 

When all the numbers have been 
written down, the slips are random- 
ized and placed face down. You then 
turn the slips face up, one at a time. 
The object is to stop when you turn 
up the number which you guess to be 
the largest. The last slip which you 
choose to turn up is your guess. You 
may not go back to a previously re- 

William Bradford, 7868 Naylor Avenue, Los 
Angeles, CA 90045. 



vealed slip. Should you turn over all 
the slips, the last one must be your 
guess. 

The program described here fol- 
lows the original game closely. How- 
ever, the largest number which can be 
represented in Applesoft II is 10 3a (ten 
to the thirty-eighth), hence the name 
of this version. Also, you get to choose 
the number of slips to use (from 3 to 
14). These two facts tend to help you 
since you know that with a small num- 
ber of slips to choose from, a number 
of 10 ' or greater is almost certainly 
the largest. In the original game, the 
googol is not necessarily the upper 
limit, so that you are never certain of 
any large number. 

I will not go into the detailed an- 
alysis of the odds of your finding the 
highest number. I'll only quote the 
results of the argument attributed to 
L. Moser and J. R. Pounder. You may 
derive it for yourself or refer to 
Gardner's book. 

The strategy is to select p slips out 
of the n available. Note the largest 
value among the p slips and then 
continue selecting from the remaining 
slips until you find a larger number. 
The following formula gives the prob- 
ability of finding the largest number in 
n slips; 



n\p 



1 



) + P+1 



+ 



1 



P+2 



rk) 



Given n, p is determined by picking 
a value for p which gives the largest 
value to the above expression. For 
example, if n = 10 then p = 3. For 
other values of n, you are urged to 
determine p for yourself. (You didn't 
buy that computer just to play Star 
Trek, did you?) Of course, as I men- 
tioned above, the fact that you know 
the upper bound to the possible 
values does put the odds a little more 
in your favor. 

While writing the program to play 
this game, it occurred to me that it 
might be interesting to skew the odds 
a little. Since the computer is turning 
over the slips, it is possible for it to 
lie to you about the value of any slip. 




The false value you get is chosen at 
random, so it may be higher or lower 
than the true value. If knowing that the 
machine may be lying to you is not 
enough, you can have it tell you when 
it is lying. Of course, it won't tell you 
until after you have made a bet or 
chosen another slip. 

You now know the essential facts 
about the game. The program was 
written for an Apple II in Applesoft II, 
so it should be fairly portable to other 
machines using Microsoft's Basic. 
The program is set up to handle from 
one to four players. Players make their 
bets before selecting a slip to turn 
over. Only one slip is turned over at a 
time, so players should work out who 
does the selecting. When a slip is 
turned over, each player is offered the 
chance to stop. All players may con- 
tinue to bet until all the players have 
chosen. Bets may not be decreased, 
but they may remain fixed at any 
value. When the last player has se- 
lected, all of the strips are revealed 
with their true values. The slip with the 



The googol is not nec- 
essarily the upper limit 



largest value is shown in flashing 
mode. Wins and losses are computed 
and displayed and the players' funds 
adjusted accordingly. At this time new 
players may be added, the num- 
ber of slips changed, or the game op- 
tion may be changed. 

The program shown in the accom- 
panying listing has some features 
which are designed with the Apple II 
video output in mind. The strips are 
shown in the INVERSE video mode, 
while the bets and available funds are 
shown in the NORMAL video mode. 



104 



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Do you serve your TRS-60'$ meals on paper sheets? Do you 
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APRIL I960 



105 



10 38 , cont'd 



When a player wins, the word WIN is 
shown in FLASHING mode above his 
bet. Similarly, the winning number is 
shown as a flashing number. If hard 
copy output is desired, several state- 
ments (205, 403, 406, 1207 and 1314) 
will require some modification. In fact, 
for a hard copy only device, state- 
ments 1200 through 1220 can be 
deleted. 

Since the computer is 
turning over the slips, 
it is possible for it to 
lie to you about the 
value of any slip. 

In the course of writing this article, 
it occurred to me that it would be in- 
teresting to see a version of the game 
where the computer is a player. Per- 
haps an interested reader could con- 
tribute a program to do so to Creative 
Computing. Another option would be 
to have the computer display a blank 
slip instead of lying. The slip would not 
be turned over until all bets were in. 
Other possibilities include more so- 
phisticated schemes for having the 
computer lie, such as telling you that 
it has lied when it really hasn't. Of 
course, we humans can generally lie 
better than a computer (at least until 
a HAL 9000 type of computer shows 
up), so there are many such varia- 
tions. Take advantage of the "Input/ 
Output" column to share your ideas. 
In any case, the idea is to have a little 
fun with your brain and its extension, 
your computer. 

For those of you who are wondering 
about the origin of the term "googol," 
is was invented by a nine year old 
child, a nephew of mathematician Dr. 
Edward Kasner. Dr. Kasner, a re- 
spected teacher, is noted as having 
given lectures on the mathematics of 
infinity, topology and other advanced 
mathematical subjects to kindergar- 
ten-age children. The reasoning of Dr. 
Kasner's nephew concerning the fi- 
nite value of googol is interesting, 
and is described in the selection by 
Drs. Kasner and Newman referenced 
below. Q 

References 

Gardner, Martin, New Mathematical Di- 
versions from Scientific American, Simon 
and Schuster, New York, 1966, Chapter 3, 
Problem 3. 

Kasner, Edward and James R. Newman 
"New Names for Old" in The World of 
Mathematics, Simon and Schuster, New 
York, 1956, Volume 3, page 2009. 



SAMPLE RUN 

RUN 
10431 

(TEH TO THE THIRTY-EIGHTH) 

A BETTING GAME FOR THE APPLE II 

PROGRAMMED BY L. M. BRADFORD 

00 YOU WANT INSTRUCTIONS? (Y/IDN 

GAI'.E OPTIONS 
1STRAIGIIT UP GATE (I DON'T LIE) 
2" RUSSIAN" ROULETTE'd LIE TO YOU) 
3LIKE NO. 2, BUT I TELL YOU l/HEN 
I AC I! EALING A BOGUS IIUMDER 

IF THIS ISN'T CLEAR,SEE THE INSTRUCTIONS 

WHICH? 3 



HOW MANY PLAYERS? (1 TO It) 1 

YOU'PF OUT OF CASH NO. 1 

I'O YOU WISH TO BORROW SOME? Y 

OK, HOW MUCH? (LIMIT IS flOOO) 1000 

HOW MANY SLIPS OF PAPER DO Y01' WISH 
?9 



TO PICK FROM? (TAX - 1M) 



BETS 

FUNDS 1000 

TIME TO PLACE YOUR BETS! 

HOW MUCH DO YOU WISH TO WAGER NO. 1 ? 

?5 

BETS 5 

FUNDS 1000 

WHICH STRIP DO YOU WISH TO SEE75 

C95520.399 

DO YOU WISH TO STOP HOW NO. 1?N 

TIME TO PLACE YOUR BETS I 

HOW MUCH DO YOU WISH TO WAGER NO. 1 ? 

?5 

BETS 5 

FUNDS 1000 

inncii STRIP 00 YOU WISH TO SEE?2 

2.Ii01C8E01 

DO YOU WISH TO STOP NOW NO. 1?N 

TIME TO PLACE YOUR BETS! 

HOW MUCH DO YOU WISH TO WAGER NO. 1 ? 

?10 

BETS 10 

FUNDS 1000 

WHICH STRIP L'O YOU WISH TO SFE?7 

.055038695 

DO YOU WISH TO STOP NOW NO. 1?N 

TIME TO PLACE YOUR BETS! 

HOW MUCH DO YOU WISH TO WACER NO. 1 ? 

?10 

BETS 10 

FUNDS 1000 

WHICH STRIP DO YOU WISH TO SEE?C 

3.5U07399EO9 

DO YOU WISH TO STOP NOW NO. 1?Y 



ALL BETS ARE NOW III 
l»J2£953.03 
2.10168801 
1952*00.91 

7.S6591G5 

f.95520.399 

133182.867 

.055058691. 

3.51U07399E+29 

C7.9U56399 

THE CORRECT NUMBER WAS 3. 51"t07399E*29 I 

WIN 

10 

FUNDS 

1010 



DO YOU WISH TO CHANGE GAI.E OPTION7N 

DO YOU WANT TO CHANGE THE NUMBER OF PLAYERS?!! 

BETS 

FUNDS 1010 

HOW MANY SLIPS OF PAPER DO YOU WISH TO PICK FROM? (MAX 
?3 



1><) 



106 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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TITLE. 



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APRIL 1980 



107 



OETS 

FUNDS 1010 

TIME TO PLACE YOUR BETS! 

now much no you wish to wager no. 1 ? 

71000 
BETS 1000 

funds ioio 

winch strip po you wish to sfe?2 



5.866947E+27 

PO YOU WISH TO STOP MOW '10. 1?Y 



ALL BETS ARE MOW IH 
.1(27343843 1 
S.8GC947F*27 2 

1701507.38 3 

THE CORRECT NUMBER WAS 5 . 8b6947E*27 ! 

WIN 

1000 

FUNDS 

2010 




1 TEXT : HOME :Y$ - "Y":f'$ - "N" 

2 DIM S(15),B(4),F(4),CH(4) 

3 IIC - 0: GOTO 3000 

100 REM PRINT BETS AND FUNDS AV 
At LADLE AND HEADERS FOR THEM 

101 POKE 34,16: POKE 35,19 

105 VTAB 10: HTAB 1: PRINT "BETS 

106* FOR R - 1 TO PM 

107 PS ■ R * 8 

108 VTAB 1C: HTAB PS: PRINT B(R) 

110 NEXT R 

112 VTAB 18: HTAB 1: PRINT "FUND 

S "; 

114' FOR P. - 1 TO PM 

115 PS - R « 8 

116 VTAC 18: HTAB PS: PRINT F(P) 

118 NEXT R 

120 RETURN 

198 REM PRINT OUT THE NUMBER Fn 

R STRIP ST IF VALUE IS NEGAT 

IVE THEN STRIP HAS BEEN TURN 

ED OVER ALREADY 



IF S(ST) < THEN 250 

201 R - INT ((ST ♦ 1) / 2) 

202 CL » ST - 2 « (R - 1) 

203 POKE 34,0: POKE 35,16 

204 VTAB R « 2 - 1:PS - 22 
- 1): IF PS - THEN PS - I 



(CL 



205 : HTAB PS: INVERSE : PRINT AUS 
(S(ST)) 

206 NORMAL : POKE 34,20: POKE 35 
,23 

207 XP - XP ♦ 1:ERR - 

208 HOME : VTAB 20 

209 S(ST) ■ - S(ST) 

210 RETURN 

211 REM TEST FOR GAME OPTION, P 
RINT MESSAGE FOR LIE (IF NEE 
DED) 

212 IF W - 1 THEM RETURN 

213 IF ST < > L THEN RETURN 

214 IF W - 2 THEN 230 

216 PRINT "THE VALUE JUST SHOWN 

IS NOT A TRUE ONE!" 

218 GOSUB 990 

230 5(L) - - TE 

234 RETURN 

250 PRINT "THAT NUMBER HAS ALREA 

DY BEEN SHOWN 

252 GOSUB 990 

253 ERR - 1 

254 RETURN 

298 REM A CHOICE HAS BEEN MADE 
JY PLAYER R. IF HE STOPS SET 

HIS CHOICE FLAG. 
300 FOR R ■ 1 TO PM 

302 IF CH(R) < > THEN 320 

303 HOME 

304 PRINT "DO YOU WISH TO STOP N 
OW NO. ";R;: INPUT A$ 

306 IF AS < > Y$ AND AS < > US 

THEM 304 
308 IF AS - NS THEM 320 
310 CIKR) - ST 
314 WS - WS ♦ 1 
320 NEXT R 
330 RETURN 

398 REM TEST FOR WINNERS. BALAN 
CE THE PLAYERS' FUNPS 

400 FOR R - 1 TO PM 

401 PS - R * 8 

402 Q - CIKR): IF S(Q) < > MX THEM 
406 

403 VTAB IS: HTAB PS: FLASH : PRINT 
"WIN" 

405 SG - 1: GOTO 410 

406 VTAB 15: HTAB PS: INVERSE : PRINT 
"LOSE" 

407 SC - - 1 

410 VTAB 16: HTAB PS: PRINT B(R) 

412 F(R) - F(R) ♦ SG * B(R) 

414 VTAB 18: HTAB PS: NORMAL : PRINT 

" ": VTAB IS: HTAB PS: NORMAL 

: PRINT F(R) 

416 8(R) ■ 0: NEXT R 

420 RETURN 

59E REM BANKING ROUTINE SET UP 

LOANS AND CLEAR ACCOUNTS 
600 R - I: IF F(R) > THEN RETURN 

605 POKE 34,20: POKE 35,23: HOME 

: PRINT "YOU'RE OUT OF CASH 

NO. ";R: INPUT "PO YOU WISH 

TO BORROW SOME? ";A$ 

600 IF A$ < > Y$ AND A$ < > Nt 

THEN 605 
608 IF A$ ■ Y$ THEN 620 
610 F(R) • - 1: PRINT "OK! BE SF 
EING YOU!" 
612 RETURN 

620 INPUT "OK, HOW MUCH? (LIMIT 
IS $1000) ";F(R) 

621 IF F(R) < THEN 621 

622 IF F(R) < 1000.01 AND F(R) > 
THEN RETURN 

C24 IF F(R) > 1000 THEN 630 

626 INPUT "DO YOU WISH TO QUIT? 
"; AS 

627 IF AS < > Y$ AND A$ < > M$ 
THEN 626 

628 IF AS - Y$ THEN 610 

630 PRINT "LET'S TRY AGAIN": GOTO 
620 



650 I - 1 

654 IF F(l ) < > - 1 THEN 664 

656 FOR R - I TO PM - 1 

658 B(R) ■ 8(R ♦ 1):CH(R) - CH(R ♦ 

1):F(P.) - F(R ♦ 1) 

660 NEXT R 

662 PM - PM - 1:P0 - PM 

664 I - I ♦ 1: IF I > PI' THEN RETURN 



670 GOTO 654 

698 REM TAKE BETS A BET OF 
ZERO) DEALS YOU OUT (HOWEVER 
, YOU ARE ASKED TO CONFIRM Y 
OUR DESIRE TO QUIT) 



( 



POKE 34,20: POKE 35,23 

HOME : VTAB 21 

PRINT "TIME TO PLACE YOUR BE 

PRINT "HOW MUCH DO YOU WISH 



700 

705 

710 

TS!" 

720 

TO WAGER NO. 

AZ 

IF AZ < 
IF AZ > 



;l;" ?" 



INPUT 



721 
722 
730 
723 



THEN 720 
F ( I ) OR AZ > 



1000 THEN 



IF AZ - AND B(l) < > THEN 



< 0(1 ) THEN 780 
• AND li( I ) 



THEN 



RETURN 

724 IF AZ 

725 IF AZ 
750 

726 B(l ) - AZ: RETURN 

730 PRINT "YOU CAN'T WAGER THAT 

MUCH, TURKEY!": PRINT "TRY A 

GAIN" 

732 GOSUB 990 

734 GOTO 720 

750 INPUT "DO YOU WISH TO nil IT?" 
;A$ 

751 IF AS < > NS ANP A? < > Y$ 
THEM 750 

754 IF AS - NS THEN 770 

756 F(l) - - 1 

758 RETURN 

770 PRINT "YOU MUST PLACE A BET 

OR QUIT!" 



GOTO 720 

PRINT "YOU CAN'T DECREASE YO 



772 

780 

UR BET!" 

782 GOSUB 990 

784 GOTO 720 

990 FOR SS - 1 TO 300: NEXT SS 

992 RETURN 

996 REM HOW BEGIN PLAY SET UP 

PTIONS ON LIES BRANCH TO GE 

T NUMBER OF PLAYERS 

1000 PO - 

1001 TEXT : HOME 
1005 NG - 1 
1010 VTAB 2 
E OPTIONS" 
1012 VTAB 6 



HTAB 14: PRINT "CAM 



HTAB 5 



PRINT " 1"; : 
: PRINT "STRAIGHT UP CAME (I 
DON'T LIE)" 
1014 VTAB 8: PRINT " 2";: HTAB 5 
: PRINT "'RUSSIAN ROULETTE '( 
I LIE TO YOU)" 

1016 VTAB 10: PRINT " 3";: HTAB 
5: PRINT "LIKE HO. 2, BUT I 
TELL YOU WHEN": VTAB 111 HTAB 
7: PRINT " I AM DEALING A BO 
GUS NUMBER" 

1020 VTAB 18: PRINT "IF THIS I SN 
•T CLEAR, SEE THE INSTRUCTION 
S" 

1022 VTAB 21: INPUT "WHICH? ";W 
1024 IF W > 3 OR W < 1 THEN 1022 

1026 HOME : GOTO 1100 

1030 POKE 34,0: POKE 35,16: HOME 

1032 VTAC 2: PRINT " HOW MANY S 
LIPS OF PAPER DO YOU WISH TO 

PICK FROM? (MAX - 14)" 

1033 VTAB 5: INPUT NP: IF IIP < 2 
OR NP > 14 THEN 1033 

1040 Z - RHO (1):MX - - ltlH - 

15 

1042 FOR I - 1 TO NP:X - RNO (2 

) 

1044 Y - INT (38 * HMD (3) • RND 
(4)):S(I) - X • (10 - Y) 

1045 IF S(l ) < MX THEN 1047 

1046 III - I :MX - S( I ) 

1047 NEXT I 



108 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SIMUTEK PRESENTS 

• TRS-80 • 



GAMES 

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t— ortt, loni ran** senses, old Hn 3 ■*»•«* for b«f>nnin«. aw*rat*. or «xp«rt (Mayers' • INVASION 
HTOIIC — T>m«: 30»», r>«ace Earth's Solar System Minion: At tonoral of Earth's for cot. your job it to 
•to* tha) Wort invasion »n0 dMtroy trtoir out Dos It on Mart, Versus. Saturn, Moot una, otct Earth'i Forcawi 
Androids — Spaca FtfhldM - Laie* Cannon — Nouli.no Blasters' Wort forces Roboti - Saucers — 
DwjtnMtritori - Proton Dotlroyart* MuMi '•»•" pntt u>tt you advance) to * mora compUcatM tema *» you 
pat twite* f * ST AM WARS - Manuovor your tpaca i-ehte* deep info tM nucloui of tno Death Start Drop 
your pomp, than escape via th« only •■>( This prapnict pmt ■• roaiiy tun! May thp 'ore* M ertth 
you' * tPACt TAMOST - Shoot at onomy Ship* with your mtttlMn. M they ajott m a PprpcnutP, 
turp trtpm - or It you're crupl. dot troy tneml Full praphtct, rpal tlmp ppmof * tAUCIRl - ThM fptt 
action praphKt pamp fun a tlmo itmlt* Can you M tho commander to wtn tno distineuisheo crouf 
ffeauires split tocond limine to w»n' Watch out' 



PACKAGE TWO 



CHICKCNS 1.1 - r.na"y' A chockort propram that will cnalMnpa everyone* Cspprt at ere" at amateur ' 
iAwjt 3 P'y trpp search to find oott potWPfa mow FHciu randomly between aouai move* to assure you of 
ha* ma, idantical femes. * POKCW FACt - Tnp computar utat psychology at well at loptc to try 
Pat you at POhPr. Cartft arp dttcHeyed utinp trsio'i full praphict. ComputPr rpltPt, «i«v and 
imp* pvpn f»Kht Orppt practice for your Saturday nipnt pone* match* (Mays S card 
■rpw). P FSVCMIC — Tail thp computar a little about yourtoif and hp'H pradlct mines about you. you 
t A >wi mind bPhdPr' Grpat amusement tor parthn. * TANOlC MANIA - Try and forCP 
you* opponpnt into an immobile potition. But watch out, thoy'rp dome thp tpmp to you' Thn ptaphict 
■ is for t ppoplp and hot Men u«Pd to and ttupid arguments. (And occationpliy ster.s 
!) p word SCR AMPLE — This ppmp it fdr two or mora poo*<o. Oruj porton tnputt a word to thp 
rtiie thp othort loo* away Thp computer scram pies thp word, thon heaps track pf wrrpno 



PACKAGE THREE 



TRV - Thit propram Mtt you chooto thp tubfpet ai —•» aa thp mood of thp popm you want Vou 
TRS-PQ CPrtam nount or nampt. thpn tna mood, and it Poet thp rest* it hat a lOOO-word * vocabulary 
of nount, vorfrt, adfOCHvos md adverb*' a CLCCTRiC ARTIST - Manual draw. PrpM. mora at won at. 
Auto: draw, erase and mow*. Utat praphtct bttt not bytat. Saves drawinp on tapa or dttin * Galactic 
SATTLK — Thp Swinout enemy have lonp ranpa phatprt but cannot travel at warp s peed' Vou can. but 
only hpwp snort ranpa phesers' Can you omtfcrree. thp pnamy without eett.ni destroyed' Full erapnics - 
rppl tlmp' P WORD MANIA - Can you punt the computer's wordt utmf your human intuitive and 
abilities* Vou'll need to, lo boat tnp computet' • AIR COMMAND - Battle the Kami kale pilots. 
e* tout aecond timtne. Th« n a FAST action arcade pamp. 



• PACKAGE FOUR ' 



LlFt — Thit z- to machine laneuapa pfopram utet full praphtct' Over 100 feneration* per minute make It 
truly animated 1 Vou make your stertme pattern, the computer doet the rest' Propram can be t topped ana 
MP! Wptch It prow* P SPACB LANOM - Thrt full prppnict simulate* Mtt you pick what 
•Steroid or moon you w*«h to land onl Mpt 3 skill leveii that mpkp » fun for everyone, e QRf ID 
NuJtMpepl pprne it fun and cha'ienetnf Boat the computer at init dice pamp utinp your unowieppi 
and luck' Computer keeps track of hit wtnninps and yourt. Qutch fptt action Thrt pprne it not 
e thi Pharaoh - Rule thp ancient city of Alexandria' Buy or ten land. Keep your people from 
revolting Stop the rpmppptht ratt. Heounet, a true political pe*tonaniy to become pood' e ROBOT 
HUMTCR — A proup of rpnpppdp roOott nave ptceped and arp spotted in pn old pnott town on Mart' V 

Robot Hunter* - It to destroy the piteie machines bPforP thpy ktll any morp tettiett' CkCltmpt 
Chptlpneint' Pull eraphtcs' _^ 



! PACKAGE FIVE 



SUPER HORSERACE - Makp your belt .utt like at thp rppl rpcPtrack' • horses race in this spectacular 
WeSwsK PHpspy' up to 9 PPopH can (Hay' U*n rppl odds but has that element of chance you see In reel 
Hfol Keeps track of ovpryone - t wtnnwspt and losses This it one of the few computer simulations that can 
acluany pet a room of people cttpprmp' e MAZE MOUSE - The mouse with a mind' Thp computer 
ppnpitt.il random mazes of whatever we you specify, then searches for a way out! The second time, ne'n 
always eo fastest route' A true display of artificial mtenippnce' Full praphics. mazes 
mouiMT P AMOEBA KILLER — Vou command a ortp men submarine that ha* been thrunkpn to the sue 
Of bacteria In this exemnp praphlc adventure* Intected into the president 's bloodstream, your mission I 
dMtroy the pep ply amoeba infection revapmp hit body' e lOOic — Thn popular ppmp It based on 

Till ill IT but unmet tactics mat make it more excitmp and chanonpint - hat 2 ipvptt of play to make 

it fun for every ona. e SUBMARINER - Shoot torpedoes at the enemy tntpt to pat points. Fast action 
wj pprne is exciting and tun tor everybody' 



PACKAGE SIX 



SB HOME FINANCIAL PROGRAMS - F.puret amortisation, annuities, depreciation rate*, interest 
lit II. earned mterett on savmps ana much, much morp. These proprerm wstt pet used apam and epam. A 
mutt for the contcrpnt.oui, inflation minded person. 



PACKAGE SEVEN 



BACKGAMMON s.S — 2 rjitfprpnt skin levels make this pame a chpllpwep to avprppa or advanced piayert. 
{Not rpcommendOd for oepmners) Looks for best poaelbte move to beet you! FANTASTIC GRAPHICS. 
"ays doublet end utat international rukw. e SPEED REAOINO - inc. eases your rppcMnt 1 
checks for comprenpntton of material Greet for tporsppprs and adults to improve rpppHnp »*>•"» 
- Drop depth cnaipet on movinp tubs. Lower depihi pat hiehpr points tn this fptt action praphlc t 
ppmp p VAHTZEE — Pspy vphtepp with tnp computer Thit popular ppmp it even more fun end 
chptlpneint apamtt a TRS-EOI * WALL STREET - Can you turn your tiO.OOO into a million doitart' 
That's thp oorect of thu preet pame. Simulates »n actual stock market' 





ALL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED TO LOAD 
CASSETTE PACKAGES REQUIRE 16K LEVEL II 
PACKAGES ON DISKETTE (32K) $5.00 EXTRA 



Sand check. Monay Order or Bank Card # 

TO: SIMUTEK. P.O. BOX 35298 
TUCSON. ARIZONA 85740 

(602) 882-3948 



PHONE ORDERS WELCOME 



| PLEASE ADD $2.50 POSTAGE & HANDLING PER ORDER | 
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CIRCLE 209 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE 215 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





10U8 IF W - 1 THEM RETURN 


THE STRIPS, FLASH THE LARGE 


"THE PROGRAM PICKS SOME RAND 






1050 L - RMD (If): IF L < .1 THEN 


ST 


OM POSITIVE" 






1050 


1300 POKE 3U,20: POKE 35,23: HOME 


1*022 PRINT "NUMBERS (FROM TO A 






1052 L - 100 * L:ZZ - INT ((L / 




BOUT 10-38).": PRINT "THE NU 






IIP - HIT (L / NP)) • HP ♦ . 


1301 VTAB 20 


MBERS ARE WRITTEN ON THE BAC 






05):L - ZZ 


1302 PRINT "ALL BETS ARE HOW III" 


K OF": PRINT "SOME STRIPS OF 






105lt TE - S(L):X - RND (2):Y - INT 




PAPER." 






(38 • RMD (5) • RND (6)) 


1303 GOSUB 230 


1*023 PRINT 






1056 SCL) » X • (10 - Y) 


130lt POKE 3U,0: POKE 35,15 


1*02** PRINT : PRINT "THE NUMBER 






1000 RETURN 


1306 FOR ST - 1 TO NP 


F STRIPS OF PAPER TO BE USED 






109S REM GET THE NUMBER OF PLAY 


1308 GOSUB 201 


IS UP TO YOU.": PRINT "BUT 






ERS 


1309 S(ST) - ABS (S(ST)) 


YOU MUST CHOOSE AT LEAST 3 A 






1099 REM THEN INITIALIZE FUNDS. 


1310 IF S(ST) < > MX THEN 1320 


ND NOT MORE THAN 1U." 






THEN HOW MANY STRIPS, THEN 


1312 VTAB R • 2 - 1 : PS - 22 • (C 


1*026 PRINT : PRINT "WHEN YOU SEL 






TAKE BETS (CONVOLUTED, BUT 1 


L - 1): IF PS - THEM PS ■ 


ECT A STRIP, IT WILL UE 






T WORKS) 


It 


•TURNED OVER' TO DISPLAY THE 






1100 VTAB 10: INPUT "HOW MANY PL 


131lt HTAB PS: FLASH : PRINT S(ST 


NUMBER." 






AYERS? (1 TO U) ";PM 


) 


1*028 VTAB 22: PRINT H$;: INPUT A 






1101 IF PM < 1 OR PM > 1* THEN 11 


1320 NEXT ST 


$ 






00 


1330 : POKE 3lt,20: POKE 35,23 


1*01*0 HOME : PRINT "THE GAME IS P 






1102 IF PI! - PO THEN 1111 


1331 HOME : VTAB 20 


LAYED BY TURNING THE STRIPS 






1103 IF PO - THEN 1109 


1332 PRINT "THE CORRECT NUMBER W 


OVER ONE AT A TIME";: PRINT 






llOlt FOR 1 ■ PM TO PO: GOSUB 600 


AS ";MX;" I" 


" UHTIL YOU COME" 






: NEXT 1 


1339 REM SETTLE THE BETS 


1*01*2 PRIHT "TO THE STRIP WHICH Y 






1106 PO - PM: GOTO 1111 


13U0 GOSUB U00 


OU GUESS TO BE THE LARGEST 






1109 PO • PM 


13lt2 XP ■ 


OF THE BUNCH." 






1110 FOR 1 - 1 TO PM: GOSUB CPO: 


13lt5 PRINT 11$;: INPUT A$ 


1*01*1* PRINT : PRINT "YOU MUST TAK 






HEXT 1 


1350 TEXT : HOME 


E THE LAST STRIP YOU TURNED 






1111 GOSUB 650: GOSUB 1030: GOSUB 


135lt VTAB 10: INPUT "DO YOU WISH 


OVER, YOU CAH'T GO BACK TO 






100 


TO CHANGE GAME OPTION?";A$ 


ANOTHER." 






1112 FOR 1 - 1 TO PM: GOSUB 700: 


1356 IF A$ < > 11$ AIID A$ < > Y 


1*01*6 PRIHT "FROM ONE TO FOUR PEO 






NEXT 1 


$ THEN 135lt 


PLE MAY PLAY AT ANY ONE TIM 






1115 GOSUB 650 


1358 IF A$ - Y$ THEN 1005 


E.": PRINT : PRINT "PLAYERS 






1119 REM INITIALIZE CHOICE MEMO 


1360 VTAB 12: INPUT "DO YOU WANT 


MAKE BETSON THEIR OWN CHOICE 






RY 


TO CHAIIGE THE NUMBER OF PLA 


S." 






1120 FOR 1 - 1 TO PI1:CH(I) - 0: NEXT 

1 


YERS?"" A$ 

1362 If A$ < > 11$ AND A$ < > Y 


I*0*>8 PRINT "IF A PLAYER MAKES A 
CHOICE, THE OTHERS MAY COHT 






1130 WS - 


$ THEN 1360 


IHUE SEARCH IHG.": PRINT "BET 






1198 REM THIS SECTION PRINTS OU 


136fc IF A$ - Y$ THEN 1100 


TING CONTINUES UHTIL ALL PLA 






T THE DISPLAY FOR APPLE VIDE 


1366 HOME 


YERS HAVE CHOSEN" 






0. STRIPS ARE WHITE BLOCKS ( 


1368 GOSUB 100 


1*050 PRIHT : PRINT "TO HOLD AT A 






INVERSE BLANKS) 


1370 GOTO 1111 


PARTICULAR BET, ENTER A 






1200 TEXT : HOME 


1372 REM 


ZERO FOR THE BET.": PRINT "Y 






1202 N - 0:PP » 


1371* REM LOOP THROUGH THE PROGR 


OU MUST, HOWEVER, MAKE SOME B 






120lt FOR J - 1 TO lit STEP 2 


AM 


ET OF AT" 






1206 VTAB J: IITAB 1: FOR K - 1 TO 


1376 REM 


1*052 PRINT "LEAST $1.00" 






2 


UtOO REM PRINT HEADER FOR PROGR 


1*058 VTAB 22: PRINT H$;: INPUT A 






1207 NORMAL : PRINT " "; : 1 (.'VERSE 


AM, ASK IF INSTRUCTIONS ARE 


$ 






: PRINT " "; 


NEEDED 


1*060 HOME : VTAB 2: PRINT "TO TH 






1208 II • II ♦ 1: IF M ■ HP THEN 12 


1500 REM 


ROW A LITTLE COHFUSION INTO 






10 


3000 VTAB 8: HTAB 17: PRINT "10- 


MATTERS TTHE COMPUTER CAN LI 






1209 NEXT K 


38": VTAB 10: IITAB 8: PRINT 


E TO YOU." 






1210 PQ - J ♦ 1: FOR K - J TO PO,: 


"(TEN TO THE THIRTY-EIGHTH)" 


1*062 PRIHT : PRINT "TWO OPTIONS 






VTAB J: PS ■ 38 * (K - J) 


: VTAB 12: HTAB 5: PRINT "A 


ARE PROVIDED TO THE BASIC G 






1212 IF PS « THEN PS - 1 


BETTING GAME FOR THE APPLE 1 


AME.": PRIHT "IN THE FIRST 






121lt NORMAL : HTAB PS: PRINT K: IF 


1" 


PTION, THE COMPUTER WOII'T TE 






K - HP THEN 1220 


3002 VTAB 16: HTAB 6: PRINT "PRO 


LL YOU" 






1216 NEXT K 


GRAMMED BY L. W. BRADFORD" 


1*061* PRINT : PRINT "THE SECOND 






1218 NEXT J 


3001* VTAB 22: INPUT "DO YOU WANT 


PTION IS NOT FOR THE FAINT 






1220 NORMAL 


INSTRUCTIONS? (Y/H)";A$ 


OF HEART.": PRIHT "THE COMPU 






1222 POKE 31*, 17: POKE 35,19 


3005 IF A$ < > Y$ AND A$ < > N 


TER WILL TELL YOU IF IT HAS 






1229 REM DISPLAY BETS AND TOTAL 


$ THEH 3006 


LIED ABOUT THE LAST NUMB 






S 


3006 IF AS - H$ THEN 1000 


ER." 






1230 GOSUB 100 


1*000 TEXT : HOME 


1*066 PRINT : PRINT "SO, IF YOU'V 






1250 POKE 3I|,20: POKE 35,23 


1*001 H$ - "HIT RETURN TO CONTINUE 


E JUST iJET OH IT, YOU MAY 






1252 HOME : VTAB 21 


M 


LOSE OR YOU MAY WIN BUT YOU 






1251* PRINT "WHICH STRIP DO YOU W 


1*002 PRINT "10-38 IS BASED ON 'G 


WON'T BE SURE" 






I Sit TO SEE";: INPUT ST 


OOCOL", A GAME THAT IS PESCR 


1*068 PRINT "BUT THEN NEITHER WIL 






1255 IF ST > NP THEN 1252 


IBEP BY MARTIN GARDNER If! HI 


L ANYBODY ELSE." 






1256 GOSUB 200: IF XP - HP THEN 


S BOOK 'NEW MATHEMATICAL [I 


1*070 VTAB 22: PRINT u$;: INPUT A 






1290 


IVERSIOHS FROM SCIENTIFIC A 


S 






1257 IF ERR ■ 1 THEN 1252 


MERICAN' ." 


1*072 ilOI'.E : VTAB 3: PRINT "THE R 






1258 GOSUB 300 


1*003 PRINT : PRINT 


EAL CHALLENGE OF THE GAME IS 






1260 IF WS ■ PM THEN 1300 


ItOOlt PRINT "THE GAME WAS ORIGINA 


TO FIND A WAY TO OPTIMIZ 






1261 REM WS-PI! I'FANS ALL PLAYER 


TED SY JOHN .1. FOX AND L. G 


E YOUR GETTING." 






5 IIAVF CHOSEN 


ERALD MARIIIE, III 1958." 


i*C7l* PRINT : PRINT "MARTIN GARDN 






12C5 GOSUB 212 


UOOS PRINT 


ER DISCUSSES THE STRATEGY 






12T.9 REM CHANGE lirTS? 


ItOOC PRINT : PRINT "THE GAI-.E UES 


FOP. THE NORMAL GAME II! HIS B 






1270 FOR 1 - 1 TO PM 


CRIBED HERE IS ESSENTIALLY 


00 K," 






1272 GOSUB 700 


THE SAME, BUT WITH SOME 'TWI 


1*0 76 PRINT : PR 1 NT " 'NEW MATH 






1275 NEXT 1 


STS* TO IT." 


EMATICAL PI VERSIONS FROM": PP. 1 NT 






1277 GOSUB 650 


1*008 PRINT : PRINT "A GOOCUL IS 


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN" 






1280 GOTO 1230 


10 MULTIPLIED BY ITSELF 100 








1288 REM OKAY ALL STRIPS HAVE B 


TIMES. THE ORIGINAL GAME HA 


1*078 PRINT : PRINT "THE ANALYSIS 






EEN SHOWN. IF NO CHOICE HAS 


D THAT VALUE AS AN UPPE 


OF THE SITUATIONS WHERE THE 






BEEN MADE, THEN THE CHOICE M 


R LIMIT." 


COMPUTER LIES TO YOU IS LEF 






UST BE THE REMAINING STRIP 


1*009 PRINT "THE LIMIT FOR THIS G 


T TO THE INTERESTED READE 






1290 FOR 1 - 1 TO PM: IF CH( 1 ) < 


AME IS 10-38, WHICH EXPLAINS 


R." 






> THEN 1296 


THE NAME" 


1*080 VTAB 20: INPUT "HIT RETURN 






1292 CH(I) « ST 


1*010 VTAB 22: PRINT H$;: INPUT A 


TO START PLAY";A$ 






1296 NEXT 1 


$ 


9000 T*XT : HOME 






1298 REM ALL GETS ARE IN, PRINT 


1*020 HOME : PRINT "THE BASIC GAM 


9100 GOTO 1000 






OUT THE REAL VALUES FOR ALL 


E IS PLAYED AS FOLLOWS;": PRINT 


9999 END 








110 


CREATIVE COMPUTING 





YORN 

David Gerrold 




So there I was, showing off my 
North Star to some friends who were 
thinking about getting a machine of 
their own, and suddenly, the attractive 
redhead asked, "If it's so smart, how 
come I have to type in a 'V or a '2' for 
'yes' or 'no'?" 

"Um — " I said. "That's just the way 
the program was written. I copied it out 
of Creative Computing. The author 
was probably trying to save memory, 
so he didn't bother putting in a 
recognition subroutine." 

"But it's possible?" she asked. 

"Sure," I said. "It's probably very 
easy. In fact, they encourage you to 
personalize the programs to your own 
uses." 

"So, why haven't you?" she asked. 

She had me there. I said, "Because 
I hadn't recognized a need to . . . ?" 

"Well, it would be nice," she 
sniffed. And I knew what that sniff 
meant. 

All right. I'd show her. 

After they left, I sat down at the 
machine and constructed the follow- 
ing all-purpose "Y" or "N" subroutine 
to patch into various game programs. 

I call it Yorn, and it's written in 
North Star Basic. 

Whenever a "yorn" is needed, have 



David Gerrold, P.O. Box 1190. Hollywood. CA 
90028 



your program print the question, then 
jump to the Yorn subroutine. It will 
then return a 1 or a -1. 

The subroutine will recognize any 
variation of yes or no that begins with 
the same letters: Yeah or Yup or Nein 
or Nyet. For some reason, this im- 
presses people who don't realize 
exactly what the program is recogniz- 
ing. 

I chose to use the positive and 
negative values, because it appeals to 
my sense of symmetry. Also, the value 
can be inverted by multiplying by -1. 
This could be convenient for some 
applications. 

If the user puts in anything but a 
yes-or-no answer, the subroutine 
prompts him (line 1100) to answer 
properly and then starts over. You can't 
get out of the subroutine unless you 
answer with a yes or a no. 

If you want to be more versatile, 
you can add: 

1085 DATA "AFFIRM", 1. "ALL 
RIGHT",1,"SURE",1."OK",1 

— or any other affirmatives or nega- 
tives, you want recognized. 

My redheaded friend was suitably 
impressed when Yorn responded to 
her "Yassuh" and her "Naw" — but 
then, she looked up at me and asked, 
"How come it always prints out at the 
edge of the page? Can't you center it?" 

But that's another subroutine. D 

YC 



IClORPli 

1020IWPU p x" IS 

1030RESi*ORE 1080 

1040RSAD AS,Z\IF A$» l, ZZZ" THEN 10GC\A»LSli ( A$) 

1U50IF IS(l,A)OAS THEM 104C 

lOb'GOli ABS(Z) GOTO 1070,1100 

1070RETURN 

1000DATA"Y" ,l,"y" ,1,"L" ,-l,"n" ,-1 

1090DATA"ZZZ",2 

llOOPRINV-Yes 1 or ' no', please." 

1110GOTO102C 

READY 




Creative Computing 
Magazine 

Creative Computing has long been 
Number 1 in applications and software for 
micros, minis, and time-sharing systems 
for homes, schools and small busi- 
nesses. Loads of applications every 
issue: text editing, graphics, communi- 
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tions, data base and file systems, music 
synthesis, analog control. Complete pro- 
grams with sample runs. Programming 
techniques: sort algorithms, file struc- 
tures, shuffling, etc. Coverage of elec- 
tronic and video games and other related 
consumer electronics products, too. 

Just getting started? Then turn to our 
technology tutorials, learning activities, 
short programs, and problem solving 
pages. No-nonsense book reviews, too. 
Even some fiction and foolishness. 

Subscriptions: 1 year $15, 3 years $40. 
Foreign, add $9/year surface postage, 
$26/ year air. Order and payment to: 
Creative Computing, Attn: Karen, P.O. 
Box789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. Visa or 
MasterCharge acceptable by mail or 
phone: call 800-631-8112 9 am to 5 pm 
EST (in NJ call 201-540-0445). 



- I 




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APRIL I960 



111 



There's only one small 
computer that can give 
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Sorcerer from Exld y. 

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Games with Big Trees 

Last month we discussed the use 
of theminimax method to search game 
trees, using noughts and crosses (tic- 
tac-toe) as our example. This is a game 
with sufficient symmetry to reduce the 
number of essentially different moves 
at the start to three: the center, a 
corner, or the middle of an edge. At the 
second ply there are a total of 12 
essentially different positions, so with 
only seven spaces then remaining 
there will be an upper bound of 12 x 7 
on the total number of terminal 
positions in the whole of the game tree. 
In practice the total will be somewhat 
less than this figure, since a number of 
paths will lead to a win for one side or 
the other, or a draw (i.e. a position in 
which every row, column and diagonal 
has at least one "O" and one "X" in it), 
before all nine elements of the 3X3 
array have been filled. In order to play a 
perfect game of noughts and crosses 
with the crudest of evaluation func- 
tions, we could search the game tree 
exhaustively, using a score of +1 for a 
variation won by the program, -1 for a 
variation won by the opponent, and 
for a draw. 

Most interesting two-person 
games have much larger trees than 
this: in chess there are roughly one 
million terminal positions in an aver- 
age 4-ply search, in Go the figure 
would be ten thousand million for a 4- 
ply search at the start of the game. How 
can we cope with such gigantic com- 
binatorial growth in our game trees? 
The answer lies in a refinement of the 



minimax method known as the alpha- 
beta algorithm. 

The Alpha-Beta Algorithm 

The alpha-beta algorithm owes its 
power to the argument that if a player 
can choose from a number of moves, 
once he finds one move which serves 
his purpose he need not examine the 







Po(So) 








M,/ 




\M 2 




P,(S,)^ 








\Pj(Sj) 


M,,/ 

/ 
P,i(8) 


\m,» 

P, 2 (5) 




M 2 , / 
P 2 ,(3) 


I l 

[Another 
; Thousand 
; Moves 



FIGURE 1. 



remainder of the moves in that group. 
Let us look at a simple two-person 
game tree to illustrate this point. 

(See Figure 1) 

We shall assume that a program 
searches the above tree from left to 
right, and that the evaluation function 
assigns scores of 8, 5 and 3 respec- 
tively to the terminal nodes P,,, P 12 and 
P 21 . If the program is to move from 
position P , it first considers move m, 
and then tries to decide what its 
opponent will do from position P,. The 
opponent may choose between scores 
of 8 and 5, and since we have adopted 
the convention that the opponent's 
target is a low score, the opponent will 
choose position P 12 with a score of 5. 

The program now knows that if it 
chooses m,, its opponent can prevent 
it from achieving a score of more t an 
5. This value of 5 is therefore the vi je 



P (So I a ]) 
Initially <» = -oo 



Pi (S, [/*]) 
Initially/? = +oo 



P 2 (S 2 IP)) 
Initially/} = +oo 



P., (S„ ( a J) 
Initially <» = -oo 




P 22 (S 22 [ a ]) 
Initially (* = -oo 



P„,(8) P„ 2 (7) P, 2 ,(9) P, 22 (5) P 2 „(3) P 2)2 (2) P 22 ,(2) P 222 (1) 



FIGURE 2 



114 



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115 



of position P,, assuming correct p ay 
by the opponent, and so the value 5 is 
assigned to S,. We call this process of 
assigning values as the program 
backtracks up the tree "backing-up." 

The score at S, is now backed up 
to S and the program then considers 
position P 2 , to determine whether it will 
prefer to play move m, or m 2 . It sees 
that from position P 2 its opponent can, 
if he wishes, move to P 2 , for a score of 
3, and since 3 is better than 5 from the 
opponent's point of view, the program 
will wish to deny its opponent this 
option and it will not, therefore, choose 
move m 2 . It is completely irrelevant 
what the scores are for the thousands of 
unexamined brother nodes, P 2 , 2 .P 2 , 3 ,. . . 
P 2j 1001 , because the move m 2 , is already 
known to refute m 2 . Thus the program 
has determined that m, is better than 
m 2 , even though it has examined only 3 
of the 1,002 terminal nodes on the tree! 

Of course this particular example 
has been specifically designed to sell 
you the alpha-beta algorithm, and 
most game trees do not allow us to get 
away so lightly, but the savings 
achieved with this algorithm are 
certainly substantial enough to make 
alpha-beta an almost essential seg- 
ment in any program that searches two 
person-game trees. The algorithm 
always chooses the same move that 
would be selected by the minimax 
algorithm, but usually in a fraction of 
the time. 

Since alpha-beta is so important in 
game playing, I make no apologies for 
including another, more complex 
example. This will show how the 
method works for a 3-ply tree and will 
illustrate why it has been given its 
strange name. 

(See Figure 2) 

Initially, all non-terminal nodes at 
even ply are assigned the value -oo 
(a). All non-terminal nodes at odd ply 
are assigned the value +ca (P). As 
usual it is the program's turn to move 
from the root position P , and the 
program is trying to maximize the 
value of or. The opponent moves from 
positions P, and P 2 , trying to minimize 
the value of p. The program moves 
from the positions at ply-2 (P u , P 12 , 
P 21 and P 22 ), trying to maximize a. 

The tree search now proceeds as 
follows: 

1. Examine P,„. The score of 8 is 
greater than -oo so a at S,, is set to 
8. This score is then compared with p 
at S, and found to be less than +oo, 
so this value of p is also set to 8. In 
order to decide whether the program 
might be willing to play m,. this score 
of 8 at St is compared with -oo at S 
and found to be greater, so a at S is 
set to 8. 



2. Examine P l12 . The score of 7 is 
less than a at Sn, which is now 8. 
and since it is intended to maximize 
a, the value of a at S n is not adjusted, 
and therefore the value of P at S, and 
that of a at S also remain unchanged. 

3. Examine P 121 . The score of 9 is 
greater than -oo, so a at S 12 is set to 
9. This score is then compared with p 
at S, and found to be greater, and since 
it is intended to minimize p the 
program can reject move m, 2 , knowing 
that its opponent can do better with 
move m,,. 

4. The left hand side of the tree 
has now been examined and the 
search proceeds to the comparison of 
the best score achieved so far (8) with 
whatever can be reached, assuming 



cussion of the theoretical and practical 
results of this research is well beyond 
the scope of this series, but the 
studious reader will find this work well 
documented in the bibliographic refer- 
ences found at the conclusion of this 
article. What follows is a summary of 
the most important results, and a brief 
discussion of their significance. 

Monroe Newborn has investigated 
the power of the alpha-beta algorithm 
when searching game trees in which 
the moves within any group are 
examined in a random order. The 
following table shows, for various 
branching factors (b), the number of 
terminal nodes which we would expect 
a program to examine, using alpha- 
beta, in searches of 2 and 3-ply. 





2-ply search 


3-ply search 




total terminal 




total terminal 




b 


nodes 


expectation 


nodes 


expectation 


2 


4 


3.67 


8 


6.84 


4 


16 


12.14 


64 


40.11 


8 


64 


38.65 


512 


220.37 


16 


256 


122.11 


4096 


1214.45 



TABLE 1 

best play by both sides, if the program 
should choose m 2 . This part of the 
search commences with an examina- 
tion of P 211 , which is found to have a 
score of 3. This is compared with a at 
S 21 and found to begreater, and since it 
is intended to maximize a the program 
will set this value of a to 3. 

5. Examine P 212 . The score of 2 is 
less than 3, so a at S 21 (currently 3) 
is left unchanged, since it is intended 
to maximize a. This score of 3 is then 
compared with p at S 2 . found to be 
lower, and since it is intended to 
minimize p this value of p at S 2 is set 
to 3. Finally this value of 3 is compared 
with a at S (currently 8) and found to 
be lower. Since it is intended to 
maximize a, the program already 
knows that m 2 is inferior to m,, be- 
cause playing m 2 is not consistent 
with maximizing a. 

The search is now over and it can 
be seen that only five of the eight 
terminal nodes needed to be exam- 
ined. If you wish to verify the validity of 
this process by practical means, try 
assigning different sets of values to 
positions P 122 , P 221 and P 222 , and you 
will always find that the program 
prefers move m, to move m 2 . 



How Powerful is the 
Alpha-Beta Algorithm? 

During the past few years there 
has been considerable research into 
the question of just how big are the 
savings achieved using this algorithm 
rather than simple minimax. A full dis- 



It will be seen that as the branch- 
ing factor increases, so the proportion 
of nodes that can be ignored thanks to 
the alpha-beta algorithm also in- 
creases. And as the depth of search 
increases the effect of the algorithm is 
again increased. So the bigger the tree 
becomes, the greater will be the 
savings using the alpha-beta method. 

The savings become even more 
dramatic when the branches of the tree 
are examined in an intelligent order. In 
general it is true to say that within any 
group of moves the best one should be 
examined first, so that if the best one is 
not good enough we need not waste 
time in examining the second best, 
third best and inferior moves. If the tree 
is searched in such a way that the 
moves are examined in their optimal 
order, then the number of terminal 
nodes examined will be approximately 
2 x N, where N is the total number of 
terminal nodes on the tree. Thus, for a 
game of chess in which the branching 
factor is typically 36, the number of 
terminal nodes on the tree is 36 4 for a 
4-ply tree. Yet by using the alpha-beta 
algorithm, if the tree is optimally 
ordered we need examine only 2 x 36 2 
terminal nodes before we find the best 
move from the root of the tree, a saving 
of well over 99% when compared with 
the simple minimax method. 

Taking the figures from Newborn's 
results quoted above, we can compare 
the expected number of nodes exam- 
ined with random ordering and the 
number of nodes examined with 
optimal ordering. 



116 



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2-ply search 


3-ply search 


b 


random 


optimal* 


random 


optimal* 


2 


3.67 


3 


6.84 


5.66 


4 


12.14 


7 


40.11 


15 


8 


38.65 


15 


220.37 


44.248 


16 


12? 11 


31 


1214.45 


127 



1AHLI V 



I hope that the reader is now 
convinced that for all two-person game 
trees, except the smallest of the small, 
alpha-beta is a must. The most im- 
portant implication of these results is 
that if it is at all possible, you should 
generate and/or examine the moves 
within any group or family in such a 
way as to take maximum advantage of 
the savings that can be achieved, and 
this means ordering the search in some 
way. We shall discuss various tech- 
niques for speeding up the alpha-beta 
search in our next month's article, but 
one obvious method can be mentioned 
here. First, generate all the moves at 
the root of the tree, m, m 2 . . . etc., and 
evaluate the resulting positions with 
the evaluation function. Sort the moves 
so that the move with the highest score 
will be examined first, then the move 
with the next highest, and so on. 

Next look at the first position on 
the list and generate its successor 
positions. These are assigned scores 
using the evaluation function and they 
are then sorted, this time with the 
lowest scored position coming at the 
top of the list and the highest scored 
position at the bottom. (This is be- 
cause the program's opponent is trying 
to minimize the score.) 

This process is repeated all the 
way down the tree, except for the 
terminal nodes, which are not sorted. 
Now, when searching the tree with the 
alpha-beta algorithm, the tree will be 
found to be much nearer an optimally 
sorted tree than if this process had not 
been applied. One disadvantage of this 
method, however, is that it requires us 
to keep in memory all the successor 
nodes to each node on the principal 
variation, apart from the terminal 
nodes. So in a search of a chess tree, 
with 36 moves at each node, this 
method would require us to keep in 
memory: 

a) the root node 

b) 36 nodes at each level of look- 
ahead apart from the terminal node. 

In order to combat this problem we 
might try to find an extremely compact 
method of representing a position, but 
if this compactness results in a slowing 
down of the search process while each 
position is unravelled or created, much 
of the effect of the fast alpha-beta 
algorithm will be lost. Such problems 
require careful thought and it is often 
necessary to experiment before the 
best balance is achieved between 



representation and optimality of 
search. 

Other useful techniques for ex- 
amining the moves in a sensible order 
can often be found by thinking a little 
about the nature of the game. Let us 
consider once again the game of 
noughts and crosses. The elements of 
the 3x3 array might be numbered as in 
the following diagram: 

1 2 3 



7 8 9 

A simple way to generate all the 
legal moves from any position is to 
look at the elements, starting with 1 
and working up to 9, and putting any 
empty space on the move list. But with 
a basic knowledge of the strategy of 
the game we can speed up the search 
process by looking first at element 5, 
then 1, 3, 7 and 9. and finally at 2, 4, 6 
and 8. This method of move generation 
takes no longer than 1 , 2, 3, 4, ... 9, yet 
it enables the alpha-beta algorithm to 
examine the moves in a more sensible 
order, thereby taking us closer to an 
optimal search process. 

Next month we shall examine a 
flow-chart for the alpha-beta algorithm 
and look at further ideas for speeding 
up the search process. 

Task for the Month 

Write a program to play noughts 
and crosses (tic-tac-toe), taking ad- 
vantage of symmetry and employing 
the alpha-beta algorithm. Search the 
whole game tree using the primitive 
evaluation function described above 
(+1 is a win for the program, -1 a win 
for the opponent and a draw). 

Test the program a) when the 
moves are generated in a random 
order; and b) when the moves are 
generated in the order: centre, corners, 
middle of edges. The results should 
indicate a useful improvement with 
ordered search over random search. 

Bibliography 

Knuth, D.E., and Moore. R.W.: An Analysis ol 
Alpha-Beta Pruning. Artificial Intelligence, vol. 6. 
pp. 293-326. 1975. 

Newborn. M.M.: The Elliciency ol the Alpha- 
Beta Search on Trees with Branch-dependent 
Terminal Node Scores. Artificial Intelligence, vol. 
8. pp. 137-153. 1977. 

Acknowledgement 

This program was written on an Apple II 
computer which was purchased through Grant 
A0260 from the National Science and En- 
gineering Council of America. 



118 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






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120 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




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Rats Malaria 

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Apple-Car 



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Simple File Builder 

One of the most useful features 
associated with the Apple II DOS is the 
use of files. Files can include anything 
from a matrix of data as a result of 
mathematical calculations to a sophis- 
ticated Data Base Management Sys- 
tem. Listing 1 is an example of a simple 
file builder and manager. Random 
access, fixed length files, are used in 
this example. At this level, sequential 
files, of fixed length, would have been 
just as easy to implement. But that's 
not part of this story. 

Most of the elements required to 
manage a file system are used in this 
example. Here's what has been in- 
cluded: 

• Initialization Routines 

• Error Detection Routine 

• An Operating System Section 

• Building New Files 

• Adding New Records 

• List Records with Suspension 

• Keyword Search 

• Record Editing 

The initializing and error detecting 
sections are transparent to the user. 
The others are included in the operat- 
ing section as menu options. Other 
menu selections could include printer 
selection and control, and sorting. 
We'll leave these for the future. Let's 
examine each section of the Simple 
File Builder and see what it's all about. 

Initialize 

After clearing the screen with 
HOME, the program is directed to line 
2720 if an error occurs. In one part of 
the program an error is forced, and 
used to change the flow of the pro- 
gram. Otherwise, if an error occurs, the 
program returns to the options menu. 
If you use control C the effect is the 
same as an error. The forced error, #5 
in line 2720, is an out-of-data error. 



When a new file is named and you try to 
read it, this error occurs. There are no 
records to read. The error is trapped 
and the program directs you to the 
Build New Records option. More on 
this when we get to the Operating 
System. Other tasks handled in the 
initialization routine are setting up the 
control D required to identify DOS 
commands, dimensioning the number 
of records (R$) and setting the initial 
count of the record counter (C). 

Line 1110 turns the NOMON 
controls on. Sometimes it is desirable 
to see some of the data passing to or 
from the disk. In this program, I turned 
everything off. In line 1120, my clock 
routine is loaded into memory for 
future use. If there is no routine there, 
an error will be generated and mess 
things up. Leave it out or substitute 
something else here. Lines 1130 to 
1160 print a heading and ask for the 
name of a file. Enter the name of your 
first file — something like Inventory or 
Apple II Articles — and press RETURN. 
The program now passes on through 
the System Variables listing to the 
Operating System. 

Operating System 

The Operating System is a section 
of the program including an option 
selection menu and control for direct- 
ing input requests. Line 1350 CALLs a 
Mountain Hardware clock output 
routine. The date and time is available 
each time the options menu is se- 
lected. An error will occur if you try to 
use this command without a legitimate 
routine to CALL. In fact, a CALL to 
nothing in particular will blow the 
program. Options for the file are 
printed by lines 1380 to 1430. Exist- 
ence of a file is checked in lines 1440 
through 1480. If the file, named in line 
1 1 50, previously existed, then the num- 
ber of records are posted on the screen 



along with the name of the file. If the 
file named is a new file and no records 
existed, then error #5 is generated. 

These lines (1440 - 1480) use DOS 
commands to make the test for a file. 
Line 1440 is used to OPEN the file F$ 
with a length of 40 characters in each 
record. The contents of record are 
READ in line 1450 to INPUT the value 
C, the record count. It is at this point 
that the OUT OF DATA error. #5. 
occurs and Build New Records option 
is selected for a new file. If the MON 
I.O.C commands were left on at this 
point, you would see the error dis- 
played on the screen. If there is an 
existing file, the file is CLOSED in line 
1460. The number of records and the 
name of the file are displayed in line 
1470. Input for the option selection is 
accepted in line 1480 and tested for 
range in lines 1490 and 1500. Numbers 
greater than 5 return the program back 
to the options list again. A zero POKEs 
the DOS error register back to zero, 
CLOSES the file, sets SPEED back to 
the fastest value, and ENDs the 
program. Line 1510 sends the program 
to the program line number corre- 
sponding to the file option selected. 
Branches occur according to the value 
of S, like this: 

8-1, GOTO 1520 -Build the File 
S=2, GOTO 1620 - Add Records 
S=3, GOTO 1900 - List Records 
S=4, GOTO 21 1 - Edit a Record 
S=5, GOTO 2350 - 

Keyword Search 
Because numbers greater than 5 are 
trapped and zero stops the program, 
branching to the requested option is 
quite reliable. 

New and Bigger 

Building a new file and adding 
records options do essentially the 
same thing. The new file has to start at 
one and new record adds start at the 



122 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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An all-inclusive version ol this most popular of card games. This program both BIDS 
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This special data smoothing program may be used to rapidly derive useful information 
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FOURIER ANALYZER Prk.: BUM repaid 

Use this program to examine the frequency spectra of limited duration signals sampled 
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MAIL LIST I Price: $18.95 postpaid (available for North Star only) 

A many-featured mailing list program which sorts through your customer list by user- 
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MAIL LIST SERVICE 

DYNACOMP can provide you with a customized mail list service. Your customer/ 
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An easy to use. line-oriented text editor which provides variable line widths and simple 
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All programs run on both Apple II and Apple II Plus. 

FASTGAMMON" by Bob Christiansen 
Sound, hi res color, and cartoons have 
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gammon playing game for the Apple II Bui 
don't let these entertaining features tool 
you — FASTGAMMON plays serious back 
gammon Cassette $1995 

Diskette $24 95 

FRACAS" by Stuart Smith A fantastic adventure game like no other, tor any number of 
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Diskette $24 95 

BATTLESHIP COMMANDER" by Erik K.Ik and Matthew Jew A game ot strategy - your 
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Diskette $1995 



QlWLiTy SOFTVV7.R€ 

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Telephone 24 hours seven days a week (2131 344-6599 



WHERE TO GET IT: Ask your nearest Apple dealer to see Quality Software's Apple 
programs Or it you preler you may order directly Irom us MasterCharge and Visa 
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Apple II mil Apple II Plus are trademaiks ot Apple Computer Inc 




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APRIL 1980 



123 






Apple Cart, cont'd... 



last record plus one. Otherwise, the file 
must first be OPENed and prepared for 
accepting records. Let's start with 
BUILD FILE and detail the steps used 
for this segment of the program. 

To start the file building process, a 
short reminder of the option and file 
name are printed by line 1560. The 
named file is OPENed in line 1570 for a 
length of 40 characters. This length 
was chosen because the output is 
listed only on the screen. Next, line 
1580 uses a control D to halt DOS 
action. Doing this prevents further 
program activity from creating gar- 
bage in the file. Line 1770 prints the 
current record number and waits for 
INPUT. A test for file END is included 
in line 1780. If the input is END, the 
program branches to line 1840 and 
record processing is concluded. Line 
1790 makes DOS active again for a 
WRITE and line 1800 PRINTs (or 
WRITES) the record to the DOS buffer. 
The buffer accepts up to 256 charac- 
ters and then transfers them auto- 
matically to the disk. The buffer 
contents get transferred to the disk 
when the file is CLOSEd, too. DOS 
action is stopped again in line 1810, the 
record counter is incremented in line 
1820 and the program returns for 
another record at line 1830. This loop 
continues until the input equals END in 
line 1780 and the branch to line 1840 is 
taken. 

No new record was added when 
END was typed. So the counter (C) is 
decremented and the result printed in 
line 1840. DOS is again activated and 
the current record count is written into 
record zero. Lines 1850 and 1860 do 
the record count work, and line 1870 
CLOSES the file. In line 1880, a GET 
command in combination with 
CHR$(13) is used to exclude all key 
input except RETURN. When RETURN 
is pressed, the program returns to the 
option menu. 

Adding records uses two more 
steps than starting a new file. First, the 
previous record count is READ in from 
record zero. Then, the last record 
entered is READ. This is accomplished 
in lines 1700 and 1720. The record 
number and the record are printed in 
line 1740. Having this information on 
the screen provides a model for 
subsequent entries. The record count 
is incremented in line 1760 and the rest 
is the same as new record processing. 

Listing Records 

Up to line 2000. the List program 
functions are much the same as 
processing new and added records. 
Line 2010 starts a loop that lists the 



contents of the file. A file suspension 
routine using the WAIT command in 
combination with a PEEK at the 
keyboard and a POKE at the keyboard 
reset is included in line 2020. Each 
record is INPUT (READ) to the DOS 
buffer and printed on the screen. When 
all records are listed, the file is 
CLOSEd and control is returned to the 
options menu. 

Use of the list option allows 
scanning the file for one or more 
records. Speed control is another 
feature that could be added for listing 
records. The suspension routine stops 
and starts the list routine. But, the 
records still go by quite fast on the 
screen. Include a line to set the Speed 
to 125 at the beginning of the listing 
loop. A header to describe the contents 
of the file is another possible option. 
Add a line to put titles on the fields and 
keep it on the screen with a POKE 34, N. 

1950 PRINT "DESCRIPTION ...COST 
...DATE PUR" 

1955 POKE 34,4 



2006 SPEED=125 



2096 POKE 34,0 : SPEED=255 
New line 1955 holds the top of the 
screen at 4 lines until the listing is 
completed. Be sure to disable or reset 
any special controls you use. You'll get 
some funny results otherwise. 

Now, suppose you would also like 
to add the cost figures in the cost 
column. The records have been used 
as one continuous string, so some- 
thing besides adding simple variables 
together is needed. In this example 
program, the cost figures start in 
column 22 and are 7 characters wide. 
Add lines to add the figures in these 
columns like this: 

2004 LET T=0 



2065 LET ST=VAL(MID$(R$.22.7)): 
T=T+ST 



2074 PRINT:PRINT TAB (24)"$"; 
INT(T"100+.5)/100 
Each time a record is READ, line 2055 
extracts the VAL of the cost column as 
a subtotal (ST) and starts summing the 
total (T). When the list is complete, the 
final total is printed with a $ under the 
cost column. If you change the posi- 
tion of the cost field, be sure to adjust 
MID$ and Total TAB too. 

Edit a Record 

To edit a record with this very 
simple editor, you must know the 



number of the record(s) to be edited. 
The technique used is quite simple, but 
effective for short and simple records. 
After requesting the record number, 
the file is opened and prepared for 
reading records. The requested record 
will be displayed on the screen with the 
record number. After it's displayed, 
you get a chance to change it or leave it 
alone. If the record was the wrong one, 
just press N and the record is stored 
back on the disk unchanged. A Y to 
change the record displays the INPUT 
prompt (?) on the screen. You can then 
type in a new line, being careful to 
follow the exact format. Or, you can 
use escape D to move the cursor up to 
the displayed record. Then use the 
right arrow key to move to the part of 
the record to be changed. Retype the 
changes as needed and move the 
cursor to the end of the line. Press 
RETURN. The new record will be put 
on the disk in place of the old one. A bit 
more sophisticated approach would 
use VTAB and HTAB to position the 
INPUT prompt at the beginning of the 
line to be changed. The step to use 
escape D to move the cursor is not 
needed if this is done. After all changes 
are made, the program returns to the 
option menu. (Remember, I said it was 
a simple editor.) 

Keyword Search 

This routine is useful for finding all 
the items with the same name orthings 
in the same year or month and so on. 
For most of the files I am using, I prefer 
to use a search rather than a sort. For 
nice ordered lists of things though, a 
sort is the only way. But, that's a story 
for another time. Keyword search was 
described in detail in the January '80 
Apple Cart. Most of the detail included 
opening, reading and closing Apple II 
DOS files. These details have been 
covered here too, so on to the meat of 
the program. 




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124 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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APRIL 1980 



125 



CIRCLE 134 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Apple Cart, cont'd... 

After requesting the keyword to be 
located, the file is OPENed and 
prepared for READing records. A loop 
for calling-up each record starts at line 
2510. Each record is then scanned, 1 
character at a time, for the keyword. If a 
keyword is found, the record is 
displayed and a flag is set. The 
program returns for the next record 
and continues the search. If no 
keywords were found, a prompt to look 
for another keyword is displayed. If 
records were found containing the 
keyword, you are also given the option 
to make changes. The option to search 
for more keywords is also displayed. 
Answering No to both of the prompts 
returns the program to the option 
menu. 

More Zing 

Several times during this discus- 
sion the simplicity of the program has 
been emphasized. There are a number 
of features that would make using file 
more productive. Each improvement 
would make the program more con- 
fusing and difficult to explain. A 
program for cataloging magazine 
articles from Southeastern Software 
uses a number of clever features. The 
human factors of using the program 
were greatly improved by the tech- 
niques used. Inclusion of sort routines 
and more ideas for building records 
and formatting will be included in 
future columns. 

Basic on Videotape 

Videocassettes teaching com- 
puter applications and programming 
fundamentals are now available to 
businesses and schools. The concept, 
called Evolution 1 (TM), was created 
by Dr. Portia Isaacson of Electronic 
Data Systems (EDS) in Dallas. 

Currently available are 4 tapes of 
interest to potential Apple owners (and 
other beginning Basic programmers). 
The videotape presentation, using 
familiar analogies, makes no assump- 
tions about prior knowledge of com- 
puters or programming. Lesson 1 
starts with instructions on getting the 
computer operating. The viewer is then 
taught to use several Basic program- 
ming commands in a refreshing, 
unhurried manner. By the end of the 
fourth tape, the viewer has acquired 
sufficient skill to proceed with con- 
fidence, to more advanced challenges. 
Each tape is accompanied by a study 
booklet. The booklets are easy to use 
and effectively reinforce learning 
through color highlighted text and 
representations of a video screen. The 
booklets could be used separately but 
all the supporting information from the 



tape presentation would be lost. 
Additional tapes, teaching more ad- 
vanced Basic, are planned. 

Other videotapes in the Evolution 
1 (TM) series include 2 Point Of Sale 
(POS) tapes and 2 Business applica- 
tion tapes. The POS tapes are de- 
signed to support retail sales people 
with technical information. Business 
applications illustrate techniques for 
using a small computer in a small 
business. Three new lessons are 
planned for the business series too. 
The newest entries include an 8 tape 
series titled 'Little Computers . . . See 
How They Run.' These tapes describe 
various microcomputer features and 
accessories including detail of the 
microprocessor chip itself. 

Tapes are available to computer 
retailers, distributors, educational 
people and corporations on a lease 
basis. The lease rate is $35.00 per 
month per tape with a 6 tape minimum. 
Tapes can be mixed in combinations. 
These tapes can be exchanged during 
the year for a $40.00 fee. One set of 
study booklets comes with each tape 
series. Additional sets cost $10.00 to 
$20.00 per set. 

For more information, call Evolu- 
tion 1 at 800-527-0278 (in Texas, 214- 
661-4070), or write them at 14580 
Midway Road, Dallas, TX 75234. Also, 
look for these videocassettes at your 
local computer store. 

Super Invader: A Review 

This recreational diversion (some- 
times called a game) is addictive. The 
constant challenge for higher and 
higher scores closely parallels 
gambling. Except you have nothing to 
loose but your sanity. 

Super Invaders, by M. Hata, is a 
real time, interactive high-res graphics 
program. Graphics implementation is 
excellent. Animation is included as the 
invaders flap their way towards de- 
struction of your cannons and your 
blockade. An invader cheering section 
adds insult to injury each time one of 
your laser cannons is destroyed. 
However, there is some retribution as 
the cheering section shows remorse 
when the last invader in each wave is 
destroyed. A high-flying 'saucer' 
provides additional scoring as it flies at 
random across the top of the screen. 
Space sounds are used to emphasize 
the affect of laser fire, invader demise 
and to announce the flight of the 
saucer. The randomness of various 
scoring features adds to the challenge 
of going-for-more. 

As of the date this is being written 
(mid Jan '80), my son has achieved a 
score of over 5800. My score is 
somewhat less. Super Invaders has 
been described as the game that drove 



Japan crazy. I'm sure you will agree 
once you've tried it (and tried it and 
tried it . . .). The game is available from 
such diverse sources as Creative 
Computing Software (see add on page 
23) and from your local computer 
store. The cost is $19.95 on tape or 
diskette. 

Data Base Management System 

If you're looking for a technically 
well designed Data Base Management 
System, try the one from High Tech- 
nology. The system has many features 
allowing flexible data base operations. 
There are also some not-so-good 
features. This is how I would sum- 
marize my evaluation: 

• Software Engineering Excellent 

• Human Factors Poor 

• Documentation Marginal 

Once set-up, the features and 
flexibility of the system make it 
excellent for use with structured data 
base requirements. For instance, 
mailing lists, customer records, in- 
ventory management and perhaps 
some types of personal record man- 
agement. For our application, a struc- 
tured diskography using 9 files with 4 
sorts including 2 secondary and 1 
tertiary sort, the system is an excellent 
choice. A listing of our master file set- 
up is shown in Figure 1. Let's look at 
the not-so-good things first and get 
them out of the way. 

Human Factors 

The complexity of the set-up 
requirements precludes use of this 
system by many people not familiar 
with programming. Even though the 
program software is well engineered, 
the lack of helpful prompts and 
examples geared to a non-technical 
target population minimize its useful- 
ness. Correction of errors is clumsy: A 
RESET and rebooting is the only way 
you can recover from a processing 
error (one that sets off an obnoxious 
siren sound). For an input entry error, 
you must complete all input for the 
record, then call the MODIFY option. 
Once in operation, use is simpler, but 
there are still a large number of entries 
required to access the data. Also, there 
are no easily understood error mes- 
sages. 

Documentation 

There are only 23 partially filled 
pages of documentation in a 3 ring 
binder. The documentation consists of 
brief descriptions of each menu 
option. The descriptions do not in- 
clude meaningful examples, and little 
consideration is given to interactions 
between options. For instance, it is 
necessary to use option 13 before you 



126 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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USMAIL it by fir tilt best mailing list program available! 
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CHANCE, COPY. MERGE. LIST, produce LABELS (many different 
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APRIL 1960 



APPLE II DISK SOFTWARE 

DATA BASE MANAGER 
IFO PROGRAM 

The IFO (Information File Organizer) can be used for many applications 
such aa aalee activity, check reglaters. balance sheets, client/patient rec- 
ords, billing, information retrieval and much more. Thle can be accom- 
plished easily and quickly without prior programming knowledge. 
Up to 1000 recorda with a maximum of 20 headers and 10 ttport formate 
can be stored on a single diskette. Information cen be sorted and seerched 
(3 levels). Mathematical functiona can be performed to manipulate the In- 
formation. Subtotala and totals can be calculated on eny numeric field. 
Many error protection devlcea provided. 
Program diskette and instruction manual $100 

MAILING LIST PROGRAM 

Print labels sorted or eeerched by fields. Date lines Include: ACCT # 

FIRST NAME, LAST NAME (CO.), ATTN. ADDRESS #1. ADDRESS #2, CITY, 

8TATE, ZIP (9 digits). PHONE #. On-screen editing. "COMPANY NAME** 

option on Drat line. Line up and variable epecing routines end more. Many 

error protection devlcea provided. 

Feet and quick label generation. 

Progrem diskette and instruction manual $40 

INVENTORY PROGRAM 

2 disk drive, menu-driven progrem. Inventory cetegories Include: STOCK! 
DESCRIPTION. VENDOR ID, CLASS. LOCATION, REORDER PT, REORDER 
OTY, COST, SELLING PRICE, # ON ORDER. ORDER DATE. OTY ON HAND. 
All records can be entered, changed, updeted, deleted or viewed. Reports 
can be sorted in ascending/descending order by eny category. 7 search 
categoriee (3 eutometic). Calculates $ VALUE of inventory end YTD, MTD 
end period Heme eold. Accumulates Inventory over e 13-month period. Plue 
much more. Requlree a 132-column. serial/parallel printer. Complete turnkey 
operetlon with bootstrap diskette. 

Progrem diskette and Instruction manuel $140 

All programa require 4BK end Applesoft II on ROM or Apple II Plus. Com- 
patible with Pascal systems. Run from eny port of the computer and work 
with serial/parallel printers. Require 1 disk drive unless noted otherwise. 

Write for information on PAYROLL PACKAGE. 
SEND CHECK/ MONEY ORDER TO: 

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY for COMPUTERS 

P.O. BOX 428, BELMONT, MA 02178 

— — — — CIRCLE 196 ON READER SERVICE CARD — — — — 



STOCK MARKET ANALYSIS PROGRAM 
DJI WEEKLY AVERAGE 1897-DATE 

ANAi* (ANALYSIS 1) is a set ol BASIC Programs which enables the user to 
perform analyses on the Dow Jones Industrial weekly average data From 6 
months to 5 years ol user selected DJI data can be plotted on the entire screen 
in one ol 5 colors using Apples High Resolution capabilities The DJI data can 
be transformed into different colored graphic representations called transforms 
They are user specified moving averages a least squares linear fit (best straight 
line), filters lor time, magnitude, or percentage changes, and user created rela- 
tionships between the DJI data, a transform, or a constant using •.- « / operators 
Colored lines can be drawn between graphic points Graphic data values or 
their dales ol occurrence can be displayed in text on the screen Any graph or 
text can be outputted to a users printer The Grid Scale is automatically set to 
the range ol the graphs or can be user changed As many colored graphs as 
wanted can be plotted on the spreen and cleared at any time The user can code 
routines to operate on the DJI/transtorm data or create his own disk file data 
base ANA1 commands can be used with his routines or data base An Update 
program allows the user to easily update the DJI file with current DJI weekly 
data 

The ANA1 two letter user commands are CA ■ Calculate, no graph CG ■ Clear 
Graphs, leave Grids CK ■ Checking out program, known data CO ■ Color of next 
graph (red. green, violet white, blue! CS - Clear Screen DL ■ Draw Line between 
points Fl ■ Filter data for time, magnitude, or percent change FU ■ Data trans- 
form, or constant Function with *.-.x./ operator GO ■ Graphic mode, display 
all Graph Data on screen GR ■ Graph data to screen GS = Set Grid Scale HE = Help. 
summary of any commands usage LD ■ Load Data from disk file from inputted 
date to memory LG ■ Leave Graphs, automatic Grid reseating LO ■ Look, select 
a range ol the LD data and GR; All commands can now be used on this range 
LS - Least squares linear fit of the data MA ■ Moving Average of the data NS ■ 
No Scale, next graph on screen does not use Grid Scale NT ■ No Trace PR = User 
implimented Printer routine TO ■ Text mode, display Text Data on screen Tl ■ 
Time number to date or vice versa TR ■ Trace TS - Text Stop for number of lines 
outputted to screen when in TO U1/U2 ■ User 1/2 implimented routines VD ■ 
Values of Data outputted in text VG ■ Values of Grid, low/high /delta VT - Values 
of Transform outputted in text 



APPLE II. 48 K. APPLESOFT 
ROM CARD. DISK II DOS 3.2 
ANAI DISK A MANUAL . . . S49.95 
(CA residents add 6% sales tax) 



GALAXY 
DEPT. CC2 
P.O. BOX 22072 
SAN DIEGO. CA 92122 



* Software Review in Call-A P P L E 12/80) "An example of an excellent piece of 
software exploiting most ol Apple lis maior leatures Overall Rating ■ 92 1 

* Software Review in Apple Orchard (3/801 A remarkably flexible approach to the 
analysis and plotting of any time series data ' Overall Rating ■ 85 7 



CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



127 



Apple Cart, cont'd... 

can use option 2. Another shortcoming 
was the description of 'Literals' in the 
menu option 7. These turned out to be 
optional field headings for use with the 
output formatting set-up. The literals 
would replace the names of fields used 
for the print out. In all menu options, it 
is not apparent what the input limita- 
tions are. You are left to your own 
devices to find out. Some walk- 
through examples are needed. 

One other item. There is no way to 
know how much space is used or is left 
on the text file disk. By another 
method, I found there are about 100K 
bytes of space on a formatted disk. Our 
records are 224 bytes long and 250 of 
them used about 75K. Allow about 10% 
for the sorting keys, formatting files 
and other overhead and there was 
something over 20K left for additions 
and changes. 

The Good Stuff 

Part of the confusion when first 
using this system comes from its 
complexity. You can do a great many 
things with this data base. A certain 
learning experience is needed before 
you can become comfortable with the 
system. Here's a list of some of the 
features included in the 14 menu 
options: 



• Develop a named data base with 
up to 20 fields, set the size of each field 
in the record (255 characters per 
record), and designate whether each 
field is alpha or numeric. Up to 10 
additional field names — called literals 

— are also allowed. 

• Sort on any field number, and 
any combination of up to 10 sub and 
sub-sub fields. 

• Set-up and change master pro- 
gram parameters to allow for format 
and data base variations. Options 
include printer slot, printer type, lines 
per page, number of printed columns 

— up to 250, name of file in use and the 
slot the text file disk is in. 

• A variety of options to create and 
change the data base, enter the data, 
search for records and other useful 
housekeeping operations. 

• Develop your own format for 
printing the data. You can include 
several formats on the text file disk. 
Another option prints the data base in a 
mailing list format. Input has to be 
developed a specific way to use this 
option. The option to total numbers in 
any column is also included. 

• Initialize a diskette and exit from 
the system are two more options 
included in the menu. 

When using any DBM system, 
keep in mind the speed of sorting 
operations. Even though it is realistic 



to manage a large amount of data with 
your Apple II, don't expect to do it very 
fast. There 4s not enough RAM memory 
left to hold more than a few Kbytes of 
records at a time. Consequently, a lot 
of swapping takes place between the 
disk and memory when large files are 
sorted. In Figure 1, the number of sorts 
and sub sorts used is 7. We found that 
sorting 250 records required one-half 
hour. Once sorted into keyed files 
however, the data was quickly re- 
trieved. Printing a copy of the file was 
as fast as the printer could go. 

Not Too Bad Really 

High Technologies DBM system is 
a powerful tool and will do a lot of work 
for you. I discussed many of the items 
here with Nancy Galloway, Software 
Manager, at High Technology. She 
was quite helpful and suggested 
several things to simplify use of the 
system. Among them was the idea to 
set-up your master file on the text 
diskette and then use it for a master. 
Make copies and use the copies for 
saving your various data files. Nancy 
also mentioned that many improve- 
ments are being made in the system. 

Even though I found the system 
awkward to use at first, I have not 
found any other that will do the job 
better. The system is available at 
computer stores. The cost is S99.50.D 



RUN 
HOME INVENTORY FILE MANAGER 
ENTER THE FILE NAME - HOME.INVEN 
1980 01/14 20:46:09.640 
FILE options: 

1 . BUILD NEW RECORDS 

Z. ADD MORE RECORDS 

3. LIST RECORDS 

4. EDIT A RECORD 

5. KEYWORD SEARCH 
0. END THE PROGRAM 

FILE 'HOME.INVEN' CONTAINS 5 RECORDS ! 

WhICH NUMBER - 3 

LIST TEXT FILE - HOME.INVEN 

1 COUCH/DAY BED 1134 .S3. .OZ/77 

2 LOVE SEAT 0393. 89. .OZ/77 

3 REFRIGERATOR 0893.79. .09/78 

4 HASHER 0379.53. .09/78 

5 CASETTE DECK 1 145 . 37 . . 1Z/79 

PwESS RETURN TO CONTINUE - 

m ICH NUMBER - 3 

LIST TEXT FILE - HOME.INVEN 

1 COUCH/DAY BED 1 134.93. .OZ/77 

2 LOVE SEAT 0383.89. .02/77 

3 REFRIGERATOR 0893 . 79 . .09/78 

4 WASHER 0379.33. .09/78 

5 CASETTE DECK 1 143.37. . 12/79 

♦3951.53 
PfVESS RETURN TO CONTINUE - 



WHICH NUMBER - 5 




KEYWORD SEARCH - HOME.INVEN 




KEYWORD - 09/78 






.09/78 
.08/78 




DO YOU WANT TO EDIT ? Y/N 'N 


TRY ANOTHER KEYWORD ? Y/N ?N 




PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE - 





MASTER 


file: <6.z> discography 


DATA FILE.MST 


f IELD # 


DESCRIPTION 


TYPE 


1 


TITLE 


45. A 


Z 


ARTIST 


35. A 


3 


COMPOSER 


30. A 


4 


PRODUCER 


30. A 


5 


LABEL 


20, A 


6 


DATE 


6.N 


7 


POSITION 


3.N 


8 


CONDITION 


15. A 


9 


REMARKS 


ZO.A 


SORT • 
1 


DESCRIPTION 




TITLE 


Z 


ARTIST 
•LABEL 
••DATE 




3 


LABEL 
• DATE 




4 


POSITION 





FIGURE 1 



128 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



1000 
1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 
1090 
1060 
1070 
1 080 
1090 
1100 
1110 
1120 
1130 

1140 
1130 
1160 
1170 
1160 
1190 
1Z00 
1210 
1220 
1230 
1240 
1230 
1260 
1270 
1260 
1290 
1300 
1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1330 
1360 
1370 
1390 
1390 
1400 
1410 
1420 
1430 
1440 
1430 
1460 
1470 
1480 
1490 
1300 

1310 

1320 
1330 
1540 
1530 
1360 
1370 
1380 
1390 
1600 
1610 
1620 
1630 
1640 
1630 

I 660 
1670 
1680 
1690 
1700 
1710 
1720 
1730 
1740 
1730 
1760 
1770 
1780 
1790 
1800 
1810 
1820 
1630 
1840 
1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 



1890 
1900 
1910 
1920 



REM ••••••••••••••••••••••• 

REM • SIMPLE FILE BUILDER • 
REM • BY.' CHUCK CARPENTER • 
REM ••••••••••••••••••••••• 

REM •• INITIALIZE •• 
REM •••••••••••»•••• 

HOME 

ONERR GOTO 2720 

LET D» - CHR4 <4C DIM R4(200>:C ■ 1 
PRINT D»:"NOMON I.O.C" 

PRINT D»:-BLOAD 6. TIME": REM DATE » TIME 
HOME : VTA6 <2>: PRINT "HOME INVENTORY FILE MANAG 
ER" 
FOR I ■ 1 TO 27: PRINT "-■:: NEXT i: PRINT 
INPUT "ENTER THE FILE NAME - "!F4 



REM 
REM 

REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 

REM 
REM 

CALL 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
IF S 
IF S 
216.0 
ON S 



•• SYSTEM VARIABLES •• 



F»-- FILE NAME 

D»= CONTROL D 

(?*• FILE RECORD 

A4* RETURN (CHR4(13>> 

0«« LOCAL RESPONSE 

I1J LOCAL VARIABLES 

C • RECORD COUNT 

S ' OPTION SELECTION 

R • RECORD • TO EDIT 

K4» KEYWORD TO SEARCH 

K • SEARCH FLAG 

• • OPERATING SYSTEM •• 



900 : REM 

PRINT 



DATE » TIME 

"FILE options: 



" 1. build new records" 

" 2. add more records" 

" 3. list records" 

" 4. edit a record" 

" 3. keyword search" 

" o. end the program" 

: print d«"open":f«:".l40" 

d»"read":f»:".R":o: input c 

d«"Close - :f«:"" 

■file - ":f«:"' contains ":c: _ records '" 

: input "which number - -:s 

> 5 GOTO 1330 

• o then print : print : print "done": poke 
print d»"close":f«: "■: speed* 2ss: end 

GOTO 1320.1620.1900.2110.2330 



REM •• BUILD THE FILE •• 
REM ••••«••••••♦•••••••• 

home : vtab <z>: print "build file - ":f«:" " 
print d»"open-:f»:".l40" 

PRINT D« 
GOTO 1770 

REM •• ADD RECORDS •• 
REM •••••••••«••••••• 

HOME 

PRINT : VTAB (2>: PRINT "ADD FILE RECORDS - "!F 
«:••■•: PRINT 
print d«"0pen~:f»: 
print d»"REAd":f«: 

INPUT C 

PRINT d» ,- read":f«: h ,R" 

INPUT R»<C) 

PRINT D«: PRINT 

print "R":c:"- 

PRINT 

LET C ■ C ♦ 1 



.L40" 
.R"!0 



PRINT TAB! 6>R4(C> 



print "R-:c:" ••:: input r»<c> 
if r4(c> ■ "end" goto 1940 
print d»"write" :f»:".R";c 

PRINT R*<C) 

PRINT D* 

LET C - C ♦ 1 

GOTO 1770 

LET C " C - 1 : 

print d«"mrite":f»: 

PRINT C 

print d»"close":f«: -•• 

print : print "press return to continue - "i 
a*: if a* • chr* (13) then home : vtab (5): 

1330 
HOME : GOTO 1990 



PRINT : PRINT C: PRINT 

.R":o 



: GET 
GOTO 



1930 
1940 
1930 
1960 
1970 
1980 
1990 
2000 
2010 
2020 

2030 
2i'40 
2O30 
2060 
2" 70 
2090 
2090 



2100 
21 10 
2120 
2130 
2 i 40 
2 ISO 
2160 

2170 
2 190 
2i90 
2200 
2210 
2220 

2130 
2240 
2230 

2X60 
2270 
2260 
2290 
2300 
2310 
2320 



HOME 

PRINT : PRINT "LIST TEXT FILE 

PRINT 

print d»"0pen-:f»!".l40" 
print d«"Read":f«:",r";o 

INPUT C 

PRINT d» 

FOR I • 1 TO C 

IF PEEK < - 16384) 

WAIT - 16384.128.0: 

print d«"read":f»: _ 

INPUT R»< I ) 

PRINT D» 

PRINT i; TAB< 4>!R»<I> 

NEXT I 

print d« •■ close •• :f«:-" 

print : print "press return to continue - " 
a*:' if a* ■ chr» <13) then home : vtab <s> 

1350 
HOME : GOTO 2090 



> 127 THEN POKE - 16368.0: 
POKE - 16368.0 
R"1I 



: GET 
GOTO 



REM 
REM 



•• EDIT A RECORD •• 



HOME 
PRINT 



PRINT "EDIT FILE RECORD 



PRINT "ENTER RECORD NUMBER - 
PRINT D»"0PEN":F»!".L40" 

print d»"READ":f»:-.r":r 

INPUT R*(R) 

PRINT d» 

PRINT "RECORD "JR!" CHANGES - 



PRINT 



INPUT R: PRINT 



33 CHARACTERS MAX. ■ 



PRINT : PRINT "RECORD "!R:" •" 
PRINT " •:: PRINT R4(R> 

PRINT : INPUT "DO YOU WANT TO CHANGE IT - Y/N 
»: PRINT : IF 04 « "N" GOTO 2320 
INPUT R4(R> 



:o 



print d»-write":f»:".r":r 

PRINT R«(R) 

print d»"Close":f»: h " 

VTAB 17 

PRINT "ANY MORE RECORDS Y/N "J. INPUT Q* : IF 04 > 
"Y" GOTO 2110 
2M30 PRINT : PRINT "PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE - "I! GET 
A*: IF A* • CHR* (13) THEN HOME : VTAB (3>. GOTO 
1330 

HOME : GOTO 2330 



2J40 
2330 
2360 
2370 
2380 
2390 
2400 
2410 
2420 
2430 
2440 
2430 
2460 
2470 
2490 
2490 
2300 
2310 
2320 
2S30 
2540 
2530 
2360 
2370 
2360 

2390 
2h00 
2610 
2620 
2630 
2640 
2650 
2660 



2670 
2680 
2690 
2700 
2710 
2720 



REM 
REM 

HOME 

PRINT 

PRINT 

LET K 

PRINT 

PRINT 

INPUT 

PRINT 

FOR J 

PRINT 

INPUT 

PRINT 

FOR I 

IF M 

PRINT 

LET K 

NEXT 

NEXT 

IF K 

PRINT 

HER KE 
INPUT 
IF 0* 
PRINT 
PRINT 
INPUT 
PRINT 
INPUT 
PRINT 

A*: IF 

1350 
HOME 

REM 
REM 



•• KEYWORD SEARCH •• 



PRINT "KEYWORD SEARCH 
INPUT "KEYWORD - "!K4 



:f»: 



:f»: 



LEN <K*> 
. LEN <K*>> 

print " •■: 



d»"open";f»:",l40 

d»"REAd _ :f«;".r": 

c 

M 

■ 1 TO C 
D4-READ 
R«( J) 
M 

■ 1 TO 40 
ID4 (R«(J> 

: PRINT J 

• K ♦ 1 
I 

j: PRINT 
> GOTO 2610 

: PRINT "NOTHING FOUND 
Y WORD ? Y/N ■! 

Q»: IF 04 ■ "Y" GOTO 2350 

- "N" GOTO 2660 

D»"CLOSE"!F»:"" 

: PRINT "DO YOU WANT TO EDIT 

04: IF 04 ■ "Y" GOTO 2110 

I PRINT "TRY ANOTHER KEYWORD 

04: IF 04 . "Y" GOTO 2350 

: PRINT "PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE - 

A4 ■ CHR4 <13) THEN HOME : VTAB (5 

: GOTO 2660 

•• ERROR ROUTINE •• 



< > K4 GOTO 2550 
PRINT R4<J) 



PRINT "TRY ANOT 



Y/N 



Y/N 



: GET 
GOTO 



REM *• LIST RECORDS •• 
REM ••♦••••••••••••••• 



LISTING 1 



IF PEEK (222) < > 5 THEN PRINT "PROCESSING ERR 
OR": SPEED* 233: GOTO 1330 
2730 IF PEEK (222) * 3 THEN PRINT : PRINT "THIS IS A 

NEW FILE": FOR I - 1 TO 5000." NEXT : GOTO 1520 
2740 : 
2730 
2760 



REM CRC - 5 JAN 1979 



APRIL 1980 



129 



nvrso 

strings 

Stephen B. Gray 




In column 17, we look at kaleido- 
scope graphics with variations on 
RND(RND(X)), Radio Shack's mailing- 
list program, the disappearance of G/2, 
Hayden's Microtyping program, the 
fate of four TRS-80 cassette-tape 
magazines, and a directory that lists 
hundreds of TRS-80 tapes. 

Variations On RND(RND(X)) 

In the Kaleidoscope Graphics 
section of the TRS-80 Strings column 
for Sep 1979(p186), itwasshown how 
to skew the pattern blocks toward the 
four corners of the four-way-symme- 
trical design by using RND(RND(X)), 
and even more by using RND(RND 
(RND(X))). 

The pattern, created by using the 
same number of RNDs for both the X 
and Y coordinates, is still four-way 
symmetrical. A whole new set of 
patterns, with their own particular 
attractiveness, can be created by using 
different numbers of RNDs for X and Y 
in the general program in the center of 
page 188, such as with: 

110X=RND(RIMD(A)) 

120 Y=RND(RND(RND(B))) 

or the other way around by using 

110 X=RIMD(RND(RND(RND(A)))) 
120Y=RND(B) 

Although the patterns are still 
four-way symmetrical, the more RNDs 
you use, the more two-way they seem. 
The first X-Y pair given above will 
provide a top-and-bottom pattern with 
a short gap across the middle; the 
second pair, a left-right pattern with a 
wider gap across the middle. 

Just in case you don't have the 
September 1979 issue handy, here's 
the general kaleidoscope pattern, 
written more compactly: 



100 CLS:INPUT A,B:CLS 

110X=RND(A) 

120 Y=RND(B) 

130 C=2*A-X:D=2*B-Y 

140 SET(X,Y):RESET(X+1.Y+1) 

150 SET(X.D+1):RESET(X+1,D) 

160 SET(C+1.Y):RESET(C,Y+1) 

170 SET(C+1,D+1):RESET(C,D) 

180 GOTO 110 

Try from one to five RNDs for both 
X and Y. If the graphics blocks were 
square, you'd have the same type of 
pattern, turned 90 degrees, if you 
wrote, for example, one program with 
three RNDs in X and four in Y, and a 
second with four RNDs in X and three 
in Y. But because the graphics block is 
rectangular, each one of the 25 
programs possible with one to five 
RNDs in both X and Y will produce 
basically different patterns. 

Because these multi-RND pat- 
terns are sparser than single-RND 
ones, they lend themselves more to 
full-screen kaleidoscope patterns, 
which are too big and confusing when 
only one RND is used in both X and Y. 
Try, for instance, 

110 X=RND(RND(RND(RND(A)))) 
120 Y=RND(B) 

and A,B values of 63,23. You might call 




the resulting pattern something like 
"Twin Aliens Meet In Space," or 
"Space Garbage Meets Radar Re- 
flector." 

For something quite different, 
substitute these lines for 100-130 in the 
general program: 

100 CLS:INPUT A,B,E.F:CLS 
110X=RND(A)*RND(B) 
120Y=RND(E)'RND(F) 
130 C=2*A-B-X:D=2*E*F-Y 

and use values for A.B.E.F such as 
10,5,5,4. This looks best during the first 
few minutes, although at the end it has 
a certain charm, looking like a moth- 
eaten Mondrian. 



g£itr?:::"<t'r0t 



Nf. . M..I.I 



I .1.. II . .IV) 



■III I II I I I II I III! 

■•-■•II "i' i ' ' i • i" n • 'an 



l K..llr',L'r.:::,< l JHII„'.Hj 



Cassette Mailing List 

This $19.95 Radio Shack program 
for a Level-ll TRS-80 with at least 16K 
of ROM is also available at $39.95 on 
diskette for 32K two-disk business 
systems. 

According to the manual, typical 
uses of the Mailing List System are 
club membership lists, customer lists 
for advertisement mailings, Christmas 
card lists, personal telephone direc- 
tory, and client lists. 



130 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Z-80/TRS-80 ™ Users 

BOOK YOU'VE WANTED NOW CAN BE YOURS 

THE Z-80: HOW IT WORKS 

(THE PROGRAMMERS PERSPECTIVE) 

By Monte Corum 

Best Most Complete Reference Yet 

cpu Operation Explained 

Addressing Modes Demystified 

Register Functions Described 

Instructions Defined 

Interrupts Diagrammed 

Cycles Outlined Formats Described 

Execution Described in Text, 

Notation and Diagrams 

Meaningful Analysis of 698 Commands 

in Formatted, Usable Tables 

Simple, Consistent Notation and Formats 

A Programmer's Book, Beginner or Experienced 

Ideal Text for Class Instruction 

Pricse: $17.95 Plus Tax and Shipping 

VISA & MSTRCHRG-NUMBER AND EXP. DATE 

PREPAID WE SHIP 

MICROWARE ASSOCIATES, INCORPORATED 

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DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

" TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP. 




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records are rearranged on diskette! Supports multiple sub records 
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may be character, integer, and floating-point binary. Provides 
optional output field deletion, rearrangement, and padding. 
'Sort timings shown below are nominal times. Times will vary 
based on sort and system configurations. Nominal times based 
on Mod 1 48K 4-drive configuration, 64 byte records, and 5 sort keys. 
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680K 2569 

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33 


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49 


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173 


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APRIL 1980 



131 






Strings, cont'd. . . 

For most of these uses, you'll want 
labels, which means you'll also need a 
tractor-feed line printer, expansion 
interface and labels, all of which Radio 
Shack can supply; the 3 1 / 2 -by- 1s / 16 -inch 
labels are Cat. No. 26-1404. 

After you load in the tape, you get 
a menu: 

(A)DD NAMES TO THE MAILING LIST 
(R)EAD MAILING LIST FROM TAPE 
(S)EARCH/CHANGE THE MAILING 

LIST 
(L)IST NAMES ON THE SCREEN 
(P)RINT MAILING LIST 
(W)RITE MAILING LIST ON TAPE 

You select one of the six options 
by typing the first letter of the com- 
mand. If you select the first, you have 
the choice of including a telephone 
number or company name in the 
address, but not both. You enter name, 
company or telephone number, ad- 
dress, city, state, zip and, if you've 
opted to include it, a select code. 

You may wish, as the manual says, 
to use the select code to indicate 
whether a person in your club-mem- 
bership list has paid his dues. Using 
this code, "the club could then print 
labels for paid-up members to send 
them activities notices, and later print 
another set of labels for members-in- 
bad-standing to send them payment 
reminders." 

Or you could print labels only for 
people who live in a certain state or 
city, or who have a zip code beginning 
with certain digits. 

You can type the name with the 
family name first or last, but the 
program sorts according to the first 
name on the first line. So if you want 
the names to be sorted according to 
family name, you enter them in di- 
rectory style.separating the last name 
from the first with a comma. When the 
labels are printed, the program will 
rearrange the name to print the first 
name first and the last name last. 

Pressing L causes the names in 
memory to be listed on the screen, just 
the names only, in alphabetical order. 
Pressing S lets you locate a particular 
name for reference or alteration. You 
enter enough letters of the name to 
identify it, and you get a new menu, 
with six choices, along with the name 
and accompanying information. You 
can then display the name before or 
after the one on view, delete the name 
displayed, change part of the informa- 
tion, cancel the changes made, or 
search for a new name. 

To print mailing labels, press P. 
The program asks if you want to print 
labels for the whole list, and if not, 
which field you would like to use for a 
select code, and then requests that you 



"type in a value for the select code." If 
you want to print labels only for 
members in Oshkosh, you type in 
OSHKOSH as the select code. Or, as 
the manual states, "This feature is 
especially useful when applied to the 
zip code field. By specifying the first 3 
digits of the zip code, you can print 
labels for 'sorted bundles' and take 
advantage of reduced postal rates." 

The program asks if you want a 
trial printing run, so you can align the 
labels and adjust the character size (if 
you're using a printer with that fea- 
ture). If you reply Y instead of N, the 
first label will be printed three times. 
Once the labels are aligned, reply N for 
"no more trial runs" and press ENTER 
to start printing. 

When printing is completed, the 
program asks if you want to read in any 
more tapes, which allows you to load 
additional names into memory and 
continue printing with the same 
selection criterion. 

Cassette tapes are used to save 
names and addresses, so there is no 
limit to the number of cassette tapes 
you can create with the system. There 
is, however, a limit to the number of 
names on each tape, and it's a function 
of your TRS-80's memory size. If the 
average list entry is 50 characters long, 
you can put up to 150 names into 16K 
of RAM memory, up to 450 with 32K, 
and up to 750 with 48K. 

The cassette program is packaged 
in a ring binder with one program 
cassette, one C-20 blank data cassette, 
and a 12-page manual. The last five 
pages contain a full listing of the 
program in Basic. The binder has 
space for six more cassettes, handy 
storage if you have a long mailing list. 

The disk version seems to be 
exactly the same. It comes with one 
program diskette and one blank 
diskette in a bound manual. Each blank 
diskette will hold about 600 names, 
with the exact number depending on 
the length of the listings. 

According to the software info 
sheet on the Disk Mailing List System, 
"If you don't need a mailing list, you 
could use it [the program] to catalog 
items of various types and print 
selected lists for you . . . with or without 
program modification." 

This is just the program for your 
club or business if you have more than 
a small number of labels to print 
regularly. 

G/2 Is GWTW 

If you've been wondering what 
happened to those fancy four-color 
ads for the G/2 Program Library that 
GRT Corp. was running in Creative 
and elsewhere in 1978, it's because 
G/2, GRT's Consumer Computer 



Group, no longer exists. GRT, of 
Sunnyvale, CA, filed Chapter XI of the 
federal bankruptcy laws, after losing 
over two million dollars up to the fall of 
1978. 

G/2 had several dozen cassette 
tapes for the Apple, Southwest, Sol, 
PET, Sorcerer and Level-ll TRS-80. 
The half-dozen for the TRS-80 in- 
cluded Beat The House (blackjack, 
craps, roulette, slot machine), Clinic 
(biorhythms, dieting, longevity), Per- 
sonal Finance (Checkbook, Best 
Choice). That last program was for 
decision-making. 

All the principles of the G/2 
division left GRT in late 1978, and the 
software companies that had licensed 
GRT to manufacture and market their 
products, have taken back the pro- 
grams. These programs will now, in 
some cases, be marketed by the 
companies that wrote them, such as 
Level III by Microsoft. 

GRT continues with their main 
business, which is producing and 
marketing pre-recorded music tapes. 
Music tapes can stand a lot of dropouts 
and other problems before they really 
get bad. But I couldn't even load the 
copy of Clinic that G/2 sent. 

Incidentally, I heard that to make 
writing the G/2 tapes as easy as 
possible, no graphics were used at all. 

So G/2 is gone with the wind, 
cancelling an ambitious assortment of 
tapes that also included Oil Tycoon, 
Adventure, The Market and a couple of 
Extended Basics. 



Microtyping 

Microtyping is the first of the 
"Hayden Computer Program Tapes" 
I've checked out, and it is one of the ! 
most ingenious and useful programs i 
I've even come across, well worth the 
$10.95 price. ' 

Written for Level-ll 16K machines i 
by Dr. C. William Engel, who wrote the j 
Simulating Simulations games pro- j 
grams (available now in book form ! 
from Hayden Book Co. for $4.95), the I 
cassette comes in a plastic envelope ! 
(with a hole near the top, for peg-board 
or stand mounting) that's handy to 
keep the cassette in. 

Also in the envelope is an attrac- 
tive four-page folder. The cover shows 
a logo and title in black and white on 
green, distinctive enough to be spotted 
across the room in your local computer 
store, which is where you can buy this 
tape (or if not available, from the Sales 
Dept., Hayden Book Co., Inc., 50 Essex 
St., Rochelle Park, NJ 07662.) 

The folder's back cover, which you 
can read through the plastic envelope 
in the computer store, tells you that 
Microtyping teaches touch typing, and 
gives some details. 



132 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



CASSETTE 
DUPLICATION 



TRS-80 (I & II), PET, APPLE, KIM, ATARI 

Quality software duplication is more 
than copying cassettes. Microsette du- 
plication uses a proprietary high speed 
duplicator designed specifically for 
computer program duplication. The fin- 
ished products are of consistent quality, 
guaranteed to load. Minimum order is 
100 with discounts for higher quanti- 
ties. Call (415) 968-1604 for details. 



* IPIBS &4> * 

FEATURES S FANTASTIC PROCMMS AT AN UNHEARD 



• ICE! 



MICROSETTE CO. 

475 Ellis Street 
Mt. View, CA 94043 



CIRCLE 164 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



BACKGAMMON S.O 

The belt backgammon program (or the TRS80 Plays standard 
international rules, will not allow illegal moves. (Fast: 15 seconds or less avg. 
move). Uses doubling die'! Features (inest graphic display yet available'!! 

SPEED READING (C.A.I. I 

Increase your reading speed and comprehension with this educational 
program. Computer adjusts your WPM (words per minute) according to 
comprehension. Up to 5000 words per minute possible!! Simulates the 
tachistoscope! 

YAHTZEE 

Up to (our people may play against the computer. Excellent animated 
graphic dice. Standard yahtiee rules apply. Bonus points. Yahtjee. Chance, 
etc. 

WALL STREET 

You and opponents buy and sell computer generated stock in this exciting 
simulation. Each player starts with 50.000. The (irst to make a million 
dollars wins. FAST ACTION!!! 

PT109 

Quick co ordination is required with this (ast action arcade game. Drop 
depth charges on subs!!! 



24 HOUR HOT LINE: VISA . MC . COO • 602-882 3948 



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ajui j-jjus jjj>a iiiXjpv-j'Zi *jr Ji;i3j>n, *ua aimi-u 



CIRCLE 193 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



WHAT'S HAPPENING? 



(with the "Original" TRS-80® Users Journal) 



Our Alar-Apr 80 issue tells about how one person 
improved the resolution on the '80 by a factor of 6! 
The photo on the cover of that issue tells the story. 
There is also a complete listing in BASIC of a disk- 
based file system, using random files and hash 
codes. Also in BASIC is a program that compares 
dollar values between any years from 1881 to 
1 980, and it gives comparative cost figures for 
housing, transportation, food, etc. (it is in L2 
1 6K). In the "fun and games" department, there is 
a complete BASIC listing of a game where you play 
nine games of tic-tac-toe at the same time - the 
computer is your opponent. In the utilities 
department there are two methods of creating 
graphs, a program to give you a HEX dump of 



memory, and - a program to give you number 
conversion from decimal/octal/hex/binary. In 
assembly language, there is a complete listing 
which allows you to selectively scroll any portion of 
the screen, while leaving the rest of it intact! Plus, 
there are the regular features: A tutorial on the 
Editor/ Assembler for beginners; New Products; 
Reviews and the Business Section. It isn't called 
the "TRS-80 Users Journal" for nothing! It is 
published regularly every two months, and costs 
just $16.00 per year in the U.S. Get a sample 
current issue (first class mail) for just $3.00. Use 
your VISA or Mastercharge and call (206) 475- 
22 1 9 today! Or, send check or Money Order to: 
80-U.S. Journal 3838 South Warner Street, 
Tacoma, Washington 98409 



Yes! We are the people who developed "Android Nim" 
and other fine animated graphics programs with sound! 




TRS80 is a trademark of Radio Shack, a Division of the Tandy Corporation 
CIRCLE 144 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1980 



133 



fSt rings, cont'd 



The inside two pages comprise a 
User's Guide, which tells how to load 
and use the program. The program is 
divided into four levels: 1 -letters, 2- 
numbers and symbols, 3-words, 4-text 
and program listings. "In each level the 
user receives immediate feedback 
regarding speed and errors. In Level 1 
and 2, response speed is graphically 
represented by the distance between 
the symbol presentation and the 
student's response. If the response is 
too low or in error, the word SLOW or 
ERROR appears on the screen. In 
Levels 3 and 4, the student's response 
is not printed unless the correct key is 
pressed." 

The correct finger placement on 
the "home keys" is shown, and "it is 
recommended that the student begin 
with the first level of difficulty in Level 1 
and remain at that level until 50 wpm 
can be typed with no errors before 
proceeding to the next level of dif- 
ficulty." 

The guide ends with instructions 
on How to Insert New Practice Material 
in The Program, a very practical idea. 
The program is in Basic, so you can 
easily change any of the DATA lines to 
put in new symbols, words and sen- 
tences. 

In each of the four levels, the 
instructions and all other material 
shown on the screen is in double-width 
characters for easy reading; the menus 
are in standard-width characters. 

In Level 1 — Letters, you select the 
level of difficulty, 1 to 9. and you're 
presented with one letter at a time, 
from a group of three letters if you're at 
level of difficulty 1 , from a group of six 
letters at level of difficulty 2, on up to 
the whole alphabet at 9. 

You're shown 20 individual letters 
in each session, at each level of 
difficulty in Level 1, and as you type in 
the letter you're shown, it's repeated on 
the screen, to the right of the letter 
displayed by the computer, at a 
distance proportional to the speed with 
which you enter the letter after seeing 
the original display. 

If you're really slow, then SLOW is 
displayed on the screen instead of the 
letter. ERROR is displayed if you don't 
match the letter displayed. 

At the end of the session, you find 
out how you've done, in words per 
minute and number of errors. You can 
then continue at the same level of 
difficulty, or move on to a more (or 
less) difficult level, or move on to Level 
2 — Numbers and Symbols. 

In Level 2, you also get a session in 
which you match 20 characters, one at 
a time, at one of eight levels of 
difficulty, starting with one character 
chosen from a group of four char- 
acters, and ending, at the top level of 



difficulty, with a character chosen from 
the 32 numbers and symbols on the 
TRS-80 keyboard. This begins to get 
difficult, and if you're tempted to look 
at the keys, remember: you'll never 
learn touch-typing if you look. 

Level 3 — Words presents 20 
three-letter words per session, at nine 
levels of difficulty, from 45 words 
stored in the program. You can easily 
change any of these 45 to words of the 
same length, or longer. 

In Level 4 — Text and Program 
Listings, the menu has nine selections. 
You can practice six selected groups of 
letters, or all letters, or numbers and 
letters, or program listings. If you 
select "numbers and letters," you type 
a sentence or two that combines words 
and numbers; the program selects 
from a group of seven in DATA lines. 
There's only one "program listing" 
stored in a DATA line, and although it's 
fairly complex, you can easily change 
it, or any of the seven groups of 
sentences, if you want more variety or 
harder material. 

At all four levels, you get your 
words-per-minute and number-of- 
errors ratings. 

Microtyping is a real winner in the 
category of useful programs. The 
touch-typing skill learned with this 
program is transferrable to a type- 
writer, although the symbols will. of 
course.be a little different. 

Cassette-Tape "Magazines" 

By the time you read this, Radio 
Shack may well have sold 300,000 
TRS-80 Model I computers. Looking at 
that number, you might think there's 
plenty of room in the marketplace for 
more than just one of any type of 
TRS-80 product. 

But just because there are many 
thousands of TRS-80 owners, doesn't 
always mean, as several entrepreneurs 
have found out, that money can be 
made by generating a product similar 
to something already on the market. 

Take tape "magazines," for in- 
stance. CLOAD was there first, with a 
monthly tape that steadily improved, 
and which, even with a $36 yearly 
subscription price, is doing quite well. 
They've issued a "Best of CLOAD," at 
$10 (Box 1267, Goleta, CA 93017). 

Several other TRS-80 tape maga- 
zines have been advertised. Two died 
before publishing their first monthly 
tape: LEVEL I (monthly, $40 a year, 
Anaheim, CA); and Tape Talk (bi- 
monthly, $?, San Jose, CA). 

A fourth, Gaudeus (monthly, $30, 
Ozone Park, NY), was to have been a 
cassette magazine in several editions, 
for PET, TRS-80, Apple II and Sor- 
cerer, but nothing has been heard from 
them for awhile. 



TRS-80 Software Source ^ 

The Summer 1979 edition of 
"TRS-80 Software Source," which is an 
8'/ 2 -by-1 1-inch paperback, has over 
4,000 listings from 250 vendors. The six 
main class divisions are business, 
education, games, home, math and 
utility. 

The listings are given in 16 differ- 
ent ways. Games are on only one list, 
alphabetically by title. The other five 
classes are each listed three ways: 
alphabetically by title and by vendor, 
and by Basic (Level-I or Level-ll, 4K or 
16K). The 17th list is of vendor names, 
addresses and phone numbers. 

For each listing, you get a title, 
description (up to 27 characters), level, 
price, media, class and vendor. 

At this writing, the price of a single 
issue is $6, from Computermat, Box 
1664, Lake Havasu, AZ 86403. As the 
size of the publication increases, due 
to more and more available programs, 
don't be surprised if the price also 
increases. 

The directory is published in the 
spring, summer and fall. The Fall 1979 
issue is expected to contain over 5,000 
listings. When the directory was first 
published, a subscription price of $1 2 a 
year was set. However, according to a 
note from Computermat, "We have 
decided to discontinue the subscrip- 
tions. Most of our orders are for a 
single issue." 

The directory is well worth the $6 
for anybody interested in buying more 
than just an occasional TRS-80 pro- 
gram. But there's one problem with the 
listings that may be unsolvable. Some 
programs are listed more than once. 
When there are three listings for 
"Library 100," most of us know that's 
The Bottom Shelf set of programs 
available from TBS and two others. 

But what about the seven listings 
of Biorhythm, nine of Renumber, and 
21 of Inventory? How many are 
duplicates? How can you decide which 
to order from the vendor? The cheap- 
est one? Biorhythm ranges from $3 to 
$9.95, and Renumber from $9.95 to $20 
on cassette. So what do you do, pick a 
price in the middle and hope for the 
best? 

The Summer 1979 directory in- 
cludes a "software review" question- 
naire asking for detailed information 
from readers on programs. Computer- 
mat intends to "compile the results and 
print them in the next issue." That may 
help, at least for those programs for 
which reviews are received, but which 
may be for only a small percentage of 
the thousands of programs available. 

Well, it's a start, and we can only 
wish Computermat well, with what is a 
very large undertaking: collating the 
information in all those reviews. That 
is, if altruistic readers send them in.n 



134 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Control th 





MICRO MINT 

BUSY BOX 

Home control unit for the Personal computer! 

Interface your computer to the BSR X-lO or Sears Home Control system and control appliances, lamps, and wall 
switches. ___ 

Designed bv Steve Clarcla. featured In January. 1980 BYTE. 

Assembled and tested Interface. In attractive 8.25 x 6 x 2.5 Inch Plastic case, with cable and connector for TRS-80 
keyboard or expansion Interface, power supply, and manual. Including BASIC listing for simple control routine for 4K. 
Level II minimum system. SI 04.95. 

Four year control program, rewires expansion interface for real time clock, on BASIC cassette. SI 9.95. 

Package PK 500: BSR X-10 Command Console, cordless controller, two lamp modules and one appliance module. 

c (24 9Q 

Separate Prices: UC 301 Command Console. $49.95: CC 401 Cordless Remote Controller. S24.99: LM 501 Lamp 
ole. SI 6.99: AM 601 Appliance Module. SI 6.99: WS 701 Wall Switch Module. $16.99. 

Note: Vour BUSY BOX wfll not wot* *** the Radio Shoe* Hon* Controtltr. ■ iWPMd down version ot the BSR X-10. 




Shipping costs are not Included in prices. 
To order, call TOLL FREE 1-800-258-1790. on nh cm srs-siaa) 



6 SOOTH STREET. MILFORO. NH 03055 For more Information, call (603)673-5144. 



TRS-80* COMPUTERS: our price 

Level 1. 4K $499.00 $449.00 

Level II. 4K $619.00 $559.00 

Uvelll.16K.no keypad $669.00 

Level II. 16K. w keypad $849.00 $769.00 

EXPANSION INTERFACES: 

Exp. Int.. no RAM $299.00 $269.00 

Exp. Int.. I6K RAM. (NEC) $448.00 $369.00 

Exp. Int.. 32K RAM. (NEC) $597.00 $459.00 

DISK DRIVES: 

Percom. TFO- 1 00. 40-tracks $399.00 ... . $389.00 

Percom. Dual TFO- 1 00's $795.00 $775.00 

Percom. TFO-200. 77-tracks $675.00 .... $625.00 
Percom. Dual TFD-200's $ 1 350.00 $ 1 250.00 

DISK DRIUE ACESSORIES: 

2-drive cable for TRS-80* $29.95 $29.00 

4-drtve cable for TRS-80* $39.95 $39.00 

Percom Data Separator $29.95 

Extender Card $15.95 $15.00 



We Buy and Sell Used TRS-80 1 

CIRCLE 221 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PRINTERS: 

Centronics 730 
Centronics 753-2 
Centronics 779-2 



our price 

$999.00 $846.00 

$3196.00 $2750.00 

$1559.00 $1064.00 

RS Quick Printer II $219.00 $197.00 

RS Line Printer III $1960.00 $1813.00 

LRC 7000^(20.32 or 40 col.) $389.... $369.00 
LRC 7000+(64 column) $405.00 $389.00 

PRINTER CABLES: 

QPII to Exp. Int. cable $19.00 

LRC to TRS-80* cable $20.00 

730 to TRS-80* cable $29.00 

779 or 753 to TRS-80* cable $35.00 

PERIPHERALS: 

Novation CAT Modem $ 1 99.95 $ 1 79.00 

RS-232-C Interface Board $99.00 $89.00 

TRS-232 Printer Interface $49.95 

OataDubber. $49.95 

I6K Memory UPtfrade Kit. Keyboard... $99.00 

I6K Memory Upgrade Kit. E.I.. $95.00 

Percom Electric Crayon $249.95 

Busy Box $104.95 

Ask for our FREE catalog! 



*TRS-aO I* a trademark of Radio Shack and Tandy Cor*.. 



APRIL 1980 



135 



Conipleat 



Computer 
Catalog 




COMPUTERS 




8-BIT MICROCOMPUTER 
FOR SMALL BUSINESS 

The Centurion 8-bit microcom- 
puter is built around Intel's 8085A-2 
microprocessor, which has a proces- 
sing speed of 5 MHz, but system speed 
is 7MHz because a floating point 
math chip is used to handle number- 
crunching calculations. 

Designed to be a complete, inte- 
grated system, the Centurion features 
16K of internal PROM, 64K of RAM, a 
floppy disk controller, CP/M operat- 
ing system, built on Artec's shielded 
motherboard. It operates with a CRT 
terminal and up to four single-sided, 
double-density, 8-inch floppy disk 
drives, and is compatible with any 
printer having an RS-232 interface. 

The single-quantity price of the 
Centurion I with a Hazeltine 1500 
CRT terminal is $10,825. 

Artec Electronics, 605 Old 
County Rd., San Carlos, CA 90470. 
(415) 592-2740. 

CIRCLE 250 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

CLUSTERSHARED 
MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEM 

Nestar Systems announces a new 
Clustershared personal computer 
system with the introduction of the 



Cluster/One, Model A for the Apple. 
Now, up to 64 Apple II computers may 
be tied together in a local network. 

Users may communicate with 
one another, snare data, and access 
the same files, while the individual 
computer remains free to tackle 
accounting or scientific problem 
solving without being tied down by 
other computers in the system. 

Professional and business offices 
as well as departments within large 
firms can take advantage of a 
Clustershared system, typically con- 
sisting of multiple Apple II com- 
puters, the Nestar Cluster/One, 
Model A, and shared resources such 
as printers, data recorders, plotters or 
graphics tablets. 

The Nestar Cluster/One, Model 
A will be priced at $6,000 for the basic 
system with 1,260,000 bytes of stor- 
age. The optional 16.5 and 33 Mb hard 
disk systems will cost $8,000 and 
$10,000 respectively. A ClusterBus 
communication card, priced at $400, 
is required for each user station on the 
network. The cost of the Apple II 
personal computers are separate and 
must be added into the total network 
price. 

Nestar Systems, Incorporated, 
430 Sherman Ave., Palo Alto, CA 
94306. (415) 327-0125. 

CIRCLE 251 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MULTIVISION FAMILY 
FROM ADDS 

Applied Digital Data Systems 
Inc., (ADDS), Hauppauge, N.Y. is the 
world's largest supplier of display 
terminals to original equipment 
manufacturers. More than 25% of all 
displays shipped to OEMs are made 
by ADDS. The company also pro- 
duces programmable terminals, 
clustered terminals and small 
business computer systems. 

ADDS has now introduced a 
family of modular small business 
computers including hard disk stor- 
age and multi-user capability. The 
ADDS Multivision 1 entry level 




computer lists for $3785 and includes 
a 5 MHz processor, 64 K byte RAM, 
and 700K bytes of dual mini-floppy 
based storage. 

ADDS has developed a CP/M*- 
compatible, multi-user operating 
system that supports the Microsoft 
BASIC Interpreter and Compiler, a 
proprietary word processing pack- 
age, five business application pack- 
ages and a powerful ISAM capability. 

For users requiring more data 
storage, an 8-inch Winchester disk 
drive is available. Option 1 provides 
5M bytes of storage while Option 2 
provides 10M bytes. The unit mea- 
sures a compact 15" square by 6" 
high. 

Multivision 3 permits the simul- 
taneous operation of as many as four 
display terminals. Multivision 2 
systems can be field upgraded to 
Multivision 3 with the addition of an 
expansion box that supports a 4 port 
adapter end up to three additional 
64K byte RAM boards, yielding a 
system total of 256K bytes of memory. 

A new file type has been added to 
standard CP/M* file system to pro- 
vide efficient access to the Winchester 
disk. The software includes both a 
BASIC Interpreter and a BASIC 
Compiler. The Interpreter permits 
easy development of software; where- 



136 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



NEW PRODUCTS! 
Super Color S-100 Video Kit $99.95 Ell II Adapter Kit $24 SO 

Expandable to 256 x 192 high resolution color 
graphics 6847 with all display modes computer 
controlled Memory mapped IK RAM expanda- 
ble to 6K S 100 bus 1802. 8080. 8085 Z80 etc 

Gremlin Color Video Kit SS9.9S 

32 x 16 alpha numerics and graphics up to 8 
colors with 6847 chip IK RAM at E000 Plugs 
into Super Elf 44 pin bus Not expandable to high 
resolution Graphics 



Plugs into EM II providing Super Ell 44 and SO pin 
bus plus S 100 bus expansion (With Super Ex 
pansiom High and low address displays, state 
and mode LEO s optional III 00 
1802 16K Dynamic RAM Kit $149.00 
1802 S-100 expandable to 32K. Hidden refresh 
w clocks up to 4 MHj w no wail slates Addl 16K 
RAM $79.00 



Quest Super Basic 

Quest, the leader in inexpensive 1802 systems 
announces another first Quest is the first com- 
pany worldwide to ship a hill size Basic lor 1 802 
systems A complete function Super Basic by 
Ron Cenfcer including floating point capability 
with scientific notation (number range - 1 7E M ) . 
32 bit integer ■ 2 billion Multi dim arrays String 
arrays. String manipulation Cassette 10. Save 
and load Basic Data and machine language pro- 
grams, and over 75 Statements. Functions and 
Operators 

Easily adaptable on most 1802 systems Re- 
quires 12K RAM minimum for Base and user 



programs Cassette version in stock now HUM 
versions coming soon with exchange privilege 
allowing some credit (or cassette version 
Super Basic on Cassette $40 00 

Tom Plttman s 1802 Tiny Bask Source listing 
now available Find out how Tom Pittman wrote 
Tiny Basic and how to gel the most out of ft. 
Never ottered before $19 00 

S 100 4 Slot Expansion $9 95 

Super Monitor VI I Source Listing $15 00 
Coming Soon Assembler. Editor. Disassem- 
bler. DA AD. Super Sound Music. EPROM 
programmer. Stringy Floppy Disc Systen 



Same day shipment First line parts only 
Factory tested Guaranteed money back 
Quality IC s and other components at lac 
tory prices 



Will calls: 2322 Walsh Ave. 
(408) 988-1640 




RCA Cosmac Super Elt Computer S106.95 

Compare features before you decide lo buy any A 24 key H£X keyboard includes 16 HEX keys 

other computer There is no other computer on plus load, ratal, run. wait. Input, memory pro 

the market today that has all the desirable bene- tact, monitor select and single step Urge, on 

fits of the Sugar EN tor so little money The Super board displays provide output and optional high 

Elf is a small single board computer that does and km address There is a 44 pin standard 

many Mf things It is an excellent computer tor connector slot for PC cards and a 50 pin connec 

training and for learning programming with its tor slot tor the Quest Super Expansion Board 

machine language and yet it is easily e xaoaafd Power supply and sockets for ill IC s are in 



with additional memory Fall Basic. ASCII 
Keyboards, video chancier generation, etc 
Before you buy another small computer, see il it 
includes the following features ROM monitor. 
State and Mode displays Single step. Optional 
address displays Power Supply Audio Amplifier 
and Speaker. Fully socketed lor all IC s. Real cost 
of in warranty repairs. Fun documentation 
The Sugar EN includes a ROM monitor tor pro 
gram loading, editing and execution with SINGLE 
STEP lor program debugging which is not in- 
cluded in others at the same price With SINGLE 
STEP you can see the microprocessor chip opera 
ting with the unique Qwest address and data bus 
displays before during and alter executing in 
structions Also CPU mode and instruction cycle 
are decoded and displayed on 8 LEO indicators 
An RCA 1861 vtdoo graphics chip allows you to 
connect lo your own TV with an inexpensive video 
modulator lo do graphics and games There is a 
speaker system included for writing your own 
music or using many music programs already 
written The speaker amplifier may also be used 
to drive relays lor control purposes 



eluded in the pnee plus a detailed I27pg instruc- 
don manual which now includes over 40 pas of 
software info including a series of lessons to 
help get you started and a music program and 
graphics target game Many schools and 
universities are using the Super Elt as a course 
of study OEM s use it tor training and R&D 
Remember other computers only otter Super Elf 
features at additional cost or not at all Compare 
before you buy Super Ell Kit $106 95. High 
address option $8 95. low address option 
$9 95 Custom Cabinet with drilled and labelled 
plexiglass front panel $24.95. Expansion Cabinet 
with room tor 4 S-100 boards $41 00 NiCad 
Battery Memory Saver Kit $6 95 All kits and 
options also completely assembled and tested 
Questdata a 12 page monthly software pub 
lication for 1802 computer users is available by 
subscription for Si? 00 per year Issues 1-12 
bound $16 50 

Tiny Basic Cassette $10 00. on ROM $38 00. 
original Elt kit board $14 95 1802 software: 
Moews Video Graphics $3 SO Games and Music 
$3 00. Chip 8 Interpreter $5 50 




Super Expansion Board with Cassette Interlace S89.95 



Th s is truly an astounding value' This board has 
been designed to allow you to decide how you 
want it optioned Tki Super Expansion Board 
comet with 4K ot low power RAM fully address 
able anywhere in 64K with built-in memory pro- 
tect and a cassette interlace Provisions have 
been made tor all other options on the same 
board and rt fits neatly into the hardwood cabinet 
alongside the Sugar EH The board includes slots 
lor up to 6K of EPROM (2708 2758. 2716 or Tl 
2716) and is fully socketed EPROM can be used 
for the monitor and Tiny Basic or other purposes 
A IK Super ROM Monitor $19 95 is available as 
an on board option in 2708 EPROM which has 
been preprogrammed with a program loader 
editor and error checking mutti tile cassette 
read write software (relocatible cassette hie) 
another exclusive from Quest It includes register 
save and readout, block move capability and 
video graphics driver with blinking cursor Break 
points can be used with the register save feature 
to isolate program bugs quickly then lollow with 
single step The Super Monitor is written with 



subroutines allowing users to take advantage of 
monitor functions simply by calling them up 
Improvements and revisions are easily done with 
the monitor II you have the Sugar Expansion 
Board and Sugar Monitor the monitor is up and 
running at the push of a button 

Other on board options include Parallel Input 
and Output Porta with full handshake They 
allow easy connection of an ASCI I keyboard lo the 
input port RS 232 and 20 ma Currant Loop lor 
teletype or other device are on board and if you 
need more memory there are two S-100 slots tor 
static RAM or video boards Also a IK Super 
Monitor version 2 with video driver tor full capa- 
bility display with Tiny Basic and a video interface 
board Parallel I/O Ports $9 85. RS 232 $4 50. 
TTY 20 ma l/F $1 95. S-100 $4 50 A 50 pin 
connector tat with ribbon cable is available at 
SI 5 25 lor easy connection between the Super 
Ot and the Super Expansion Board 
Power Supply Kil for the complete system {see 
Multi-volt Power Supply below) 



ROCKWELL AIM 65 Computer 

6502 based single board with tul ASCII keyboard 
and 20 column thermal pnnter 20 char alphanu 
menc display ROM monitor lully expandable 
$375 00 4K version $450 00 4K Assembler 
S85 00 8K Basic Interpreter S100 00 

Speoal small power supply tor AIM65assem in 
Irame $49. W. Complete AIM65 in thin briefcase 
with power supply $485.00. Molded plastic 
enclosure lo fit AIM65 plus power supply $47 50 
Special Package Price 4K AIM. 8K Basic power 
supply cabinet $599 00 

AIM65 MM VIM Super Elt 44 pin expansion 
board. 3 lemale and 1 male bus Board plus 3 
connectors $22 95 

AIM65 KIM VIM I Expansion Kit 4 parallel and 
2 senal ports plus 2 internal timers $39 00 PROM 
programmer tor 2716 $150.00. 



Multi-volt Computer Power Supply 

8v 5 amp - 18v 5 amp 5v 1 5 amp 5v 
5 amp. 12v 5 amp, 12 option • 5v, - 12v 
are regulated KHS29 95 Kit with punched Irame 
S37 45. S4 00 shipping Kit ot hardware S14 00 
Woodgrain case S10 00. S1 50 shipping 



PROM Eraser Will erase 25 PROMs in 
15 minutes Ultraviolet, assembled $37 50 
Satety switch Timer version $69.50 



60 Hz Crystal Time Base Kit $4.40 

Converts digital clocks from AC line frequency 
to crystal lime base Outstanding accuracy 



NiCad Battery Fixer Charger Kit 
Opens shorted cells that won t hold a charge 
and then charges them up. all in one kit w full 
parts and instructions $7.25 



LRC 7000 Printer S389 00 

4064 column dot matrix impact, std paper 

Interface all personal computers 

Televideo Terminal 5845 00 

1 02 key upper lowercase 1 Baud rates 24 1 80 

char microprocessor com edit cap 

Intertuba II Terminal $874.00 

Super Brain 

Floppy Dish Terminal $2895 00 



79 IC Update Master Manual $29.95 

Complete IC data selector 2500 pg master refer- 
ence guide Over 50.000 cross references Free 
update service through 1979 Domestic postage 
S3 50 No foreign orders 



S-100 Computer Boards 

8K Static RAM Kit $135 00 

16K Sialic RAM Kit 265O0 

24K Static RAM Kit 423 00 

32K Static RAM Kit 475 00 

16K Dynamic RAM Kit 199 00 

32K Dynamic RAM Kit 310 00 

64K Dynamic RAM Kit 470 00 

Video Interface Kit $129 00 



Video Modulator Kit $8.95 

Convert TV set into a high quality monitor w o 
affecting usage Comp tut wtuH instruc 



Digital Temp. Meter Kit $34.00 

Indoor and outdoor Switches back and forth 
Beautiful 50 LED readouts Nothing like it 
available Needs no additional parts tor com- 
plete full operation Will measure 100 to 
• 200 F, tenths of a degree, air or liquid 
Beautiful woodgrain case w bezel si 1 . 75 



TERMS: S500min order II S Funds Calif residents add 6% tax 
BankAmericard and Master Charge accepted. 
Shipping charges will be added on charge cards 



FREE Send lor your copy ol our NEW 1980 
OUEST CATALOG Include 28c stamp 



APRIL 1980 



137 



CIRCLE 184 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






as for running programs the Com- 
piler is three to four times faster than 
the Interpreter. Single key and multi 
key ISAM provide quick access to 
data stored on the Winchester disk. 

Five accounting software pack- 
ages are available: payroll, general 
ledger, accounts receivable and pay- 
able, and inventory. Multivision 3 
measures 15 inches square by 18 
inches. 

The list price schedule of Multi- 
vision is as follows: 
Multivision 1 — $3785.00 
Multivision 2 (5M byte option) — 

$7995.00 
Multivision 3 (256K bytes, 4 display 

ports, 1 printer port) — $12,885.00. 

Applied Digital Data Systems, Inc., 
100 Marcus Blvd., Hauppauge, NY 
11787. (516) 231-5400. 

CIRCLE 252 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



64K MEMORY BOARD 

The Model 460 64K Byte 
Dynamic RAM Memory Board, a 
high-speed low-power memory 
system, available from Industrial 
Micro Systems, provides 64 K bytes of 
memory organized into four blocks, 
each of which is individually de- 
selectable under program control for 
memory mapping. 

The parity feature of Model 460 
provides increased data security. In 















a»iWi 






w^HjM 









the event of an error, a parity bit is set 
which lights an LED on the board 
and may be used to set a vectored 
interrupt or halt the CPU. The Model 
460 also supports 8080 or Z80 CPU's 
and operates at 4 MHz with no wait 
states. 

Industrial Micro Systems, Inc., 
628 Eckhoff St., Orange, CA 92668. 
(714) 978-6966. 

CIRCLE 253 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Terminals & I/O 



PASCAL TERMINAL 

The ACI Pascal Video terminal is 
a twelve-inch CRT (24 lines by 80 
characters) for use with the UCSD 
Pascal Operating System or other 
applications requiring simular video 
terminal capabilities. 

It provides standard upper/lower 
case 96 ASCII character set and it 
accommodates several international 




language character displays (USA, 
UK, French, German, Spanish, 
Danish/Norwegian and Swedish/ 
Finnish) by internal switch changes. 
Associated Computer Industries, 
Inc., 17751 Sky Park East, Suite G, 
Irvine, CA 92714. (714) 557-0560. 

CIRCLE 254 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Z8 BASED CRT 

Micro Application Systems an- 
nounces miniMas 2, the second 
member of its Z8-based CRT family 
designed for large volume applica- 
tions. 




i Power Sui 
i>y Disk Interface, assembled & 1 
P/M* Disk Operating System, 
raroell BASIC. 

• All Cables and Connectors. 

• Complete User Documentation. 

• Fully Factory Assembled and Tested. 

VDS-II Single Density SI 888 

V0S-IID Double Density $1999 



CP/M is a 



Apple Locker 

.accessories 





/ 9M> DOVIFN PLACE SUITE B 
CARSON. CA 9074* 

(*iil i»«n •mil !»;»< 
CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



138 



$169.95 

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND ORDERS CONTACT: 

7216 B00HE AVE. NORTH 
BROORLVN PARK, tlffi 55428 
PHONE: 1612) 535-5330 
MN UlatS 800/M2-3006 
NAT ValS 800/320-3072 

CIRCLE 218 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 





Standard hardware features in- 
clude: 12" CRT, 7 x 9 dot matrix in a 9 
x 13 field displaying all 128 ASCII 
codes, and 24 lines of 39 or 80 
characters. Numeric pad, cursor and 
editing function keys, and reset key to 
terminate undesired action are also 
standard. 

Standard software features in- 
clude: page or scoll mode, transmit 
line or page unprotected only or all 
data with space suppression, new line 
mode, remote keyboard lock/unlock, 
erase from cursor to end of line or 
screen, and protected field mode in 
conjunction with any combination of 
attributes. List price is $888 with one 
page of memory and $959 with two 
pages of memory. 

Micro Application Systems, Inc., 
5575 North County Road 18, Minne- 
apolis, MN 55442. (612) 559-0320. 



BLACK AND WHITE MONITOR 

Leedex Corporation has an- 
nounced a 12" black and white 
monitor, the Video 100-80. 

The removable face plate pro- 
vides mounting space for a mini 
floppy disk, and there is space inside 
the cabinet for an 1 1" x 14" PC board 
for custom designed controller elec- 
tronics. 

The 90° deflection picture tube 
allows an 80-character by 24-line 
display, and the 12 MHz band width 
provides crisp, well-defined char- 
acters. 

It features plug-in compatibility 
with Apple, Atari, Radio Shack, 
O.S.I., Microterm, and Exidy. $199. 

Leedex Corporation, 2300 East 
Higgins Rd., Elk Grove Village, IL 
60007.(312)364-1180. 

CIRCLE 255 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SMART CRT TERMINALS 

TeleVideo, Inc. has introduced 
four smart, microprocessor-con- 
trolled CRT terminals, the 91 2B and 
912C and the 920B and 920C. 

Included as standard in all 
models are: upper and lower case, a 
printer/extension port, an imbedded 
numeric pad, remote computer con- 
trol, selectable transmission rates 
from 75-9600 baud, and a host of 
editing and special functions. A serial 
RS-232C communications interface 
and 20 raA current loop are also 
standard features. 

The terminals' non-glare, 12-inch 
diagonal CRT screens provide 12x10 
dot matrix resolution and dual in- 
tensity for 1920 characters. A full 96- 
character ASCII set is displayed, in a 
24-line by 80-characters/line format. 
Prices range from $875 to $1030. 

TeleVideo, Inc., 3190 Coronado 
Dr., Santa Clara, CA 95051. (408) 246- 
5428. 

CIRCLE 256 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Salesmen, Canvassers 
and Implement Dealers 










fm.rmml-m- /. "^T""" J 


Lorfo 


- '^■■■kj "* 






Profit* 


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Entire 

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Strictly 

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2tttO «.«l--\Mi.W\ GO. - Peru. Ind. 



MICRO 
BEEF 

ADDS SOUND 
TO YOUR 

TRS-80"! 

MAKES GAMES MORE INTERESTING 



BEEPS ON ERRORS • AT END OF A SORT • AFTER PRINTING • WHENEVER YOU WANT! 



SIMPLE HOOK UP Ju.l plug "mot. £AS(Ly CONTROLLED FROM BASIC: °"I ?£ * ' °" 
lack from cawatta into unit OUT 266.0 - OF F 



24 HOUR HOTLINE • VISA OR MASTER CHARGE • COD • B02-M2 3 



PLEASE SEND . 



.MICRO BEEPS 



•M 96 Ei Plut S2 60 (Pat Ordarl - Po«ag> & Handing 

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nCMck [iMonayOrdar o VISA ; MC nCOD 

IS3 50a.tr.) 
Account Nn 
Eapiration Data __^_^_^^^^^^___ 



Citv . 



WORKS ON ANY MODEL ONE TRS80 



ajiUJU'JLS 



jjj>a uoapa 



-j? jj»aj>n, «m aov4jj> 



CIRCLE 193 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



STOP PLAYING GAMES 



TRS-80 (Level 
PET 
APPLE 
OTHERS 



> ^f^ 



S odds on HORSE RACES with ANY COMPUTER 
using iAjrC 

■ SCIENTIFICALLY DERIVED SYSTEM relay works Tins 
system wis wt men and used by computer opens and is 
now being made available to Home computer owners Tins 
method is based on storing data from a large number of 
races on a rogh speed Urge scale computer 23 factors 

taken from the Deny Racing Form were then analyzed by me computer to see how they n< 
iiuenced race results From these ?3 lectors ten were found to be the most vital in determmmg 
winners NUMERICAL PROBABILITIES of each of these 10 factors were then computed and this 
lorms the basis of this REVOLUTIONARY NEW PROGRAM 

■ SIMPLE TO USE Obtain Darfy Racing Form the flay before the races and answer me 10 ques 
Inns about each horse Run the program and your computer will prim out the odds for all horses m 
each race COMPUTER POWER gives you me advantage 1 

■ YOU GET t) TRS 80 (Level II) Cassette 

2) Listing of BASIC program lor use with any computer 

3) instructions on how to get the needed data Iron the Oarty Racing Form' 

4) Tips on using the odds generated by the program 

5) Sample form to sanpfrty entering data tor each race 

MAIL COUPON OR CALL TODAY - 

3G COMPANY, INC. DEPT. 

RT. 3, BOX 28A, GASTON, OR 97119 



(503) 357 



Yes. I want to use my computer for FUN and PROFIT 
al tit M each 

Enclosed is check or money order 



. programs 



Master Charge Visa 



Card No 



E«p date 



■JAVt 



A00RESS 
CITY 



STATE . 



ZIP 



START USING YOUR COMPUTER FOR 

FUN and PROFIT! 



CIRCLE 207 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1980 



139 



■■■ 



Applications 
Software 

RECREATIONAL, GAMES 

Five Stones Software announces 
a Gomoku program for North Star 
Horizon DOS and CP/M based 
systems. The program, written by the 
current North American champion, 
requires a minimum of 32K bytes of 
RAM and is available on 5 '4" diskette 
for $29.95. Five Stones Software, P.O. 
Box 1369, Station B, Ottawa, OT, 
Canada KIP 5R4. 

CIRCLE 257 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Four-part music is available 
for the Sorcerer with a combination 

Jiackage which includes machine 
anguage software to generate four 
voice waveforms, a music editor and 
hardware which plugs into the para- 
llel port via an RS-232 connector. $40. 
Howard Arrington, 9522 Linstock, 
Boise, ID 83704. (208) 377-1938. 

CIRCLE 258 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Cyborg Wars for 16K TRS-80 
Level II computers positions the 
players as rulers of a country in- 
habited by android subjects. $18. 
Strategem Cybernetics, 2 Washing- 
ton Square Village, New York, NY 
10012. 

CIRCLE 2S9 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Bask Cat 



A Cat acoustic modem lets your 
computer talk face to face with 
any other compatible computer 
or terminal within reach of your 
phone. It takes the data you type 
into your personal computer or 
terminal and sends it out over 
standard telephone lines. 
It's that simple. 

Talk to your office computer 
from home. Send or receive data 
from anywhere. Swap programs 
in Basic, Pascal, Fortran, Cobol 



or whatever — it doesn't matter 
to Cat. It's the accurate, reliable, 
affordable (only $189) modem 
that talks your 
language. 



tfi&U 




Hon 

Tie your computer into the world. 

Call for details 

(800) 423-5410 

In California (213) 996-5060 



Available at Hamilton/ Avnet. Kierulff Electronics. Byte Shops. Computerland. 

and your local computer store. 

Novation. Inc.. 18664 Oxnard Street. Tarzana. California 91356 



International Data Services an- 
nounces two graphics programs for 
the TRS-80 Level II. Microsketch 
III is a "graphics drawing/auto- 
matic pattern drawing/graphic 
string creation/big print/automatic 
circle drawing program" which 
creates graphic screens which may be 
saved in memory, on tape, on disk or 
incorporated into other programs. 
$7.95. Freakout produces keyboard 
generated "farout" graphics and 
sound when the user presses the keys. 
$3.95. International Data Services, 
340 West 55th St., New York, NY 
10019. (212) 765-8610. 

CIRCLE 260 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PERSONAL 

Pro-Gress is a program which 
enables the user to do multiple 
regression analysis on Commo- 
dore's PET/CBM machines. It is 
written in Basic with special con- 
sideration given to running time. 
Cassette, $45; Diskette, $50. Cogni- 
tive Products, P.O. Box 2592, Chapel 
Hill, NC 27514. 

CIRCLE 261 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Stock Tracker is a program 
which analyzes supply and demand 
factors on individual securities — 
stocks, options and commodities — 
and advises the user when to buy and 
sell. Disk Basic versions are available 
for the TRS-80 and Apple II or Apple 
II Plus and require 32K RAM. $150. 
H & H Trading Company, P.O. Box 
23546, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523. (415) 
937-1030. 

CIRCLE 262 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Income Property Cashflow/ 
Leverage Analysis Program 
analyzes the effects of insurance, 
property taxes, utility expenses, 
interest payments, closing costs and 
debt service on the total amount of 
cash necessary for purchase of in- 
come property, as well as the total 
monthly payment. It also calculates 
the return on investment and the 
actual leverage achieved based on a 
user estimated annual appreciation 
rate. Cassette, $30; diskette, $35. 
Realty Software Company, 2045 
Manhattan Ave., Hermosa Beach, 
CA 90254. (213) 372-9419. 

CIRCLE 263 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Sat Trak International an- 
nounces three programs that enable a 
TRS-80, Apple or Sorcerer user to find 
the geographical location of a satel- 
lite, locate it in space in relation to his 
location anywhere on earth and 
update its orbital parameters based 
on a visual or radio observation. 
Prices range from $20 to $65. Sat Trak 
International, c/o Computerland of 
Colorado Springs, 4543 Templeton 
Gap Rd., Colorado Springs, CO 
80909. 

CIRCLE 264 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 171 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



140 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






WORD PROCESSING 

A new version of EasyWriter 
enables the user to create, review, and 
revise documents on an 80-column 
upper and lower case Apple II video 
display. Two additional modules are 
available to complement the system: 
Easy Mailer is a form letter module 
which automatically inserts infor- 
mation from a name and address file 
into an EasyWriter text file; 
EasyMover transmits text across 
common telephone lines to any other 
Apple computer. Information Un- 
limited Software, 793 Vincente St., 
Berkeley, CA 94707. (415) 525-4046. 

CIRCLE 265 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

WordMagic II is a word proc- 
essor designed specifically for the 
TRS-80 Model II. Features include 
TRS file compatibility, full cursor 
control and edit capability, paging, 
printing and automatic page number 
insertion. $100. CalData Systems, 
P.O. Box 178446, San Diego, CA 
92117. 

CIRCLE 2660N READER SERVICE CARD 

Computer Bugs announces a 
Text Editor designed to allow the 
TRS-80 Model II to be used as a word 
processor. It requires a 64K system 
with one disk drive. $39.00. Computer 
Bugs, P.O. Box 789, Boynton Beach, 
FL 33435. (305) 737-4738. 

CIRCLE 267 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Small Business Systems Group 
announces the Deluxe Personal Fi- 
nance Package for use on 32K TRS- 
80 Level II computers with two disks. 
Among other things, the program 
will support up to 900 transactions 
per year in 33 different budget 
categories, maintain a checking 
account balance, estimate average 
monthly expenses and provide up to 
ten savings account summaries. 
Small Business Systems Group, 
Corner Main St. and Lowell Rd., 
Dunstable, MA 01827. (617)649-9595. 

CIRCLE 268 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Basic to Electric Pencil File 
Conversion for the TRS-80 Level II 
converts any Basic program or data 
file to an Electric Pencil file auto- 
matically. It will run under any 
version of TRSDOS or NEWDOS. 
$3.95. International Data Services 
340 West 55th St., New York, NY 
10019. (215) 765-8610. 

CIRCLE 269 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

EDUCATIONAL 

An educator in San Diego has 
developed reading, language arts 
and math programs for the TRS-80. 
The programs are designed for use by 
students in grades one to six. $9.50 
and up. Educational Programs, Dis- 
ney Electronics, 6153 Fairmount 
Ave., San Diego, CA 92120. 

CIRCLE 270 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



BUSINESS 

An Inventory Program for48K 
Apple II or Apple II Plus includes the 
following inventory categories: stock 
number, description, vendor ID, 
class, location, reorder point, reorder 
quantity, cost, selling price, number 
on order, order date and quantity on 
hand. All reports may be entered, 
changed, updated, deleted or viewed. 
The program is menu-driven and 
requires two disk drives. $140. Soft- 
ware Technology for Computers, P.O. 
Box 428, Belmont, MA 02178. 

CIRCLE 271 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Systems 
Software 



LANGUAGES 

Microsoft announces TRSDOS- 
compatible versions of their Cobol 
and Basic compilers for the TRS-80 
Model II. Both compilers provide 
complete facilities for commercial or 
in-house software development, in- 
cluding Microsoft's standard macro 
assembler and linking loader. Basic 
compiler, $395; Cobol-80 compiler, 
$750. Microsoft, 10800 NE Eighth 
Suite 819, Bellevue, WA 98004. (206) 
455-8080. 

CIRCLE 272 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




10% 

DISCOUNT 

Off 

List 

64 K 1 Drive 
$3499.00 



AUTHORIZED 

Radio /haed 



OIALEBA301 



COMPUTER SPECIALISTS 



Popular 16K Level 1 1 System $ 722.00 

26-1145 RS 232 Board 84.00 

26-1140 "O" K Interface 254.00 

26-1 160 Mini Disk 424.00 

26-1171 Telephone Modem 169.00 

Fast 100 CPS Centronics 730 Printer 750.00 

Hiqhly Reliable Lobo5'4" Drives 375.00 

Versatile Lobo interface, 8" Drives 

and IMI Hard Drives Call For Prices 




15% 

DISCOUNT 

Off 

List 

4K Level II 
S527.00 



No Taxes on Out Of 
State Shipments 

Inn ediale Shipment 
From Stock. 



APRIL 1980 



MICRO MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, INC. 

DOWNTOWN PLAZA SHOPPING CENTER 

115CSECONDAVE.S.W. 

CAIRO, GEORGIA31728 

912-377-7120 



141 



Full Factory Warranty 
on All Items Sold. 

VISA, Master Charge 
and COD's, Add 3 

CIRCLE 163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Nevada Cobol compiler for 
CP/M based systems is designed 
specifically for small businesses 
using microprocessors. $99.95. Ellis 
Computing, 1480 17th Ave., San 
Francisco, CA 94122. (415) 664-1534. 

CIRCLE 273 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

A multi-user Cobol, designed 
to run on Chieftain small business 
systems, is available from Smoke 
Signal Broadcasting. Running under 
BOS (Business Operating System), it 
controls all aspects of program 
development, from initial input of 
source programs through compila- 
tion ana testing to the operation of a 
complete business system. $1700. 
Smoke Signal Broadcasting, 31336 
Via Colinas, Westlake Village, CA 
91361. 

CIRCLE 274 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

A Model I TRS-80 Fortran 
software package makes it possible 
for the experienced Fortran program- 
mer to write, compile and execute 
Fortran programs. The package 
includes a Fortran user's manual, 
compiler, Fortran-80 and Link-80 
reference manuals, Edit-80 user's 



manual, and a Fortran subroutine 
library. It requires a Level II TRS-80 
with 16K RAM, expansion interface 
with 16K RAM, ana at least one disk 
drive. $99.95. Available from par- 
ticipating Radio Shack Computer 
Centers, stores and dealers. 

Symbolic/Structured Basic 

for 8-32K PET computers is a pre- 
compiler said to enhance the PET's 
basic monitor with the addition of 
extra control statements. S-Basic 
includes an editor, translator/pre- 
compiler and the S-Basic Loader. 
$35.95. Softside Software, 305 River- 
side Dr., New York, NY 10025. 

CIRCLE 275 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

APL80, an adaptation of APL to 
the TRS-80, is now available. The 32K 
disk version includes four work- 
spaces containing lessons on APL for 
the beginner ana the book APL: An 
Interactive Approach. $49.95. A 
16K Level II cassette version is 
available without the lessons or the 
book. $14.95. The Software Ex- 
change, 6 South St., Box 68, Milford, 
NH 03055. (800) 258-1790. 

CIRCLE 276 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




DATA BASE SYSTEMS 

Analysis Pad from the Bottom 
Shelf is a columnar calculator which 
enables the user to create a 30 x 40 
matrix for data entry. The program, 
which allows the user to create 
column and row labels, requires 48K. 
$49.50. The Bottom Shelf, Inc., P.O. 
Box 49104, Atlanta, GA 30359. (404) 
939-6031. 

CIRCLE 277 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The String/80 Bit is a collection 
of string and file handling routines 
specifically designed to operate in the 
Z80/8080 CP/M environment. The 
relocatable routines, written in 
assembler language, utilize the 
Microsoft Fortran convention of 
register handling, and are available 
on 5 or 8-inch CP/M compatible soft 
sectored floppy disk. $95. Key Bits, 
Inc., P.O. Box 592293, Miami, FL 
33159. 

CIRCLE 278 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



FREE 



•lid purchase ol PET-CBM rlem ■ 



PET IM unp bytart $ 995 SIM ajjjjjjj. 
PET 121 lap lt|M9 $1295 1170 flX 
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kmm sih MMkiaiM symTs 

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fr. n i— ii Tutil - PET IM Wm 44.M 

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MONTH STApVhINIIR I UBC 
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THE SMARTEST 

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■—CIRCLE 107 ON READER SERVICE CARD— 1 




CIRCLE 103 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MICRO COMPOSER 

Designed by Hal Chamberlin 

'and MicroTechnology Unlimited 

for the folks at M.M.I, and You! 

Great Fun! The Micro Composer comes com- 
plete with an instruction manual, software disk 
or cassette — in either Integer or Applesoft 
ROM BASIC, and the MICRO MUSIC DAC 
music card Just plug the MICRO MUSIC DAC 
into the APPLE extension slot and connect the 
audio cable to a speaker, n mpufiii icehi 

• PUT IP Tl 4 SIMULTANEOUS VOICES! toon 

• EITEI MUSIC lint IT »F«T SIMPLE. *££». 
■EU-TESTEI COOIIC SYSTEM. 

• PIKMM TIE PITCH. IITTHM, III TIMIIE If TIE 
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• SMI TNI MUSIC II DISK II CMSETE. 

EACH NICE SOUIB CM IE CIMUI Tl IEEI. 
lltSS. STIMI II NUII 

COMPUTER CORNER ..VrMIS. 

«»*»» u IF «W JERSEY ,201,135-7080 

17444 •Am.EllaiteB^trWiriB^rwtoiA^teCowpiiM. lot 



CIRCLE 125 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



c APPLE ANALOG INPUT * 

Analog to Digital Conversion System for the APPLE Computer 



t-|U SYSTEMS J 



Civs vour APPLE computer the 
ability to measure and control the 
world around It with /jMAC SYSTEMS 
modules. Just plug the APSETl Into 
vour APPLE to get 16 channels of 
analog input. Screw terminals are 
provided for each channel so vou can 
hook up pots. Joysticks, thermometers. 
light prooes, or whatever appropriate 
sensors vou have. 

Each of the 16 analog inputs, in 
the range of (> to 5.12 volts. Is 
converted to a number between and 
255 (20 millivolts per count). 

Software is inc luded. 



•ti .«rit. KI Vuw * ■ mm* 

Dty 

<** I "IHM99 



^^ Tal 




APSETl 

I-AIM1S - HANALOCINTUTS « tlTS 100 MIC ROM C 

1-APMOO - APPlf TO^jMAC interface 

1-CAiLC At« - MlNCMINT<eCO«*NICTCABLI 

l HlNMQOI - MANIFOLD MODULE SCREW TERMINALS 

i >Mnw< ■oeiweuTi. rifirinci gro*jno 

i-eowi -POUtl MODULI 

A*«en« P». 110 VAC tZtft 
Af>SCT1« f«l »0 VAC t SOS 



CONNECTICUT microCOMPUTER, Inc. 

ISO POCONO ROAD 

BflOOK FIELD, CONNECTICUT 06(04 

TEL (203) 775-9659 TWX: 710-4560052 

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CIRCLE 136 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Micro Data Base Systems an- 
nounces a hierarchical (tree- 
structure) data base management 
system for Z-80, 6502 and 8080 based 
micro-computers. Written in machine 
language, the system includes com- 
mands to add, delete, update, search 
and traverse the data base. Z-80 
version, $250; 6502 and 8080 versions, 
$325. Micro Data Base Systems, Inc., 
P.O. Box 248, Lafayette, IN 47902. 
(317) 742-7388. 

CIRCLE 271 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IDM-M2, an interactive data 
manager for the TRS-80 Model II, 
features data base initialization, data 
base manipulation, report writer and 
report generator. Written in Basic, it 
requires 64K of memory. $199. Micro 
Architect, 96 Dothan St., Arlington, 
MA 02174. 

CIRCLE 280 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



UTILITIES AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Microproducts announces Ap- 
plebug, a programming aid and soft- 
ware debugging tool that assists in 



developing, debugging and testing 
machine language code on the Apple 
II. It will also facilitate tracing the 
logic of existing machine language 
programs such as the monitor, DOS 
ana Applesoft. $29.95 on diskette. 
Microproducts. 2107 Artesia Blvd. 
Redondo Beach, CA 90278. (213) 374- 
1673. 

CIRCLE 281 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple Data-Graph is a hi-res 
data-graphing program which plots 
line graphs, dot graphs and scatter 
plots. Up to three 40- point curves may 
be plotted on the same co-ordinates 
with X and Y axes dimensioned. 
Curves may be saved to disk and 
recalled for later use. The program 
requires a 32K Apple with Applesoft 
ROM and one disk drive. $35. Con- 
necticut Information Systems, Co., 
218 Huntington Rd., Bridgeport, CT 
06608. (203) 5794)472. 

CIRCLE 282 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Line Printer, which requires a 
32K TRS-80 with disk and Centronics 

grinter, is designed to upgrade any 
asic program that generates printed 



reports. It has the ability to set aside 
up to 16K of memory as buffer, 
enabling the computer to printout as 
a background task. $24.50. The 
Bottom Shelf, Inc., P.O. Box 49104, 
Atlanta, GA 30359. (404) 939-6031. 
CIRCLE 283 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Microsoft Consumer Products 
announces Editor/Assembler- 
Plus, an editing, assembling and 
debugging package for the TRS-80. 
Major new Assembler features in- 
clude the ability to assemble directly 
into memory, conditional assembly 
and macro facility. $29.95 on cassette. 
Microsoft Consumer Products, 10800 
NE Eighth, Suite 819, Bellevue, WA 
98004. (206) 454-1315. 

CIRCLE 284 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

AGENS, an assembly genera- 
tion system, allows the user to 
assemble machine language pro- 
grams for any of the popular 8 and 16- 
bit microcomputers. The system is 
available on 8-inch diskette for use on 
CP/M Z-80 computer systems. $170. 
RBB Software Products, P.O. Box 
2111, Yorba Linda, CA 92686. (714) 
637-5965. 




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CIRCLE 138 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



More than a Catalog 

Creative Publications' new full-color 
catalog is more than a great catalog of 
computer products selected for edu- 
cation. It's a magazine featuring arti- 
cles on educational computing and 
classroom activities. We made it a 
visually exciting introduction to the 
world of computers in learning. 
We're bringing it out twice a year to 
keep up with this changing field. 
And we'll send it to you if you drop 
us a line. 



Creative 

Publications, Inc. 
Computer Products 
Dept. IA 
P.O. Box 10328 
Palo Alto, CA 94303 




CIRCLE 139 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Introducing 




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P O. BOX F7 • TIWSVILLE. FL 32780 • 305-269-3211 
— CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE CARD — 




Stephen B. Gray 



More Basic Computer Games, edited by David H. 
Ahl. Creative Computing Press, Morristown, NJ. 195 
pages, paperback $7.50. 1979. 

Fulfilling the promise made in the microcomputer 
edition of "Basic Computer Games," that a second 
volume was coming, this game book contains "84 
Fabulous Games for Your Personal Computer," 
according to the cover, which adds, "All in Basic with 
program listing and sample run." 

As the introduction puts it, there are games here 
that teach resource management (such as Camel), let 
your children perfect their matching and memory skills 
(Concentration), navigate in a three-dimensional 
universe (Maneuvers), start your whole life over again 
(Millionaire), or let your kids "argue with the computer 
— instead of you — if they want to stay out late on 
Saturday night" (Father). 

If you read Creative Computing religiously, 
many of these games may look familiar, because 34 of 
them first appeared in the magazine. The 34 include 
Artillery 3, Bible Quiz, Blackbox, Bocce, Condot, 
Deepspace, Geowar, ICBM, Mastermind, Motorcycle 
Jump, Nomad, Roadrace, Rotate, Schmoo, Seawar, 
Twonky, UFO and Wumpus. 

Even if you have all the back issues of Creative, the 
book still contains 51 programs you may not have seen 
before, including Baccarat, Big 6 (carnival betting 
wheel), Bombrun, Camel (hazardous trek across the 
desert), Chuck-A-Luck, Close Encounters (avoid the 
UFO or destroy it), Concentration, Convoy (naval war 
game), Corral (tame a wild horse), Eliza (the psychia- 
trist), Grand Prix, Joust (with a knight), Man-Eating 
Rabbit, Millionaire, Minotaur, Pinball, Shoot (last two 
survivors of total atomic war), Smash (one-lap jalopy 
race), Tennis and Warfish (submarine game). 

Although nearly all the programs here are for 
interactive games, a few are not, such as Inkblot 
(randomly generated Rorschach designs), Lissajous, 
Pasart (patterns based on Pascal's triangle), Scales 
(generates 11 types of musical scales starting at a 
chosen note) and Ticker Tape. 

The games are all in Microsoft Basic. Two pages on 
Basic are provided, along with details on how to convert 
the games to other Basics. 

Some of the games in this second volume are 
available on tape cassette and floppy disk from 
Creative, either from your local computer store or 
directly from Creative Computing. 

The many illustrations by George Beker, mostly of 
robots, are highly imaginative and Fascinating in their 
own right. 

The 84 games here will keep you busy and intrigued 
for many, many months, as well as develop your 
imagination, memory and reflexes. 

What's missing from this volume is the "Contents 
by Game Category ' that was in the first book, which 
listed the games under categories such as educational, 
matrix manipulation, logic, space, sports simulation, 
combat, etc. Regardless, this book is an absolute must 
for anybody who calls himself a computer gamesraan. 
And at 9* a game, the price is right! 



144 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 









Z80 Assembly Language Programming, by Lance 
A. Leventhal. Osborne & Associates Inc., Berkeley, CA. 
642 pages, paperback $9.50. 1979. 

This is the fourth in Dr. Leventhal's series on 
microcomputer assembly languages, written in his 
usual detailed, expert style. 

The book includes features such as over 80 
programming examples, all problem solutions in source 
code and object code, comparisons of Z80 - 8080 A/8085 
instruction sets, full explanation of each Z80 instruc- 
tion, how to program the Z80 interrupt system and Z80 
input/output devices, and interfacing methods. 

After a short introductory chapter, Leventhal 
jumps right into a chapter on assemblers that has a 
great deal of what, but very little why for the neophyte. 
A reader with experience in assemblers should have 
little or no trouble with this book, but a beginner will 
find it tough going unless he's quite bright, highly 
motivated and makes sure he understands every 
sentence before going on to the next. 

Subsequent chapters are on the Z80 Assembly- 
Language Instruction Set, Simple Programs, Simple 
Program Loops, Character-Coded Data, Code Conver- 
sion, Arithmetic Problems, Tables and Lists, Sub- 
routines, Input/Output, Interrupts, Problem Definition 
and Program Design, Debugging and Testing, Docu- 
mentation and Redesign, and Sample Projects (digital 
stopwatch, digital thermometer). 

There may never be a better book on the Z80 
assembler than this one, but only a fantastically 
dedicated beginner, or a professional, will get beyond 
the middle of the third chapter. This book separates the 
men from the boys, the really serious programmers from 
the tinkerers. 



Whyls fo^CJ lSoGood? 

Maybe it's because we've always had high standards. 
Beginning with our first issue in July. 1978. we've published 
some 80 programs in our first 16 issues. Plus 16 animated 
graphic "Front Cover" programs. That's a lot of programs, a 
lot of code. Each program has been extensively edited by 
Glen Fisher, our Editorial Director. The result is obvious: 
Cursor programs reflect professional standards. We're proud 
of every program we publish 

But there's something else. too. 

It's imagination. Our subscribers continue to be delighted 
with the new. fresh programming ideas that Cursor provides. 
Some of the best graphic animations for the Pet have 
appeared in Cursor. Teachers love us! They use Cursor as an 
example of what can be done on a Pet. with some skill and 
imagination. 

Finally, there's service. Orders for single issues are 
almost always shipped within 24 hours. New subscriptions are 
processed within five working days. Should you get one of our 
rare defective tapes, just return it for an immediate 
replacement. And of course you can cancel your subscription 
at any time and we'll gladly refund all remaining issues. 

Cursor: Quality. Imagination Service 

For only $3.95 you can buy a sample issue and judge for 
yourself. Or send $20 for a six-issue subscription. You'll get 
six C-30 cassettes, each with five programs and a Front Cover 
ready to LOAD and RUN. With each issue you also get our 
Cursor NOTES, a lively commentary on the industry, as well 
as documentation for the programs. 



□ Sample issue of Cursor 
D 6 issues for $20.00 (U.S. 



- $3 95 (CA Res. add 6% tax) 
& Canada) 



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A Beginner's Guide to Computers & Micro- 
processors — with projects, by Charles K. Adams. 
Tab books. Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214. 303 pages, 
paperback $6.95. 1978. 

Here's one more book explaining computers to 
beginners. One pleasant difference from many of the 
others is that Adams writes well, and makes many 
complex things quite understandable. 

On the other hand, he doesn't write enough about 
many things. For example, a NAND gate is described in 
two short sentences, very clear but not enough to tell you 
what a NAND gate does. So the 1/3-page drawing, and 
the two sentences, like many others in this book, are 
wasted because they raise more questions than they 
answer. 

Chapter 4, on Microprocessor Architecture, uses 
seven full pages on block diagrams of CPUs such as the 
8080, 4040 and 8008, mainly filler material because 
these diagrams aren't discussed much in detail. 

The book has two introductory chapters, four on 
hardware, two on software, one on systems and three 
on Building a Simple System. These last three comprise 
the "projects" in the book's title. Eighty pages are used 
to tell you how to build an 8080A-based system with 256 
bytes of RAM, 512 of EPROM, a 16-button keyboard for 
data entry, a 10-button keyboard for program control, 
etc. Is anybody really interested in building such a 
system from a book? Especially one that has no 
photographs or diagrams snowing you how to lay out 
the boards or the front panel, other than one drawing, of 
the "CPU parts layout." 

The book does have some good portions, but is 
hampered by using only assembly language through- 
out (the words Basic and Fortran don't appear 
anywhere), being too skimpy in too many places, and 
spending 80 pages on a system that not one reader in a 
thousand will build. 



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CIRCLE 1 15 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1980 



145 






COMPUTERWARE 

means 

BUSINESS 

Our 6800/6809 software is doing the job for: 

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•a California Bookkeeping Service »a Southern Church Administration 
•an Electronic* Manufacturing Firm *a Florida Physician 
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Write, call, or come see us at work! 



PHYSICIANS TRS-00 
BOBWHITE MEDICAL SOFTWARE (C) Is offering a number of 
programs designed to get your TRS-80'started being useful In 
your office right now. 

You do not have to spend the many hours initializing patient 
accounts to disc, or even finding the space to do this on discs. 
You can start right out doing highly useful and important tasks 
on your computer, in your office, with a minimum of prepara- 
tion and start up time. 

Programs range from a "Business System" which handles all 
of your daily financial figures each day and keeps track of all 
totals, gives you up to the minute accounts receivables, dis- 
plays trends, allows you to provide yourself with daily printed 
financial totals, and a month end report, to an insurance form 
writing capability which actually makes filling out insurance 
forms "Fun". 

The operation of the program(s) offers no difficulty to the 
novice computer operator, provides full error trapping, allows 
you to review and/or change entries even after the fact. And for 
utter ease of correcting what has just been entered there is a 
display of what it was on the screen. For visual delight the pro- 
gram gives you a histographic (computerese for a graph) repre- 
sentation of your daily financial totals. All programs have been 
debugged by virtue of many months of actual dally use in an 
active office practice. 

Programs will run with either NEWDOS or TRSDOS but you 
must specify which DOS you are using or prefer to have the 
program run with (the NEWDOS — open "E" — makes the 
programming more versatile). 

Requires 48K RAM and two disc drives 

At $390 for the whole package vou can't afford to be without It. 

WRITE OR CALL FOR A FREE CATALOO 

For further information write: 

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P.O. Box 742, La Canada Flintrldge, CA 91011 • (213) 700-0383 

•TRS-80 Is a registered trademark at the Tandy Corp. 

CIRCLE 113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Problems For Computer Solution: Student Edi- 
tion, by Stephen J. Rogowski. Creative Computing 
Press, Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. 109 pages, 
paperback $4.95. 1979. 

If this title is familiar to you, maybe that's because 
at least three books have been published using it, the 
best known being the one written by Gruenberger and 
Jaffray some years ago. Also, you may have seen the 
Rogowski book in its previous incarnation, published 
by Educomp Corp. in 1975. Educomp changed its name 
to Quodata, started marketing computer systems to 
municipal governments instead of to schools, and got 
out of publishing. 

The book gives 90 problems for you to solve with a 
computer, divided into eleven categories: arithmetic, 
algebra, geometry, trig, number theory, probability, 
statistics, calculus, science, general and "unsolved." 

Some of the problems are simple, such as figuring 
out the interest on the $24 the Indians are said to have 
sold Manhattan to the Dutch for. Or generating your 
own log tables. Some are not so easy, such as converting 
rational numbers to continued fractions, or finding self- 
generating integers. A couple have never been solved. 

This is a fine book, with clear and concise writing, if 
you like the challenge of solving problems with 
computer programs. Even if some of the problems may 
not turn you on, the variety provided here should give 
you enough others to keep vou busy for months, if not 
years. References are provided if you need to learn more 
about the problems. 

A Teacher's Edition is also available, at $9.95, with 
problem solutions, a program that produces each 
solution, an analysis of each program and, occasion- 
ally, suggestions for further reading or research. 



^Jm-JmJmJ-mJmJ* 




^m$m£«**«~»*«-»3m$m£<m$i 



Best of Interface Age: Volume 1: Software in 
Basic, edited by Carl D. Warren. Dilithium Press, 
Portland, OR. 314 pages, paperback $12.95. 1979. 

The title is misleading. Although this book is about 
four well-known Basic interpreters, they are all in 
assembly language. So this book is for hard-core 
assembler fans, or for anybody intending to really dig 
into what makes Basic tick, rather than for somebody 
looking for a collection of programs written in Basic. 

The entire book is taken up with the four 
interpreters: Lawrence Livermore 8080 Basic; Li-Chen 
Wang's Palo Alto TINY Basic; National's TINY Basic- 
NIBL; and "The Great Experiment — Floppy ROM #1," 
Robert Uiterwyk's 6800 4K Basic. 

The two appendices may well be unique in books on 
personal computing: the first is a "comprehensive index 
of general-purpose software printed in Interface Age 
since January 1977," and the second is a "list of all the 
back issues that are still available, and how to obtain 
them." Tch-tch. 

The preface, by Carl Warren, who was editor-in- 
chief of Interface Age at the time of publication, and 
who, at this writing, is the West Coast editor for EDN 
magazine, notes that more volumes of the "Best of 
Interface Age" are forthcoming, one on general-purpose 
software, two for the "small businessman" (5'5" and 
under?), and one that "contains those articles for the 
futuristic thinker and gadgeteer." 

The preface also says that the four reprinted 
articles in this book "provide the reader with some of the 
most useful software ever created." Useful now for 
study, and for that purpose highly welcome by the small 
fraternity of assemolerniks. But surely not intended for 
direct use on your computer or mine . . . 



146 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Introduction to T-BUG, by Don Inman and Kurt 
Inman. Dilithium Press, Portland, OR 97210. 125 pages, 
paperback $6.95. 1979. 

The back coyer says this is "the only book to 
describe in detail the machine-language monitor 
operations of the popular Radio Shack TRS-80 
computer." It also says that "Kurt Inman is Don's 15- 
year-old son and an author in his own right." 

As with every other publication involving machine- 
language monitors, this one doesn't say a word about 
why a TRS-80 owner should be interested in T-BUG. The 
authors apparently assume that if you buy the book, 
you're interested. 

The book is based on seven "problems," meaning 
the authors tell you how, in detail, to perform seven 
specific tasks with T-BUG. These tasks are: display 
keyboard input, display data from memory, save and 
run programs on cassette, write a number-guessing 
game, create graphics with the 63 graphics characters, 
use graphics to enhance a computer game (Nim) and 
debug with T-BUG. 

This is obviously only for the really serious 

grogrammer with an interest in learning more about T- 
iUG than available in the Radio Shack publications. 
The major value of this book is that it shows, in 
great detail, how to do something, rather than just tell 
what T-BUG consists of and how to use it. If you go 
through this book conscientiously, using it with your 
TRS-80 rather than just reading it, you'll probably learn 
all you want to know about T-BUG. 



Problems For Computer Solution, by Donald D. 
Spencer. Hayden Book Company, Inc., Rochelle Park, 
NJ. 122 pages, paperback $5.95. Second edition, 1979. 

This is Hayden's edition of the same book originally 
published in 1977 by the author's own Camelot 
Publishing Company. 

According to the back cover, this book is "intended 
for teachers and students who want more diverse 
problems than those offered in programming-language 
textbooks." 

Just like the Rogowski book of the same title, also 
reviewed in this issue, Spencer's book presents 
problems in eleven categories: introductory problems 
(75 of them); algebra (127); geometry ( 1 04 ); trigonometry 
(34); probability and statistics (90); intermediate 
mathematics (118); number theory (86); science, 
chemistry and physics (38); business (64); fun and 
games with the computer (45); and "a smorgasbord of 
problems" (40). 

That's a total of 821 problems, which works out to 
about seven-tenths of a penny per problem, compared 
with 5.5 cents a problem in Rogowski's book. 

The big difference is that each problem is given a 
full page in the Rogowski book, whereas Spencer 

§rovides up to 10 or 12 problems per page. Most of 
pencer's problems are quite short, such as "Find the 
greatest common factor of a given set of three 
numbers," or "Convert Roman numerals to Arabic" or 
"Write a program that generates random four-word 
sentences. ' Several are a third to half a page long, 
because they include details on such complex things as 
a "wheel of fortune" game, or the "sailors and coconuts" 
puzzle, or the drunk's random-walk problem. Within 
each chapter, the problems are said to be arranged in 
order of difficulty. 

All in all, this is quite a bargain for the problem- 
hungry, with a large number of problems tbat should 
keep you in close contact with your computer for a very 
long time. Even if you work on only one out of every ten 
problems, you'll learn a great deal about computers and 
problem-solving if you can work them all out, or at least 
make a good try. 




TEACHERS •STUDENTS 
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Convert your APPLE into a TEACHING MACHINE! 

This self-explanatory program allows you to create and 
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computer-programming knowledge. 

Written by a licensed psychologist, the program includes 
random question presentation, reinforcement of correct 
answers with a display of the student's name, immediate 
right-answer feedback after incorrect responses, a color 
congratulations display at the end, and a final score summary. 

Guided instructions are easy to understand and follow, 
even the first time around. Pupils can work independently, 
selecting the appropriate quiz and running it with little or 
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Requires 32K APPLE II With Applesoft (Rom or Ram) 

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147 









for Radio Shack 
computers 

• SUPER DISC 

- 70 PROGRAMS $13.95 

• BUSINESS 

• FINANCE 

• MATH/STATISTICS 

• GAMES 

r 14 PAGE CATALOG 
Writ* to Elliot Kleiman 
National Software Marketing 
4701 McKinley Street 
Hollywood. Florida 33021 

CIRCLE 169 ON READER SERVICE CARO 



UouareoorcCialUj ivunxaatoaxtvnd 
xkt first JntirnazionaL Confirmee on 

ROBOTIC FUTURES: 

Towards a, Crmtivi Human/ 
tAadtine ftdatijonsnif-wifn 

ISAAC AS I AAOV 

Aj>riC26j980 9'O0am-5-00jmi 
fyryaJskruCUniversitij 
brookfan Campus 
sponsored by- 
THEWORLDFl/rUf?E 

soa Fry 

sptciatquestr. 
KLATUtfo, ro&ot 

This conlerence brings together leading scientists futurist: 
humanists, future-oriented "think-tank institutes and cor- 
porations—all to undertake a comprehensive view ot the rela 
tionship now developing between man and machine 

Isaac Asimov is |Oined by other futurists such as Andrew 
Beer, author of Genesis Continued Moshe D.ividowilz. 
former President. New York Chapter World Futures Society; 
W B Gevarter Chief of Robotics and Artificial Intelhqence. 
NASA; Leigh F Wright. Conterence Director — as well as 
representatives from Bell Labs. IBM. New York Center (or 
World Games Studies. Robotics Futures Institute Turtle Bay 
Institute, among others 

Demonstrations (including robots), exhibitions lectures and 
workshops (mclud'ng The Domestic Robot". Rotots in 
Classrooms'. "Startrek s Robot's Revisted". et al ) All day 
tuition $45; optional $5 luncheon, and special Young People's 
Mini-Conlerence $20. or $10 for half a day Make check 
payable to "Long Island University" and indicate what por- 
tions ol the Program payment is to cover 

The Institute tor Continuing Education (212) 834-6020. 

LIU Brooklyn Center 

University Plaza Brooklyn. N Y 11201 




@ 



Introduction to Low-Resolution Graphics, by Nat 
Wadsworth. Scelbi Publications, 20 Hurlbut St., 
Elmwood, CT 06110. 80 pages, paperback $9.95. 1979. 

Subtitled "How to draw lines, create shapes, 
animate figures, prepare charts for business or 
pleasure," this paperback combines some introductory 
material on graphics with advanced programs that are 
presented without derivation or much of an exploration. 

The first 28 pages are good, with chapters on 
Getting Started (the display grid; turning points on with 
the Apple II, PET and TRS-80), Math (determining 
offsets in the three systems). Drawing Simple Shapes 
(triangles) and Drawing Lines (and circles). 

Chapter 5, A Graphics Library, includes over seven 
pages of Apple II subroutines that draw pictures of 
playing cards, for a card game. This is too much for a 
beginner's book, which should be much simpler, unless 
the reader is content with simply using subroutines 
right out of the book. 

The same chapter presents a four-page Apple II 
program that draws a clown figure, with a mouth that 
opens and closes, an eye that winks, a hand that points 
nght or left. Clever, but very little is given to help you 
understand how this program works. Also clever: how 
to add sound to the clown display. 

The last 17 pages of the book are devoted to an 
animated game of football, with a listing for the Apple 
II (the author offers a coupon good for a free listing of 
the football game for the TRS-80 Level II or Commodore 
PET). 

The programs for playing cards, clown and football 
are indeed interesting, but the book would be of much 
greater value if it stuck to the simpler side of graphics, 
and showed in detail, for instance, how to animate just 
one football player, instead of a whole team. 

This is a book to buy once you've done some work in 
graphics, and are interested in advanced techniques. At 
this writing, this is only the second book available on 
personal computer graphics (see the review of Don 
Inman's "Introduction to TRS-80 Graphics" in the July 
1979 Creative , p 159). 

Several more books on graphics are on the way; let's 
hope they cover much more of the elements of graphics, 
instead of stopping at simple sinewaves, or getting too 
fast into advanced animation. 




The Code Book, by Michael E. Marotta. Loompanics 
Unlimited, P.O. Box 264, Mason, MI 48854. 76 pages, 
paperback, $6.95. 1979. 

This book is subtitled, "All About Unbreakable 
Codes and How to Use Them." It is described by the 
publisher as presenting "obscure secrets known only to 
international espionage agents and professional 
cryptographers — now revealed for you to use." Well, 
maybe. . 

The book is short (43 pages of text) and set in large 
type so it's the equivalent length of a long magazine 
article. Reading time is about a half hour. Appendix II 
includes 10 pages of random numbers, while Appendix I 
contains four short computer programs to add plaintext 
messages (A=l, B=2, etc.) to 5-digit random numbers. If 
you've read The Ultra Secret and any of Dover's 
cryptography books, you won't find anything new in 
this one. On the other hand, if you'd like a short 
summary of codes and cyphers with a dash of practical 
advice ("Remember that coding, program writing, 
verifying and obfuscating take up your own time") then 
you may find this book worthwhile. I didn't. — DHA 



148 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




The Best of 



BITE 



30% to 68% Discounts! 

During a recent move, we found 
several skids of "The Best of Byte" 
lurking in a corner. It won't be 
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book— and at a discount. The book 
contains most of the material from 
Byte Numbers 1 to 12. All of these 
issues are out of print and this is the 
only source of this vital material. 

The normal price of this huge, 
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Quantity 



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1 to 4 Cartons (26) $150.00/ctn 52% 

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(48 cartons— 1248 books) 

Free Shipping! 

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all prepaid dealer orders. That's like 
getting an extra 3% discount! 

Order today! Send payment to 
Creative Computing, P.O. Box 789- 
M, Morristown, NJ 07960. Visa, 
MasterCard or American Express is 
acceptable; send card number and 
expiration date. 






Table of Contents 



OMMM 

The Shadow Buck Rogers and the Home Compute* - 2 

QartJrw 

The State oi the Art Haimars 5 

Could a Computer Take Over — Rush t 

THEORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

A System* Approach to a Perioral 14 

Microprocessor — Suding 

Frankenstein Emulation — Murray 17 

Programming tor the Beginner — Hatman 22 

What is a Character - Pathka 27 

Friends. Humans, and Coontryrobots 30 

Lend me your Ears — Pica 

Magnetic Recording for Computer* — Manly 44 

COMPUTER KITS 

Assembling an Altair 8600 — Zarratla M 

Build a 6800 System With This Kit — Kay 59 

More jn the SWTPC 6600 System - Kay 64 

The New Affair 660 - Vice 66 

A Oate With KIM - Smtpton 72 

True Confession* How I Relate to KIM - Gupta 7ft 

Zilog 260 - Haatutumm SI 

The Digital Equipment LSI- 11 — Bakar 8ft 

Cromemco TV Duller 94 

HARDWARE 

Flip Flop* Exposed — Browning 96 

Recycling Used ICs - Afiftie'sen 102 

Powerless lC Test Clip — E n<co and Bakar 104 

Parana! Output interlace* m Memory 106 

Address Space — Hefmerj 

Son of Motorola - Fvlsfra 110 

Data Path* - Liming 117 

Build a TTL Pulse Catcher - We'd* 124 

Dressing Up Front Panel* — Wattart 125 

Deciphering Myttery Keyboard* — Hatmmt* 126 

A Quick Test of Keyboards - Wetter* 134 

Keyboard Modification — Macomfr 136 

Serialize Those Bits From Your 136 

Myttery Keyboard - Halt*' 

Build a Television Display — Garni 136 

The Ignorance ts Blisa Television Drive 144 

Circuit - B*tb—> 

Build a TV Readout Device lor Your 145 

Microprocessor — Sudtng 



Let There Be Light Pens — Loomit 
Build an Oscilloscope Graphics Interface - Hoganaon 
An Introduction to Addressing Method* — Zarratla 
interface an ASCII Keyboard to a 60mA 

TTV Loop - Cotton 
Interfacing the 60 mA Current Loop — King 
The Complete Tape Cassette Interface — Wernevtwev 
Digital Data on Cassette Recorders — Veuch 
Build a Fa*t Cassette interface — Suding 
Technology Update 

What * in a Video Display Terminal 7 - Wafers 
Pot Position Digitizing Idea - SchuUm 
Read Only Memories in Microcomputer Memory 

Address Space - ftcnoeuer 
More Information on PROMs — Smith 
Getting input from Joysticks and Slide Pots — Hefmera 
Logic Probes — Hardware Bug Chaser* — Burr 
Controlling External Devices With Hobbyist 

Computers — Boaan 
Microprocessor Based Analog/Digital Conversion — 

frank 
Add a Kluge Harp to Vour Computer — Hmtmars 
The T«me Has Come to Talk — Atmar 
Make Your Own Printed Circuit* - Hoganson 

torn* arc 

Write Your Own Assembler — fytatrm 

Simplify Your Homemade Assembler — Jawait 

interact With an ELM - Gab*a 

Design en On Line Debugger — w>er and Brown 

Processing Algebraic Expressions - Maun*/ 

The My Dear Aunt Sally Algorithm — Grappa! 

Can YOUR Computer Tell Time 7 — Hoganson 

A Plot Is Incomplete Without Characters — terser* 

Hexpawn A Beginning Protect m Artificial 

intelligence — Wiev 
Shoolmg Star* — N*eo 
Biorythm tor Computer* — Fo« 
Life Line — Htlmft 

APPLICATIONS 
Total Kitchen Information System — Leu 
A Smaii Business Accounting System — Lahman 
Chip* Found Floating Down Silicon Slough - Trumbull 



Books of Inleresi 
Magazines 



RESOURCES 



153 

156 
169 
174 

175 
177 
164 
190 
1B7 
196 
199 
200 

203 
210 
213 

216 



226 
23f 

236 



24« 
255 
261 
28ft 
275 
266 
294 
300 
309 

314 
322 
32ft 



372 
375 



now- call tollfree 
800-631-8112 

(in NJ call 201 540-0445) 
CHARGE YOUR ORDER 



creative 
competing 

P.O. Box 789-M 
Morristown, New Jersey 07960 



APRIL 1980 



149 






Raadar 


Index To Advertiser. 


* 


> 




Reader 








Service Advertiser 


Pag* 


Service Advertiser 


Page 


Service Advertiser 


Page 


101 A&DSoftware 


111 


145 


Electronic Book Club 


65 


186 


Radio Shack Sales Center 


131 


102 Aardvark Technical Services 


147 


216 


Exidy Data Systems 


112-113 


187 


Raygam 


51 


103 AB Computers 


142 


146 


Folio Books 


40-41 


188 


RCA 


31 


104 Acorn Software 


97 


147 


Galaxy 


127 


189 


Realty Software 


50 


* ALF Products 


P-3F 


148 


Heath 


Cover2 


190 


Reliance Plastics 


105 


105 Allen Gelder& Co. 


89 


149 


Inmac 


119 


• 


Robotic Futures Conference 


148 


106 Alpha Business Products 


89 


150 


Instant Software 


69 


193 


Simutek 109 


133,139 


1 07 American Square Computers 

4 /V^ * - - * - _ . * t 


142 


151 


Integral Data Systems 


16 


194 


Small Business Applications 


55 


108 Apple-cations 


147 


152 


Interactive Microware 


119 


221 


The Software Exchange 49, 94-95. 13 


110 ASAP Computer Products 

1 1 1 Automated Simulations 


99 
86 


153 
154 


Ithaca Intersystems 
Level IV 


99 
67 


195 

196 


The Software Factory 
STC 


127 
127 


112 Basics & Beyond 


131 


155 


The Leyland Co. 


61 


197 


The Software Works 


P-3E 


113 Bobwhite Medical Software 


146 


• 


Lifeboat Associates 


44-45,115 


198 


Soroc Technology 


15 


114 The Bottom Shelf 


5 


156 


Market line Systems 


115 


200 


Source Edp 


29 


115 CAP Electronics 


145 


157 


Market Text 


61 


201 


Spectrum Software 


123 


215 Cavri Systems 


109 


156 


Matchless Systems 


101 


203 


Sunshine Computers 


27 


116 Chas. Mann & Assoc. 


125 


219 


Mead-Hatcher 


81 


204 


Systems-Go 


117 


117 Cload Magazine 


I05, P-41 


159 


Micro- Ap 


59 


205 


Tarbell Electronics 


138 


118 TheCode 


125,145 


160 


Micro Architect 


143 


218 


Tele-terminals 


138 


109 Comet Computers 


P-2F 


161 


Micro Computer Technology 


115 


206 


Terminal Equipment 


105 


119 Complete Business Systems 


73 


162 


Micro Fantastic Programming 


93 


207 


3-GCo. 


101,139 


121 CompuServe (Micronet) 


35 


163 


Micro Management 


141 




Tiny-c 


10 


122 Compusoft Publishing 


75 


164 


Microsette 


133 


208 


Total Information Services 


101 


202 Computer Bismark 


43 


• 


Microsoft 


37 


209 


Trans- Net 


109 


124 ComputerCity 


68,71 


165 


Microsoft Consumer Products 


47 


211 


Ucatan Computer Store 


107 


125 Computer Corner/ NJ 


142 


166 


Microware Associates 


131 


212 


Univair Inc. 


107 


1 26 Computer Corner/White Rains 


143 


167 


Mini Business Systems 


143 


213 


U.S.Robotics 


107 


127 Computer Design Labs 


77 


168 


Mountain Hardware 


13 


214 


Wiley-lnterscience 


25 


* Computer Headware 


93 


169 


National Software Marketing 


148 








128 Computer Information Exchange 


P-07 


• 


NRI Schools 


33 








129 The Computer Shopper 


144 


170 


North Star Computers 


9 








130 Computersmiths 


68 


171 


Novations 


140 




Creative Computing 




131 Computer Specialties 


21 


172 


Ohio Scientific 


P-00 


300 


Adventure 


83 


132 The Computer Stop 


91,125 


173 


OK Machine & Tool 


11 


300 


Apple II Software 


79 


133 Computerware 


146 


174 


Omni Communications 


111 


* 


Back Issues 


102-103 


134 Computerworld 


125 


175 


Osborne/ McGraw Hill 


57 


• 


Best of Byte 


149 


135 Computhlnk 


19 


176 


Pacific Exchanges 


99 


300 


CP/M Software 


107 


137 Computronics 


85 


177 


Percom Data Co. 


7 


• 


Creative Computing Press . 


53 


136 Connecticut Microcomputer 119,142,143 


178 


Personal Software 


2 


300 


Educational Software 


120-121 


138 Cottage Software 


105 


179 


Pickles & Trout 


117 


* 


More Basic Computer Games 


P-27 


139 Creative Publications 


144 


180 


Prodata 


50 


300 


Space War/Super Invader 


23 


140 Cromemco 


1 


181 


Programma Int'l 


P-02 


• 


T-shirts 


117 


1 99 Discount Data Products 


127 


182 


The Program Store 


87 








141 Dynacomp 


123 


183 


Quality Software 


123, P-07 








142 Educational Computing 


63 


184 


Quest Electronics 


137 








143 Edu- ware Services 


97 


185 


RACET computes 


131 


'Direct Correspondence Requested. 




144 80-US Journal 


133 








"P"| 


sage numbers are in the parody section. 





"He's one of the greatest conductors 
of electricity!" 



By nightfall, your entire program will 
be a total disaster. 



fitirrvt- 

We may have taken this keyboard 
simplification thing one step too far. 



For over 100 computer and robot cartoons, get 
the Colossal Computer Cartoon Book, only $5.70 
postpaid from Creative Computing. P.O. Box 
789 M. Morristown. N.J. 07960. 



150 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 







CALIFORNIA 

D.E.S. Data Equipment Supply —8315 
Firestone Blvd, Downey 90241; (213) 
923-9363. 8AM-9PM 7 days. Complete 
computer facility— Commodore Pet 
dealer— "Solid Cold Software! special- 
ists. 

PC Computers— 10166 San Pablo Ave, 
El Cerrito 94530; (415) 527-6657. 9-5:30 
Mon-Sat. Commodore Pet, Compucolor 
and Atari. 



CONNECTICUT 

The Computer Store— 63 S. Main St, 
Windsor Locks 060%; (203) 627-0188. 
10-6 MTWF, 10-8 Thu, 10-4 Sat. 

Computerwords - 1439 Post Rd. East, 
Westport 06880; (203) 255-9096. 12-6 
Mon-Sat, 12-9 Thurs. 

GEORGIA 

Atlanta Computer Mart— 5091 Buford 
Hwy, Atlanta 30340; (404)455-0647. 
10-6 Mon-Sat. 



ILLINOIS 

ComputerLand/ Downers Grove— 136 

Ogden Ave, Downers Plaza 60515; (312) 
964-7762. 10-6 Mon-Sat, 10-8 Tue, Thu. 

Data Domain of Schaumburg— 1612 E. 
Algonquin Rd, Schaumburg 60195; 
(312) 397-8700. 12-9 Tue-Fri, 11-5 Sat. 
Largest book & magazine selection. 

Famsworth Computer Center— 1891 N. 
Farnsworth Ave, Aurora 60505; (312) 
851-3888 10-8 Mon-Fri, 10-5 Sat. Apple, 
Hewlett-Packard, Cromemco, HP cal- 
culators, IDS-440C printers. 



KENTUCKY 

ComputerLand of Louisville— 10414 
Shelbyville Rd, Louisville 40223; (502) 
245-8288. 10-5:30. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

NEECO— 679 Highland Ave, Needham 
02194; (617) 449-1760. 9-5:30 Mon-Fri. 
Commodore, Apple, Superbrain, TI99/4. 

Science Fantasy Bookstore— 18 Eliot St, 
Harvard Sq, Cambridge 02138;(617)547- 
5917. 11-5 Mon-Sat, 11-8 Thu. Apple 
Games: Shuttle-Adventure Invader. 



MICHIGAN 

Computer Mart— 560 West 14 Mile, 
Clawson 48017; (313)288-0040. The 
Midwest's largest computer store! (We 
will not be undersold!!) 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Computer Mart of New Hampshire— 

170 Main St, Nashua 03060; (603) 
883-2386. 10-5. Dental-medical com- 
puter specialists, Data General & Apple 
systems. 



NEW JERSEY 

Computernook - Rt. 46, Pine Brook 
Plaza, Pine Brook 07058; (201)575-9468. 
106:30 MTWS, 10-8 Thurs., Fri. Apple/ 
Commodore Authorized dealer. 



NEW YORK 

The Computer Comer Inc— 200 Hamil- 
ton Ave, White Plains 10601; (914)WHY 
DATA. 10-6 Mon-Sat, 10-9 Thu. 

OHIO 

The Basic Computer Shop— 2671 W. 
Market St, Akron 44313; (216) 867-0808 
106 Mon-Sat. 

Micro Mini Computer World, Inc. - 

74 Robinwood Ave., Columbus 43213; 
(614) 235-6058, 5138. 11-7 Tue.-Sat. 
Authorized commodore dealer - Sales/ 
Software/Service/Support. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Personal Computer Corp.— 24-26 W. 

Lancaster Ave, Paoli 19301; (215) 
647-8643. 10-6 Mon-Fri, 10-8 Wed, 10-5 
Sat. 



VIRGINIA 

ComputerLand/ Tysons Corner— 8411 
Old Courthouse Rd, Vienna 22180; 
(703) 893-0424. 10-6 MTWF, 10-9 Thu, 
10-5 Sat. 

Computers Plus, Inc— 6120 Franconia 
Rd, Alexandria 22301; (703) 971-1996. 
10-9 Mon-Fri, 10-6 Sat. Micro special- 
ists, books, classes, software, main- 
tenance. 'The PLUS makes the dif- 
ference." 



To include your store in Creative Computing's 
Retail Roster, call the Advertising Department at 
(201) 540-9168. 



APRIL I960 



151 






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Answers: 

Relativistic Dodecahedron: Halfway, the other half you're 
on the way back. 

A Place for N: Either behind or in front of the line. 

One Equals Twenty: Beats the hell out of Nilrem, but if you 
find an answer be sure to send it to him and he'll send you 
a copy of Nilrem's Puzzler Vol. 12, with more neat puzzles 
in it. 



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32 

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